Nudity, or nakedness, is a state of being in which a human person is not wearing clothing, or more specifically not covering their genitals. Modern humans are the only primates that are essentially hairless and the only animals that wear clothing. For humans, nudity and clothing are connected to many cultural categories such as identity, privacy, and moral behavior.
In Western societies, there are two contradictory cultural traditions relating to nudity. The first comes from the ancient Greeks, who saw the naked body as the natural state and as essentially positive. The second is based upon the Abrahamic religions, which have viewed being naked as shameful and essentially negative. The interaction between these traditions has resulted in Western ambivalence, with nudity representing both positive and negative meanings in individual psychology, in social life, and in depictions such as art.
In Africa, there is a sharp contrast between the attitude toward nudity in Islamic countries and the attitude toward nudity in certain sub-Saharan countries that never abandoned precolonial norms. In China and India, the norms regarding public nudity are in keeping with the cultural value of social propriety and human dignity. Japan had a tradition of mixed gender public baths before Western contact began in the 19th century.
Societies use clothing (or the lack thereof) as a marker of social status and may define different standards regarding nudity for men and women. At the extreme, individuals may intentionally violate norms regarding nudity; those without power may use nudity as a form of protest, and those with power may impose nakedness on others as a form of punishment.
Meaning and usage
Although the general term "nudity" may be defined in English as the complete absence of clothing, the meaning of nakedness is culturally complex due to different meanings of states of undress in differing social situations.
Synonyms and euphemisms for nudity abound, including "birthday suit", "in the altogether" and "in the buff". "In a state of nature" is also used by philosophers to refer to the state of humans before the existence of organized societies.
In the United States the legal definition of "full nudity" is exposure of the genitals. "Partial nudity" includes exposure of the buttocks by either sex or exposure of the female breasts. Legal definitions are further complicated by laws regarding indecent exposure; this term generally refers to engaging in public nudity with an intent to offend common decency.
Few broad academic studies of nudity have been made, perhaps because each discipline has its own theoretical orientation and definition of terms. There is little that can be said about nudity in general because each instance takes its meaning from a particular context. Few studies are made of everyday bodily experience. Art historians speak of the metaphorical meaning of nude representations. Sociology and criminology until the middle of the 20th century often studied nakedness, including nudism, in the context of deviance or criminality. However, more recent studies find that naturism has positive effects on body image, self esteem and life satisfaction.
Nudity and morality
Shame is one of the moral emotions often associated with nudity. While guilt is the emotion experienced in response to a particular wrong action, shame is a more general and long-lasting self-assessment. Shame is often thought of as positive in response to a failure to act in accordance with moral values, thus motivating an individual to do better in the future. However, shame is often negative as the response to perceived failures to live up to unrealistic expectations. The shame regarding nudity is one of the classic examples of the emotion, yet rather than being a positive motivator, it is considered unhealthy, standing in the way of developing a positive self-image. Others argue that the shame felt when naked in public is due to valuing modesty and privacy as socially positive. However, the response to such public exposure of normally private behavior is called embarrassment (like guilt, also a short-term emotion), rather than shame.
Positive associations with nudity include:
- Authenticity and truth. Metaphorically, the naked truth; the bare facts.
- Freedom. The liberation of the body is associated with sexual liberation, although naturists tend to downplay this connection.
- Honesty, openness. In some forms of group psychotherapy, nudity has been used to promote open interaction and communication.
- Innocence, humility, and childhood. Naturists often speak of their nakedness in terms of a return to childhood.
- Nature and naturalness. All humans are alike in their nakedness, while clothing represents their differences.
- Simplicity, being without artifice or worldliness. Nudity is associated with persons (such as holy men) who reject the world as it is, or who use nakedness as a protest against an unjust world.
Nudity and sexuality
The connection between nudity and human sexuality is complex and ambiguous, since it also involves issues of gender identity, body image, and moral judgements concerning what is normal, deviant or even criminal behavior.
Naturists (persons who practice and advocate personal and social nudity) distinguish between sexual and non-sexual nudity. Studies of naturism find that its practitioners adopt behaviors and norms that suppress the sexual responses while practicing social nudity. Such norms include refraining from staring, touching, or otherwise calling attention to the body while naked.
Psychological issues involving nudity include the following:
- Exhibitionism: A condition marked by the urge, fantasy, or act of exposing one’s genitals to non-consenting people, particularly strangers;
- Gymnophobia: An abnormal and persistent fear of nudity; and
- Voyeurism: A sexual interest in, or practice of, spying on people engaged in intimate behaviors like undressing or sexual activity.
For some individuals, these feelings and behaviors interfere with normal functioning or well-being and are considered mental disorders.
Evolution of hairlessness
The relative hairlessness of homo sapiens requires a biological explanation, given that fur evolved to protect other primates from UV radiation, injury, sores and insect bites. Many explanations include advantages to cooling when early humans moved from shady forest to open savanna, accompanied by a change in diet from primarily vegetarian to hunting game, which meant running long distances after prey. However, the explanation that may stand up to modern scientific scrutiny is that fur harbors ecroparasites such as ticks, which would have become more of a problem as humans became hunters living in larger groups with a "home base".
Jablonski and Chaplin assert that early hominids, like modern chimpanzees, had light skin covered with dark fur. With the loss of fur, high melanin skin soon evolved as protection from damage from UV radiation. As hominids migrated outside of the tropics, varying degrees of depigmentation evolved in order to permit UVB-induced synthesis of previtamin D3.
The loss of body hair was a factor in several aspects of human evolution. The ability to dissipate excess body heat through eccrine sweating helped to make possible the dramatic enlargement of the brain, the most temperature-sensitive organ. Nakedness and intelligence also made it necessary to evolve non-verbal signaling mechanisms, such as blushing and facial expressions. Signalling was supplemented by the invention of body decorations, which also served the social function of identifying group membership.
Origin of clothing
The wearing of clothing is assumed to be a behavioral adaptation, arising from the need for protection from the elements; including the sun (for depigmented human populations) and cold temperatures as humans migrated to colder regions. It is estimated that anatomically modern humans evolved 260,000 to 350,000 years ago. A genetic analysis estimates that clothing lice diverged from head louse ancestors at least by 83,000 and possibly as early as 170,000 years ago, suggesting that the use of clothing likely originated with anatomically modern humans in Africa prior to their migration to colder climates. What is now called clothing may have originated along with other types of adornment, including jewelry, body paint, tattoos, and other body modifications, "dressing" the naked body without concealing it. Body adornment is one of the changes that occurred in the late Paleolithic (40,000 to 60,000 years ago) that indicate that humans had become not only anatomically but culturally and psychologically modern, capable of self-reflection and symbolic interaction.
