OKB-1 EF 131

The OKB-1/Junkers EF 131 was a jet bomber produced in Germany and the USSR from 1944.

EF 131
OKB-1 EF 131 parked at Ramenskoye, spring 1948
Role Bomber
National origin USSR
Manufacturer GOZ-1
Designer Dr. Brunolf Baade
First flight 23 May 1947
Retired 1948
Status cancelled
Number built 1
Developed from Junkers Ju 287
Variants OKB-1 140


The EF-131 was, in essence, a hybrid airframe built from the components of the Junkers Ju 287 V2 and V3, the second and third prototypes (V – Versuchs – test/research/prototype) of the Luftwaffe's radical forward-swept-wing jet bomber. The V2 was nearly complete at the time of its capture by Soviet forces in 1945, and was taken into Red Air Force hands under military intelligence supervision along with the skeletal airframe of the barely-started V3. The V3 was to have been the first 287 to be made to pre-production model specifications, and the eventual EF-131 was almost identical to it in terms of overall design. The airplane was completed and briefly test flown, in the Soviet zone of occupied Germany, before being dismantled and transported to GOZ-1, (Gosudarstvenny Optniy Zavod – state experimental plant), at Dubna near Moscow. OKB-1 at GOZ-1 was formed with Dr. Brunolf Baade as the chief designer, and a very talented team of German engineers seconded by the Soviet government. Extreme pressure was applied to get the aircraft ready to appear in the 1947 Aviation Day fly-past at Tushino airfield, but several factors combined to prevent the EF-131 from appearing.[1]

Flight testing in the USSR began on 23 May 1947, at the LII airfield, after the airframe had been strengthened to meet the requirements of a TsAGI(Tsentralniy Aerodinamicheskiy i Gidrodinamicheskiy Institut- central aerodynamics and hydrodynamics institute) structural survey, which revealed major weaknesses of the airframe. The first flight resulted in the port undercarriage collapsing due to a bolt failure, subsequent flight tests revealed major deficiencies such as nosewheel shimmy and tail surface vibration. Rectification of the defects caused many delays but the worst delays were caused by bureaucracy when it was decreed that foreign workers could not work at the LII airfield.[1]

The aircraft sat at LII over the winter but the harsh conditions caused the deterioration of rubber components and wiring, which required lengthy repairs. Preparations for resuming flight tests were almost complete in June 1948 when Ministry of Aircraft Industry Order No. 440 ordered that further work on the EF-131 be discontinued, termination of the programme being confirmed by resolution No.3206-1301 issued on 23 August 1948.[1]

The EF-131 had become obsolete as newer Soviet-built engines with better performance became available. The airframe of the second prototype was used for the 140 programme.[1]

Specifications (EF 131)

Data from [1]

General characteristics

  • Crew: 3
  • Length: 20.47 m (67 ft 2 in)
  • Wingspan: 19.4 m (63 ft 8 in)
  • Height: 5.7 m (18 ft 8 in)
  • Airfoil: root: Ju 0.9 23 10.7-0.825-40 ; tip: Ju 0.9 23 12.7-0.825-40[2]
  • Empty weight: 11,900 kg (26,235 lb)
  • Gross weight: 22,955 kg (50,607 lb)
  • Powerplant: 6 × Junkers Motoren Jumo 109-004 turbojet engines, 8.829 kN (1,985 lbf) thrust each


  • Maximum speed: 860 km/h (530 mph, 460 kn)
  • Range: 1,710 km (1,060 mi, 920 nmi)
  • Service ceiling: 12,500 m (41,000 ft)


  • Guns: 2 x 13mm machine-guns in a remotely controlled tail barbette
  • Bombs: 2,000kg (4,410 lb) of bombs in an internal bomb bay

See also

Related development

Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era

Related lists


  1. Gordon, Yefim (2004). Early Soviet jet bombers : the 1940s and early 1950s. Hinkley: Midland. ISBN 1-85780-181-4.
  2. Lednicer, David. "The Incomplete Guide to Airfoil Usage". m-selig.ae.illinois.edu. Retrieved 16 April 2019.
  • Gunston, Bill. "The Osprey Encyclopaedia of Russian Aircraft 1875–1995". London, Osprey. 1995. ISBN 1-85532-405-9
  • Gordon, Yefim. "Early Soviet Jet Bombers". Hinkley, Midland. 2004. ISBN 1-85780-181-4
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