Nudity in ancient Mediterranean cultures
In ancient Egypt, attire was simple. For men, skirts called schenti—which evolved from loincloths and resembled modern kilts—were customary apparel. For women, sheaths called kalasiris were customary apparel; kalasiris were ankle-length sheaths held up by straps. Slaves and laborers were nude or wore loincloths, and children were nude. Nudity was considered a natural state.
Ancient Roman attitudes toward male nudity differed from those of the Greeks, whose ideal of masculine excellence was expressed by the nude male body in art and in such real-life venues as athletic contests. The toga, by contrast, distinguished the body of the adult male citizen at Rome. The poet Ennius (c. 239–169 BC) declared, "Flagiti principium est nudare inter civis corpora" (which, in English, means "exposing naked bodies among citizens is the beginning of public disgrace"). Cicero endorsed Ennius' words.
Nudity in early China
In stories written in China as early as the 4th Century BCE, nudity is presented as an affront to human dignity, reflecting the belief that "humanness" in Chinese society is not innate, but earned by correct behavior. However, nakedness could also be used by an individual to express contempt for others in their presence. In other stories, the nudity of women, emanating the power of yin, could nullify the yang of aggressive forces.
Nudity in Japan
Nudity in mixed-gender public baths was common in the Japan before the effects of Western influence, which began in the 19th century and became extensive during the American occupation after World War II. The practice continues at a dwindling number of hot springs (konyoku) outside of urban areas.
Another Japanese tradition was the women free-divers (ama) who for 2,000 years until the 1960s collected seaweed and shellfish wearing only a loincloth. Their nakedness was not shocking, since women farmers often worked bare-breasted during the summer.
Nudity in tropical cultures
In warm climates such Africa and Brazil, complete or near nudity was common for both men and women before contact with Western cultures, leading in the colonial era to the Western stereotype of the "naked savage".
Nudity in Western history
The meaning of the naked body in the societies based upon the Abrahamic religions (Judaism, Christianity, and Islam) was defined by the myth of Adam and Eve: A story of the creation of the first man and woman naked, and unashamed until they ate the forbidden fruit of the Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil.
The association of nakedness with shame and anxiety became ambivalent in the Renaissance. The rediscovered art and writings of ancient Greece offered an alternative tradition of nudity as symbolic of innocence and purity which could be understood in terms of the state of man "before the fall". Subsequently, norms and behaviors surrounding nudity in life and in works of art diverged during the history of individual societies.
Middle ages and Renaissance
Attitudes and behavior were dependent upon social status, creating a great difference between the cultural meaning of nudity for society as a whole, and for the upper classes. Clothing in the form of fashion was a significant indicator of class, and thus its lack became a greater source of embarrassment. These attitudes only slowly spread to all of society.
Until the beginning of the eighth century, Christians were baptized naked, to represent that they emerged without sin.
Although there is a common misconception that Europeans did not bathe in the Middle Ages, public bath houses—segregated by sex—were popular until the 16th century, when concern for the spread of disease closed many of them.
In Christian Europe, the parts of the body that were required to be covered in public did not always include the female breasts. In 1350, breasts were associated with nourishment and loving care, but by 1750, artistic representations of the breast were either erotic or medical.
The Victorian Era is often considered to be entirely restrictive of nudity. However, throughout the United Kingdom in the 19th century, workers in coal mines were naked due to the heat and the narrow tunnels that would catch on clothing. Men and boys worked fully naked, while women and girls (usually employed as "hurriers") would generally only strip to the waist (in some locations, they were fully naked as well). Testimony before a Parliamentary labour commission revealed that working naked in confined spaces made "sexual vices" a "common occurrence".
Public swimming pools in the U.S. were the product of municipal reform movements beginning in the mid-19th century. Civic leaders had not intended pools to be used for recreation, but for health and sporting activities. Initially, the working class boys swam in the nude, as they had previously done in lakes and rivers, which also had been segregated by gender. The era of nude swimming in municipal pools ended when mixed-gender bathing was allowed.
Communal male nudity in the United States and other Western countries was not a taboo for much of the 20th century. Historically, males have been more likely than females to be expected to swim nude in swimming pools or to share communal showers in school locker rooms with other members of the same sex. These expectations were based on cultural beliefs that females need more privacy than males do. Social attitudes maintained that it was healthy and normal for men and boys to be nude in the presence of other men and boys. A 1963 article on a swim program in Troy, New York stated that boys swam nude, but that girls were expected to wear bathing suits; the writer of the article found nothing remarkable about these requirements.
In 1974, an article in The New York Times noted an increase in American tolerance for nudity, both at home and in public, approaching that of Europe. However, some traditional nudists at the time decried the trend as encouraging sexual exhibitionism and voyeurism and threatening the viability of private nudist clubs.
Norms related to nudity are associated with norms regarding personal freedom, human sexuality, and gender roles, which vary widely among modern societies. Situations where nudity is accepted vary. Some people practice nudism within the confines of "nudist camps" or clothing-optional resorts, while naturists seek more open acceptance of nudity in everyday life and in public spaces.
High and low context cultures
High and low context cultures were defined by Edward T. Hall. The behaviors and norms of a high context culture depend upon shared implicit intuitions that operate within a social situation, while in a low context culture behavior is more dependent upon explicit communications. An example of this distinction was found in research on the behavior of French and German naturists on a nude beach. Germans are extremely low in cultural context. They are characterized by individualism, alienation, estrangement from other people, little body contact, low sensitivity to nonverbal cues, and segmentation of time and space. By contrast, the French, in their personal lives as relatively high context: they interact within closely knit groups, are sensitive to nonverbal cues, and engage in relatively high amounts of body contact. To maintain public propriety on a nude beach, German naturists avoided touching themselves and others and avoid any adornments or behaviors that would call attention to the body. French naturists, on the other hand, were more likely than Germans to wear make-up and jewelry and to touch others as they would while dressed.
Nudity and privacy
Societies in continental Europe conceive of privacy as protecting a right to respect and personal dignity. In America, the right to privacy is oriented toward values of liberty, especially in one's home. While Europeans maintain their dignity, even while naked where others may see them, Americans see public nakedness as a surrender of "any reasonable expectation of privacy". Such cultural differences may make some laws and behaviors of the other society seem incomprehensible.
A 1999 survey by the Federation of Canadian Naturists found that 39% of Canadians "have walked or would walk around their houses nude". According to a 2004 U.S. survey, 31% of men and 14% of women report sleeping in the nude, while a 1996 BBC survey reported that 47% of U.K. men and 17% of U.K. women have done so. In a 2019 survey of American sleep habits, only 17% of respondents stated that they slept entirely naked.
Nudity in semi-public facilities
Historically, certain facilities associated with activities that require partial or complete nakedness (such as bathing or changing clothes, for example) have limited access to certain members of the public. These normal activities are guided by generally accepted norms, the first of which is that the facilities are most often segregated by gender; however, this may not be the case in all cultures.
Changing rooms, locker rooms, and group shower facilities
A changing room may be provided in stores, workplaces, or sports facilities, some of which have individual cubicles or stalls affording varying degrees of privacy. Locker rooms associated with sports generally lack any individual space and include showers, thus providing minimal physical privacy.
The men’s locker room—which historically in Western cultures had been a setting for open male social nudity—is, in the 21st century United States, becoming a space of modesty and distancing between men. For much of the 20th century, the norm in locker rooms had been for men to undress completely without embarrassment. That norm has changed to involve men wearing towels or other garments most of the time and avoiding any interaction with others while naked. This shift is the result of changes in social norms regarding masculinity and how maleness is publicly expressed; also, open male nudity became associated with homosexuality.
By the 1990s, open showers in American schools had become "uncomfortable", not only because students were accustomed to more privacy at home, but because young people became more self-conscious based upon the comparison to mass media images of perfect bodies.. In the 21st century, some high-end New York City gyms were redesigned to cater to millennials who want to shower without ever being seen naked.
Baths and spas
The sauna, originating from Finland, is attended nude in its source country as well as in most Scandinavian countries and in the German-speaking countries of Europe. This is true even when a swimsuit must be worn in the swimming pool area of the same complex. The trend in some European countries (Germany, Finland and the Netherlands, for instance) is to allow both genders to bathe together naked. For example, the Friedrichsbad in Baden-Baden has designated times when mixed nude bathing is permitted. Most German (not to mention French, Spanish and Greek) beaches and swimming pools offer FKK (clothing-optional) areas. The German sauna culture also became popular in neighbouring countries such as Switzerland, Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg. In contrast to Scandinavia, public sauna facilities in these countries—while nude—do not usually segregate genders.
In Japan, public baths (Sentō) were once common, but became less so with the addition of bathtubs in homes. Sentō were mixed gender (konyoku) until the arrival of Western influences, but became segregated by gender in cities. Nudity is required at Japanese hot spring resorts (Onsen). Some such resorts continue to be mixed gender, but the number of such resorts is declining as they cease to be supported by local communities.
Social and public nudity
Attitudes toward public nudity vary depending on culture, time, location, and context. There are particular contexts in which nudity is tolerated, accepted, or even encouraged in public spaces. In Europe, such contexts include nude beaches, within some intentional communities (such as naturist resorts or clubs) and at special events.
While some European countries (such as Germany, for example) are rather tolerant of public nudity, other nations disfavor or punish public nudity. In the United States in 2012, the city council of San Francisco, California banned public nudity in the inner-city area. This move was met by harsh resistance because the city was known for its liberal culture and had previously tolerated public nudity. Similarly, park rangers began filing tickets against nudists at San Onofre State Beach—also a place with long tradition of public nudity—in 2010.
Naturism (or nudism) is a subculture advocating and defending private and public nudity as part of a simple, natural lifestyle. Nudism originated in opposition to the industrialization of Europe in the late 19th century.
Naturists reject contemporary standards of modesty that discourage personal, family and social nudity. They instead seek to create a social environment where individuals feel comfortable being in the company of nude people and being seen nude, either by other naturists or by the general public.
Nudism spawned a proselytizing literature in the 1920s and 1930s. Nudism's other common name, naturism, signals its core contention that the naked body is natural and that modesty and shame are cultural impositions with deleterious effects on psychological, sexual, and social well-being. Early nudism was in dialogue with sexology and feminism. Its proponents believed that nudism could combat social inequality, including sexual inequality. As a socially marginal practice based on the naturalness of nakedness, nudism has had a complicated relationship with sexuality and pro‐sex discourses.
A nude beach, sometimes called a clothing-optional or free beach, is a beach where users are at liberty to be nude. Such beaches are usually on public lands. Nude beaches may be official (legally sanctioned), unofficial (tolerated by residents and law enforcement), or illegal.
In sub-Saharan Africa, full nudity or nudity below the waist is the norm among some ethnic and family groups—including some Burkinabese and Nilo-Saharan (e.g. Nuba and Surma people)—in daily life or on particular occasions. For example, at highly attended stick-fighting tournaments, well-exposed young men use the occasion to catch the eye of prospective brides. The assertion of post-colonial culture has resulted in the adoption of traditional dress for certain events, such as the Umkhosi Womhlanga (Reed Dance) by the Zulu and Swazi.
In Brazil, the Yawalapiti—an indigenous Xingu tribe in the Amazon Basin—practice a funeral ritual known as Quarup to celebrate life, death and rebirth. The ritual involves the presentation of all young girls who have begun menstruating since the last Quarup and whose time has come to choose a partner.
In Western cultures, shame is the result of not living up to the ideals of society with regard to physical appearance. Historically, such shame has affected women more than men. With regard to their naked bodies, the result is a tendency towards self-criticism by women, while men are less concerned by the evaluation of others.
In much of the world, the modesty of women is a matter not only of social custom but of the legal definition of indecent exposure. In the United States, the exposure of female nipples is a criminal offense in many states and is not usually allowed in public. In the United Kingdom, nudity may not be used to "harass, alarm or distress" according to the Public Order Act of 1986.
The "topfreedom" movement promotes equal rights for women to be naked above the waist in public on the same basis that would apply to men in the same circumstances.
Breastfeeding in public is forbidden in some jurisdictions, not regulated in others, and protected as a legal right in public and the workplace in still others. Where public breastfeeding is a legal right, some mothers may be reluctant to breastfeed, and some people may object to the practice.
In their study on the effects of social nudity on children, Smith and Sparks conclude that "the viewing of the unclothed body, far from being destructive to the psyche, seems to be either benign or to actually provide positive benefits to the individuals involved. One psychiatrist recommends that parents allow nudity as a natural part of family life when children are very young, but to respect the modesty that is likely to emerge with puberty.
Gordon and Schroeder report that parental nudity varies considerably from family to family. They contend that "there is nothing inherently wrong with bathing with children or otherwise appearing naked in front of them", noting that doing so may provide an opportunity for parents to provide important information. They note that by ages five to six, children begin to develop a sense of modesty, and recommend to parents who wish to be sensitive to their children's wishes that they limit such activities from that age onwards.
Psychologist Barbara Bonner recommends against nudity in the home if children exhibit sexual play of a type that is considered problematic. In a 1995 review of the literature, Paul Okami concluded that there was no reliable evidence linking exposure to parental nudity to any negative effect. Three years later, his team finished an 18-year longitudinal study that showed that, if anything, such exposure was associated with slight beneficial effects, particularly for boys.
Depictions of nudity
In a picture-making civilization, pictorial conventions continually reaffirm what is natural in human appearance, which is part of socialization.
In Western societies, the contexts for depictions of nudity include information, art and pornography. Any ambiguous image not easily fitting into one of these categories may be misinterpreted, leading to disputes.
Limits of the depiction of nudity are based upon the legal definitions of indecency and obscenity. Although obscenity is defined as the portrayal of violence or sexuality in a manner that is offensive to community standards, the lack of any one community standard reduces the legal definition of obscenity in the United States to the application of a test known as the Miller test. In 1973, the Supreme Court in Miller v. California established the three-tiered Miller test to determine what was obscene (and thus not protected) versus what was merely erotic and thus protected by the First Amendment.
Depictions of child nudity (or of children with nude adults) appear in works of art in various cultures and historical periods. These attitudes have changed over time and have become increasingly frowned upon, especially in the case of photography. In recent years, snapshots taken by parents of their nude infant or toddler children were challenged as child pornography.
The nude human figure has been one of subjects of art from its Paleolithic beginnings, and a major preoccupation of Western art since the ancient Greeks. One often cited book on the nude in Western art history is "The Nude: a Study in Ideal Form" by Lord Kenneth Clark, first published in 1956. The introductory chapter makes (though does not originate) the often-quoted distinction between the naked body and "The Nude". Clark states that to be naked is to be deprived of clothes, and implies embarrassment and shame, while a nude, as a work of art, has no such connotations. This separation of the artistic form from the related social and cultural issues was largely unexamined by classical art historians, but became a focus of social and feminist critiques in the 1970s, when classical nudes of women were seen as symbolic of male objectification of female bodies. The debate over objectification has continued, recently energized by the #MeToo movement.
Lucien Freud was one of a small group of painters who continued to create nude works in the 1970s when it was unfashionable to do so. By the end of his life, however, Freud's works had become icons of the Post Modern era; those works–including his series that featured an obese model–depicted the human body without a trace of idealization.
Rather than showing nakedness as a normal part of everyday life, nudity in films has generally exploited the mainstream public's interest in sexuality, with increasingly explicit portrayals. Films with nude scenes made during the Pre-Code era were generally erotic, including those using the pretext of being ethnographic documentaries to show unclothed natives in jungle settings. This led to a backlash between 1934 and 1960 when the enforcement of the Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA) production code severely censored not only nudity, but all topics related to sexuality. Social change in the 1960s lead to the adoption of the current rating system. Nudity is one of the factors in the system, with even the briefest nudity earning a film a PG-13, and male nudity being rated R (adults only).
Many films have used the nudist camp setting as pretext for showing nudity without addressing the reality of naturism. Films made by naturists to promote their lifestyle are not widely distributed.
Broadcast television in the United States has restrictions on profanity, indecency, and obscenity that generally prohibit all nudity, although the limits were pressed with some productions such as NYPD Blue, which featured partial nudity. The legal test for community standards becomes "I know it when I see it"; therefore, rulings may be case by case in response to viewer complaints. Cable television, as a paid subscription rather than a public service, may broadcast content deemed indecent or profane, but not obscene.
Rules in Europe are less restrictive, with the first nude appearing on TV in Holland in 1967 and the UK broadcasting a documentary about naturism in 1979. Music videos that include nudity appear on TV in Europe, but are edited or otherwise censored on American TV.
Television and radio regulations in many countries require broadcasters to avoid transmitting images or language considered inappropriate for children from 5:30 am to 9 pm (the so-called "watershed"). In the United Kingdom, the Broadcasting Code states, "Nudity before the watershed must be justified by the context." In the U.S., the safe harbor rule forbids depictions of nudity between the hours of 6 am and 10 pm. Violators may be subject to civil legal action and sanctions if the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) determines the broadcaster did not meet its standards of "decency". "Material is indecent if, in context, it depicts or describes sexual or excretory organs or activities in terms patently offensive as measured by contemporary community standards for the broadcast medium."
Partial or complete nudity is a feature of ceremonial dances in some tropical countries. However, some claim that modern practices may be used to promote "ethnic tourism" rather than to revive authentic traditions.
In Western traditions, dance costumes have evolved towards providing more freedom of movement and revealing more of the body; complete nakedness is the culmination of this process. Some modern choreographers consider nudity one of the possible "costumes" available for dance. Others see nudity that expresses deeper human qualities through dance as working against the sexual objectification of the body in commercial culture.
A well-known performance that included nudity was the Broadway musical Hair in 1968.
Models posing on stage nude was a feature of tableaux vivants at London's Windmill Theatre and New York's Ziegfeld Follies in the early 20th century. English law did not allow nude actresses to move on stage, but allowed them stand motionless to imitate works of art.
Curse of nakedness
In Africa, women have used stripping naked on purpose as a curse, both historically, and in modern times. The idea is that women give life and they can take it away. The curse initiates an extreme form of ostracism, which anthropologist Terisa Turner has likened to "social execution". The curse extends to foreign men as well, and is believed to cause impotence, madness or other similar harm. The threat has been used successfully in mass protests against the petroleum industry in Nigeria, by Leymah Gbowee during the Second Liberian Civil War, and against President Laurent Gbagbo of the Ivory Coast.
Historical treatment of the poor and insane
In England during the 17th to 19th centuries, the clothing of the poor by Christian charity did not extend to those confined to "madhouses" such as Bethlem Royal Hospital, where the inmates were often kept naked and treated harshly.
Nudity as punishment
For example, in 2017, students at a girls' school in the north-east Indian state of Arunachal Pradesh were forced to undress as a form of punishment, police say. Although not as common as corporal punishment, it is not unusual for stripping to be used as a form of punishment in Indian schools.
In 2003, Abu Ghraib prison in Baghdad (Iraq) gained international notoriety for accounts of torture and abuses by members of the United States Army Reserve during the post-invasion period. Photographic images were circulated that exposed the posing of prisoners naked, sometimes bound, and being intimidated and otherwise humiliated, resulting in widespread condemnation of the abuse.
A strip search is the removal of some or all of a person's clothing to insure that they do not have weapons or contraband. Such searches are generally done when an individual is imprisoned after an arrest, and is justified by the need to maintain order in the facility, not as punishment for a crime.
- Originally, flagitium meant a public shaming. Later, the term referred more generally to a disgrace.
- German text: "Dass Männer und Frauen zusammen splitternackt schwitzen, ist eine deutsche Spezialität, für die sich nur noch Urlauber aus den Benelux-Staaten, aus Österreich und der Schweiz erwärmen können, vielleicht auch noch Osteuropäer". English translation: "The fact that men and women sweat together stark naked is a German specialty that only tourists from the Benelux countries, Austria and Switzerland can warm to, maybe even Eastern Europeans".
- German text: "In den Fitnesszentren und Kuranstalten wurde das finnische Bad, oft großzügig ausgestaltet zu ganzen Saunalandschaften, zum selbstverständlichen Angebot. Bemerkenswert ist, dass dort heute zumeist auf getrennte Badezeiten für Männer und Frauen verzichtet wird. Nacktheit von Mann und Frau in der Sauna wird hier längst akzeptiert und das hat ein positives soziales Gesamtklima erzeugt, das selbstregulierend – die seltenen Ausnahmen bestätigen die Regel – das Verhalten der Badegäste bestimmt. Verpöhnt ist [...] der Versuch, sich in Badekleidung [...] unter die Nackten zu mischen". English translation: "In the fitness centers and health resorts, the Finnish bath, often designed generously to complete sauna landscapes, was a natural offer. It is noteworthy that today there is usually no separate bathing times for men and women. Nakedness of men and women in the sauna has been accepted for a long time and that has created a positive overall social climate. Self-regulation - the rare exceptions confirm the rule - determines the behavior of the bathers. Pampered is the attempt [...] to mix in bathing clothes among the naked ones".
The dictionary definition of nudity at Wiktionary
- Barcan 2004a, pp. 11-15.
- Barcan 2004a, p. 2.
- "Nude". Merriam-Webster's Dictionary. Retrieved 13 November 2019.
Synonyms, Adjective: au naturel, bare, bottomless, disrobed, mother-naked, naked, raw, starkers [chiefly British], stripped, unclad, unclothed, undressed; Noun: altogether, bareness, birthday suit, bottomlessness, buff, nakedness, nudity, raw
- "Definition of Partial nudity". Law Insider. Retrieved 31 October 2019.
- "Indecent Exposure". Merriam-Webster's Legal Dictionary. Retrieved 12 November 2019.
- Barcan 2004a, pp. 4-10.
- West 2018, pp. 677-697.
- Thomason 2018, chpt. 1.
- Deonna, Rodogno & Teroni 2012.
- Thomason 2018, p. 11.
- Barcan 2004a, p. 97-106.
- Barcan 2004a, pp. 93-97.
- Barcan 2004a, pp. 84-88.
- Barcan 2004a, pp. 88-93.
- Barcan 2004a, p. 97.
- Barcan 2004a, pp. 83-84.
- Barcan 2004a, pp. 131-134.
- Barcan 2004a, pp. 108-112.
- Barcan 2004a, pp. 113-116.
- Barcan 2004a, pp. 116-128.
- Barcan 2004a, pp. 106-108.
- Barcan 2004a, pp. 134-135.
- Barcan 2004a, p. 134.
- Barcan 2004a, pp. 136-138.
- Barcan 2004a, pp. 128-131.
- Barcan 2004, p. 3.
- Smith & King 2009, pp. 439–446.
- Smith 1980, pp. 223-241.
- Daley 2018.
- Rantala 2007, pp. 1-7.
- Jablonski & Chaplin 2000, pp. 57-106.
- Jablonski 2012.
- Schlebusch 2017.
- Toups et al. 2010, pp. 29–32.
- Hollander 1978, p. 83.
- Leary & Buttermore 2003.
- Tierney 1999, p. 2.
- Adams 2005, p. 57.
- Habinek 1997, p. 39.
- Cicero 1927, p. 408.
- Younger 2004, p. 134.
- Goldhill 2007, p. 2.
- Graf 2005, pp. 195–197.
- Williams 2009, pp. 64, 292 note 12.
- Henry, 1999 & 475–486.
- Hadfield 2016.
- Martinez 1995.
- Stevens 2003, pp. 124-140.
- Barcan 2004a, chpt. 2.
- Classen 2008.
- Veyne 1987, p. 455.
- "Did people in the Middle Ages take baths?". Medievalists.net. 13 April 2013. Retrieved 27 October 2019.
- Miles & Lyon 2008.
- "Modern History Sourcebook: Women Miners in English Coal Pits". Fordham University. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
- Wiltse 2003.
- "Historic Archive - Male Nude Swimming". Historical Archives - Male Nude Swimming. Retrieved 8 November 2019.
- Smithers 1999.
- Senelick 2014.
- Mann 1963.
- Sterba 1974.
- Cooper 2011, pp. 326–357.
- Hall 1989.
- Smith 1980.
- Whitman 2004.
- 1999 National Survey on Canadian Attitudes Towards Nudity at the Wayback Machine (archived 2013-12-05)
- The American Sex Survey: A Peek Beneath the Sheets (PDF), abcnews, 21 October 2004, p. 26, retrieved 4 September 2009
- The Clothes Show, BBC, May 1996
- Smith 2019.
- Goldman 2007.
- Miller 2016.
- Johnson 1996.
- Sicha 2015.
- Daney 1998.
- Scheuch 2004, pp. 156-.
- Kast 2014.
- "Public Baths in Japan". Japan Guide. Retrieved 31 October 2019.
- Sood 2012.
- Milner 2015.
- "Baring It All: Get Naked with the Germans". Spiegel Online. 10 May 2006. Retrieved 13 September 2016.
- Taub 2012.
- Reynolds 2012.
- Sisson 2010.
- "Nudism". Subcultures and Sociology. Retrieved 17 November 2019.
- Hile 2004.
- Barcan 2015.
- Dundas 2004.
- Hartsuiker 2014.
- "Stick Fight". Omo Valley Tribal Tours. Retrieved 31 October 2019.
- Nkosi 2013.
- Hampton 2014, pp. 175–.
- Weinberg & Williams 2010.
- Williams 2019.
- Arfin 2019.
- "What is Topfreedom?". 007b.com. 20 January 2013. Archived from the original on 20 January 2013. Retrieved 29 October 2019.
- Wolf 2008, p. 11.
- Vance 2005, pp. 51-54.
- Jordan & Pile 2003, p. 233.
- Smith 1986, p. 183.
- Lis 2019.
- Gordon & Schroeder 1995, p. 16.
- Bonner 1999, p. 211.
- Okami 1995, pp. 51–64.
- Okami et al. 1998, pp. 361–384.
- Hollander 1978.
- Eck 2001.
- Rasmus 2011.
- Higonnet 1998.
- Kincaid 2000.
- Clark 1956, chpt. 1.
- Berger 1972.
- Mulvey 1975.
- Slenske & Langmuir 2018.
- Riding 1995.
- "Lucien Freud". London: The Guardian. 8 February 2012. Retrieved 10 November 2012.
- "Obscene, Indecent and Profane Broadcasts". FCC. Retrieved 14 November 2019.
Obscene content does not have protection by the First Amendment. For content to be ruled obscene, it must meet a three-pronged test established by the Supreme Court: It must appeal to an average person's prurient interest; depict or describe sexual conduct in a "patently offensive" way; and, taken as a whole, lack serious literary, artistic, political or scientific value.
- Lawson 2016.
- Gardner 2003.
- The Ofcom Broadcasting Code at the Wayback Machine (archived 2007-12-11)
- Obscenity, Indecency & Profanity - FAQ at the Wayback Machine (archived 2016-05-05)
- Firenzi 2012.
- Sparshott 1995.
- Cappelle & Whittenburg 2014.
- Nethers 2013.
- Libbey 2018.
- Chapman 2018.
- Bloom 2013.
- Jacobs 2012.
- Alaimo 2010.
- Ekine 2015.
- Sealey 2002.
- Conley n.d.
- Okeowo 2011.
- Andrews 2007, pp. 131-156.
- "Inquiry after India students 'stripped for punishment'". BBC. 30 November 2017. Retrieved 11 November 2019.
- McDonald & Swaak-Goldman 2000, pp. 280-283.
- "CNN.com - Iraq prison 'abuse' sparks outrage". CNN.com. 30 April 2004. Retrieved 8 November 2019.
- Hoge 2004.
- "Strip Search After an Arrest". FindLaw. Retrieved 11 November 2019.
- Bancroft, John (2003). Sexual Development in Childhood. Indiana University Press. ISBN 978-0-253-34243-0.
- Barcan, Ruth (2004a). Nudity: A Cultural Anatomy. Berg Publishers. ISBN 1859738729.
- Barcan, Ruth (2015). "Nudism". In Patricia Whelehan; Anne Bolin (eds.). The International Encyclopedia of Human Sexuality. Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 819–830. doi:10.1002/9781118896877.wbiehs315. ISBN 9781786842992.
- Bloom, Ken (18 October 2013). Routledge Guide to Broadway. Routledge – via Google Books.
- Bonner, Barbara L. (1999). "When does sexual play suggest a problem?". In Dubowitz, Howard; Depanfilis, Diane (eds.). Handbook for Child Protection Practice. Sage Publications. ISBN 978-0-7619-1371-9.
- Bullough, Vern L.; Bullough, Bonnie (2014). Human Sexuality: An Encyclopedia. Routledge. p. 449. ISBN 9781135825096.
- Carr-Gomm, Philip (2010). A Brief History of Nakedness. London, UK: Reaktion Books, Limited. ISBN 978-1-86189-729-9. Retrieved 1 August 2019.
- Cicero (1927). Tusculan Disputations. Loeb Classical Library 141. Volume XVIII. Translated by by J. E. King. doi:10.4159/DLCL.marcus_tullius_cicero-tusculan_disputations.1927.
- Clark, Kenneth (1956). The Nude: A Study in Ideal Form. Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-01788-3.
- Classen, Albrecht (2008). "The Cultural Significance of Sexuality in the Middle Ages, the Renaissance, and Beyond". In Classen, Albrecht (ed.). Sexuality in the Middle Ages and the Early Modern Times. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.
- Deonna, Julien A.; Rodogno, Raffaele; Teroni, Fabrice (2012). In Defense of Shame: The Faces of an Emotion. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199793532.
- Fagan, Garrett G. (2002). Bathing in Public in the Roman World. University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0472088653.
- Goldman, Leslie (2007). Locker Room Diaries : The Naked Truth about Women, Body Image, and Re-imagining the "Perfect" Body. Cambridge, MA: Da Capo Press. ISBN 9786612788604.
- Gordon, Betty N.; Schroeder, Carolyn S. (1995). Sexuality: A Developmental Approach to Problems. Springer. ISBN 978-0-306-45040-2.
- Górnicka, Barbara (2016). "From Lewd to Nude: Becoming a Naturist". Nakedness, Shame, and Embarrassment. Figurationen. Schriften zur Zivilisations und Prozesstheorie. 12. Wiesbaden: Springer VS.
- Hall, Edward T. (1989). Beyond Culture. New York: Doubleday. pp. 87–88. ISBN 0385124740. OCLC 20595709.
- Hampton, Christopher (2014). Christopher Hampton Plays 1: Total Eclipse; The Philanthropist; Savages; Treats. Faber & Faber. ISBN 978-0-571-31830-8.
- Hartsuiker, Dolf (2014). Sadhus: Holy Men of India. Inner Traditions. p. 176. ISBN 978-1620554029.
- Higonnet, Anne (1998). Pictures of Innocence – The History and Crisis of Ideal Childhood. New York: Thames & Hudson. ISBN 978-0-500-28048-5. OL 705008M.
- Hollander, Anne (1978). Seeing Through Clothes. New York: Viking Press. ISBN 0140110844.
- Jacobs, Steven (27 August 2012). Framing Pictures. Edinburgh University Press – via Google Books.
- Jordan, Tim; Pile, Steve, eds. (2003). Social Change. Wiley. ISBN 978-0-631-23312-1.
- McDonald, Gabrielle Kirk; Swaak-Goldman, Olivia (2000). Substantive and Procedural Aspects of International Criminal Law: The Experience of International and National Courts: Materials. Volume 2. Brill. ISBN 90-411-1134-4.
- Martinez, D.P. (1995). "Naked Divers: A Case of Identity and Dress in Japan". In Eicher, Joanne B. (ed.). Dress and Ethnicity: Change Across Space and Time. Ethnicity and Identity Series. Oxford: Berg. p. 79–94. doi:10.2752/9781847881342/DRESSETHN0009. ISBN 9781847881342.
- Miles, Margaret R.; Lyon, Vanessa (2008). A Complex Delight: The Secularization of the Breast, 1350-1750. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0520253483.
- Scheuch, Manfred (2004). Nackt; Kulturgeschichte eines Tabus im 20. Jahrhundert [Nudity: A Cultural History of a taboo in the 20th century] (in German). Vienna: Christian Brandstätter Verlag. ISBN 978-3-85498-289-0.
- Smith, Dennis Craig; Sparks, William (1986). The Naked Child: Growing Up Without Shame. Elysium Growth Press. ISBN 978-1-55599-000-8.
- Stevens, Scott Manning (2003). "New World Contacts and the Trope of the 'Naked Savage". In Elizabeth D. Harvey (ed.). Sensible Flesh: On Touch in Early Modern Culture. University of Pennsylvania Press. pp. 124–140. ISBN 9780812293630.
- Tate, Tony (2004). "Roles and Responsibilities of Child Soldiers". Liberia, how to Fight, how to Kill: Child Soldiers in Liberia. Human Rights Watch. GGKEY:BSU0ZLGQ89F.
- Toepfer, Karl Eric (1997). Empire of Ecstasy: Nudity and Movement in German Body Culture, 1910-1935. University of California Press. ISBN 9780520918276.
- Thomason, Krista K. (2018). Naked: The Dark Side of Shame and Moral Life. New York: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/oso/9780190843274.003.0007.
- Veyne, Paul, ed. (1987). A History of Private Life: From Pagan Rome to Byzantium. A History of Private Life. 1 of 5. Cambridge, Mass: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. ISBN 9780674399747.
- Alaimo, Stacy (2010). "The naked word: The trans-corporeal ethics of the protesting body". Women & Performance: A Journal of Feminist Theory. 20 (1): 15–36. doi:10.1080/07407701003589253. ISSN 0740-770X.
- Andrews, Jonathan (1 June 2007). "The (un)dress of the mad poor in England, c.1650-1850. Part 2" (PDF). History of Psychiatry. 18 (2): 131–156. doi:10.1177/0957154X06067246. ISSN 0957-154X. PMID 18589927.
- Barcan, Ruth (2001). "The Moral Bath of Bodily Unconsciousness: Female Nudism, Bodily Exposure and the Gaze". Continuum. 15 (3): 303–317. doi:10.1080/10304310120086795.
- Barcan, Ruth (2004b). "Regaining what Mankind has Lost through Civilisation: Early Nudism and Ambivalent Moderns". Fashion Theory. 8 (1): 63–82. doi:10.2752/136270404778051870.
- Collard, Mark; Tarle, Lia; Sandgathe, Dennis; Allan, Alexander (2016). "Faunal evidence for a difference in clothing use between Neanderthals and early modern humans in Europe". Journal of Anthropological Archaeology. 44: 235–246. doi:10.1016/j.jaa.2016.07.010. hdl:2164/9989.
- Condra, Mollie B. (1992). "Bare Facts and Naked Truths: Gender, Power, and Freedom of Expression". Free Speech Yearbook. 30: 129–48. doi:10.1080/08997225.1992.10556145.
- Cooper, D. (2011). "Theorising Nudist Equality: An Encounter Between Political Fantasy and Public Appearance" (PDF). Antipode. 43 (2): 326–357. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8330.2010.00833.x.
- Eck, Beth A. (December 2001). "Nudity and Framing: Classifying Art, Pornography, Information, and Ambiguity". Sociological Forum. Springer. 16 (4): 603–632. doi:10.1023/A:1012862311849. JSTOR 684826.
- Emmerink, Peggy M. J.; van den Eijnden1, Regina J. J. M.; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine; ter Bogt, Tom F. M. (2016). "The Relationship Between Endorsement of the Sexual Double Standard and Sexual Cognitions and Emotions". Sex Roles. New York. 75 (7–8): 363–76. doi:10.1007/s11199-016-0616-z. PMC 5023751. PMID 27688527.
- Firenzi, T (2012). "The Changing Functions of Traditional Dance in Zulu Society: 1830–Present". The International Journal of African Historical Studies. 45 (3): 403–425.
- Henry, Eric (1999). "The Social Significance of Nudity in Early China". Fashion Theory. 3 (4): 475–486. doi:10.2752/136270499779476036.
- Jablonski, Nina G.; Chaplin, George (2000). "The Evolution of Human Skin Coloration". Journal of Human Evolution. 39 (1): 57–106. doi:10.1006/jhev.2000.0403. PMID 10896812.
- Leary, Mark R; Buttermore, Nicole R. (2003). "The Evolution of the Human Self: Tracing the Natural History of Self-Awareness". Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour. 33 (4): 365–404.
- Mann, Channing (1963). "Swimming Classes in Elementary Schools on a City-Wide Basis". Journal of Health, Physical Education, Recreation. 34 (5): 35–36. doi:10.1080/00221473.1963.10621677.
- Miller, Barry (2016). "On the Loss of Nudity in the Men's Locker Room". Psychological Perspectives. 59 (1): 93–108. doi:10.1080/00332925.2016.1134213.
- Mulvey, Laura (1975). "Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema". Screen. 16 (3): 6–18. doi:10.1093/screen/16.3.6.
- Nkosi, Gugulethu Sebenzile (2013). Umkhosi Womhlanga (Reed Dance) as a tourism enterprise in KwaZulu-Natal: Perceptions, Policies and Practices (PhD). University of Zululand. hdl:10530/1282.
- Okami, Paul (1995). "Childhood exposure to parental nudity, parent‐child co‐sleeping, and "primal scenes": A review of clinical opinion and empirical evidence". Journal of Sex Research. 32 (1): 51–63. doi:10.1080/00224499509551774. ISSN 0022-4499.
- Okami, Paul; Olmstead, Richard; Abramson, Paul R.; Pendleton, Laura (1998). "Early Childhood Exposure to Parental Nudity and Scenes of Parental Sexuality ('Primal Scenes'): An 18-Year Longitudinal Study of Outcome". Archives of Sexual Behavior. 27 (4): 361–384. doi:10.1023/A:1018736109563. ISSN 0004-0002. PMID 9681119.
- Rantala, M. J. (2007). "Evolution of nakedness in Homo sapiens". Journal of Zoology. 273 (1): 1–7. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.2007.00295.x.
- Rasmus, Ryen (2011). "The Auto-Authentication of the Page: Purely Written Speech and the Doctrine of Obscenity". William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal. 20.
- Schlebusch; et al. (3 November 2017). "Southern African ancient genomes estimate modern human divergence to 350,000 to 260,000 years ago". Science. 358 (6363): 652–655. Bibcode:2017Sci...358..652S. doi:10.1126/science.aao6266. PMID 28971970.
- Smith, H. W. (1 September 1980). "A Modest Test of Cross-Cultural Differences in Sexual Modesty, Embarrassment and Self-Disclosure". Qualitative Sociology. 3 (3): 223–241. doi:10.1007/BF00987137. ISSN 1573-7837.
- Smith, Glenn; King, Michael (June 2009). "Naturism and sexuality: Broadening our approach to sexual wellbeing". Health & Place. 15 (2): 439–446. doi:10.1016/j.healthplace.2008.08.002. PMID 18926761.
- Sparshott, Francis (1995). "Some aspects of nudity in theatre dance". Dance Chronicle. 18 (2): 303–310. doi:10.1080/01472529508569206.
- Toups, M. A.; Kitchen, A.; Light, J. E.; Reed, D. L. (2010). "Origin of Clothing Lice Indicates Early Clothing Use by Anatomically Modern Humans in Africa". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 28 (1): 29–32. doi:10.1093/molbev/msq234. ISSN 0737-4038. PMC 3002236. PMID 20823373.
- Vance, Melissa R. (2005). "Breastfeeding Legislation in the United States: A General Overview and Implications for Helping Mothers". LEAVEN. 41 (3): 51–54. Archived from the original on 31 March 2007.
- Weinberg, Martin S; Williams, Colin J. (2010). "Bare Bodies: Nudity, Gender, and the Looking Glass Body". Sociological Forum. 25 (1): 47–67. doi:10.1111/j.1573-7861.2009.01156.x.
- West, Keon (1 March 2018). "Naked and Unashamed: Investigations and Applications of the Effects of Naturist Activities on Body Image, Self-Esteem, and Life Satisfaction". Journal of Happiness Studies. 19 (3): 677–697. doi:10.1007/s10902-017-9846-1. ISSN 1573-7780.
- Whitman, James Q. (1 April 2004). "The Two Western Cultures of Privacy: Dignity versus Liberty". The Yale Law Journal. 113 (6): 1151–1221. doi:10.2307/4135723. JSTOR 4135723.
- Wiltse, Jeffrey (2003). "Contested waters: A History of Swimming Pools in America". ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. ProQuest 305343056.
- Adams, Cecil (9 December 2005). "Small Packages". Isthmus; Madison, Wis. Madison, Wis., United States, Madison, Wis. p. 57. ISSN 1081-4043. ProQuest 380968646.
- Andreatta, David (22 September 2017). "When boys swam nude in gym class". Democrat and Chronicle.
- Bridge, A. (5 February 2016). "Germans Most Likely to Go Nude". The Telegraph.
- Cappelle, Laura; Whittenburg, Zachary (1 April 2014). "Baring It All". Dance Magazine.
- Davenport, Justin (17 March 2014). "Met officers subject 4,600 children to strip searches over five years". London Evening Standard. p. 22.
- Grulovic, Tiyana (2014). "Simply the Breast". Flare Toronto. Vol. 36 no. 10 (Oct 2014). pp. 70–71.
- Hoge, Warren (4 June 2004). "U.N. Says Abu Ghraib Abuse Could Constitute War Crime". The New York Times. Retrieved 8 November 2019.
- Jablonski, Nina G. (1 November 2012). "The Naked Truth". Scientific American.
- Johnson, Dirk (22 April 1996). "Students Still Sweat, They Just Don't Shower". The New York Times.
- Kast, Günter (18 November 2014). "Bekleidung in der Sauna: Was haben Sie denn an?" [Clothing in the Sauna: What are you wearing]. Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung (in German). Retrieved 3 September 2019.
- Libbey, Peter (29 April 2018). "When 'Hair' Opened on Broadway, It Courted Controversy From the Start". The New York Times. Retrieved 15 November 2019.
- Lis, Lea (5 May 2019). "Eight Things to Know About Nudity and Your Family". Psychology Today. Retrieved 31 July 2019.
- Nethers, Jocelyn (2013). "I Went 'Cause I Had Nothing On...". Dance Today. Vol. 58 no. 146. p. 56.
- Okeowo, Alexis (21 March 2011). "The Ivory Coast Effect". The New Yorker. Retrieved 3 September 2019.
- Reynolds, Eoin (20 November 2012). "San Francisco nudists warn of backlash if anti-naked law passes". the Guardian. Retrieved 13 September 2016.
- Riding, Alan (25 September 1995). "The School of London, Mordantly Messy as Ever". The New York Times. Retrieved 16 February 2013.
- Senelick, Richard (3 February 2014). "Men, Manliness, and Being Naked Around Other Men". The Atlantic.
- Sisson, Paul (23 March 2010). "SAN ONOFRE: State begins citing nudists at beach". The San Diego Union-Tribune. Retrieved 13 September 2016.
- Sicha, Choire (3 December 2015). "Men's Locker Room Designers Take Pity on Naked Millennials". The New York Times.
- Slenske, M.; Langmuir, M. (16 April 2018). "Who's Afraid of the Female Nude". New York. ProQuest 2037464739.
- Smithers, Rebecca (21 December 1999). "Curtains for schools' communal showers". The Guardian.
- Sterba, James (3 September 1974). "Nudity Increases in America". The New York Times.
- Taub, Gypsy (23 November 2012). "The naked truth about San Francisco's nudity ban". the Guardian. Retrieved 13 September 2016.
- Tayler, Jeffrey (22 March 2013). "Tunisian Woman Sent to a Psychiatric Hospital for Posting Topless Photos on Facebook". The Atlantic.
- Arfin, Ferne (6 March 2019). "Is Naked Sunbathing Legal in England and Wales?". TripSavvy. Retrieved 3 September 2019.
- Chapman, Helen (20 July 2018). "Windmill Girls meet for reunion and remember dancing days in old Soho". Islington Tribune.
- Conley, Kevin (n.d.). "The Rabble Rousers". Oprah.com. Retrieved 3 September 2019.
- Daley, Jason (11 December 2018). "Why Did Humans Lose Their Fur?". Smithsonian. Retrieved 27 October 2019.
- Daney, Charles (21 January 1998). "Nakedness and the Finnish Sauna". Being and Nakedness. Retrieved 3 September 2019 – via corz.org.
- Eng, Monica (10 September 2017). "Baring It All: Why Boys Swam Naked In Chicago Schools". WBEZ.
- Gardner, Elysa (13 July 2003). "Music videos provocatively skirt the nudity issue". USA Today. Retrieved 11 May 2009.
- Hadfield, James (10 December 2016). "Last splash: Immodest Japanese tradition of mixed bathing may be on the verge of extinction". Japan Times. Retrieved 19 November 2019.
- Hile, Jennifer (2004). "The Skinny on Nudism in the U.S." National Geographic. National Geographic. Retrieved 11 November 2019.
- Kincaid, James R. (31 January 2000). "Is this child pornography?". Salon.com. Archived from the original on 30 April 2007. Retrieved 28 April 2007.
- Lawson, Mark (2 February 2016). "Flashing the flesh – a history of TV nudity". The Guardian. Retrieved 14 November 2019.
- Mapes, Terri (6 March 2019). "Sex and Sexuality in Scandinavia". TripSavvy. Retrieved 7 November 2019.
- Mapes, Terri (3 June 2019). "Nudism in Scandinavia". TripSavvy. Retrieved 7 November 2019.
- Markowitz, Eric (29 April 2014). "Until Fairly Recently, The YMCA Actually Required Swimmers To Be Nude". Vocativ.
- Milner, Rebecca (9 July 2015). "First-time jjimjilbang: how to visit a Korean bathhouse". Lonelyplanet.com. Archived from the original on 7 November 2015. Retrieved 23 June 2016.
- Saul, Heather (14 May 2016). "A woman is walking around America bare chested and she wants you to ask her about it". The Independent.
- Sealey, Geraldine (31 July 2002). "Naked Ploy Is Latest Threat in Oil Wars". commondreams.org. Archived from the original on 11 July 2012.
- Smith, Brittany (2019). "Here's the Exact Percentage of People Who Sleep Naked". Men's Journal. Retrieved 11 November 2019.
- Sood, Suemedha (30 November 2012). "The origins of bathhouse culture around the world". BBC Travel. Retrieved 15 November 2019.
- Weaver, Fran (8 October 2010). "Seeking the real Finnish Sauna". this is FINLAND. Retrieved 7 October 2011.
- Williams, Pete (19 August 2019). "Women ask Supreme Court to toss topless ban: Why are rules different for men?". NBC News.
- Zukerman, Wendy (4 November 2011). "Skin 'sees' the light to protect against sunshine". New Scientist. Retrieved 3 September 2019.