Norman Stone (8 March 1941 – 19 June 2019) was a Scottish historian and author. He was Professor of European History in the Department of International Relations at Bilkent University, having formerly been a professor at the University of Oxford, lecturer at the University of Cambridge, and adviser to British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher. He was a board member of the Center for Eurasian Studies (AVIM), an organisation accused by the Centre for Armenian Studies of denying the Armenian Genocide.
|Died||19 June 2019 78) (aged|
|Residence||Oxford, England, UK|
|Education||The Glasgow Academy|
|Alma mater||Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge (BA, MA)|
|Employer||University of Cambridge:|
Fellow, Gonville and Caius College (1965–1971)
Lecturer in Russian history (1967–1984)
Fellow, Jesus College (1971–79)
Fellow, Trinity College (1979–1984)
University of Oxford:
Professor of Modern History (1984–1997)
Fellow, Worcester College (1984–1997)
Bilkent University, Ankara:
Professor of International Relations (1997–2017)
Marie Nicole Aubry
(m. 1966; div. 1977)
Christine Margaret Booker
(m. 1982; died 2016)
|Children||3, including Nick|
Early life and education
Stone was born in Kelvinside, Glasgow, the son of Mary Robertson (née Pettigrew, died 1991), a schoolteacher, and Norman Stone, a Flight Lieutenant and Spitfire pilot in World War II who fought at the Battle of Britain. He attended the Glasgow Academy on a scholarship for the children of deceased servicemen – his father having been killed in a training accident in 1942 – and graduated from Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge with First Class Honours in Part II of the History tripos (1959–1962). Following his undergraduate degree, Stone did research in Central European history in Vienna and Budapest (1962–65), studying archives on the Austro-Hungarian Army from the years before 1914. During this period he spent three months imprisoned in Bratislava, having been caught trying to smuggle a Hungarian dissident in his car boot across the Iron Curtain at the Czech-Austrian border.
Stone did not complete his doctorate, having been offered a research fellowship by Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge, where he later became an Assistant Lecturer in Russian and German History (1967), and a full Lecturer (1973). In 1971, he transferred from Caius to Jesus College. While Stone was well regarded as a teacher, over time he increasingly neglected his duties.
Stone was appointed in 1984 as Professor of Modern History at Oxford University, England. Stone's tenure at Oxford was not without controversy. Petronella Wyatt wrote that Stone "loathed the place as petty and provincial, and for its adherence to the Marxist-determinist view of history." During his period at Oxford Stone also gained a reputation for groping female students.
Stone published a column in The Sunday Times between 1987 and 1992, and was also employed by the BBC, the Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, and The Wall Street Journal. Stone became Margaret Thatcher's foreign policy advisor on Europe, as well as her speech writer.
In May 1994 Stone gave a half-hour Opinions lecture televised on Channel 4 and subsequently published in The Independent. That newspaper later reviewed the lecture as "Little England has never had such great lines: there were the Germans (They want to be good Europeans because it stops them being bad Germans), and the Scandinavians (They only unite around the principle of finding the goody-goody Swedes very irritating)... But as he led us through the corridors of EC lunacy, you saw the point: only through a Lewis Carroll mirror could you meet such grotesques as the Gatt kings: Not so long ago a cow cost more than a student. Nowadays, a non-cow costs even more...On 1 September 1939, the League (of Nations) ignored Hitler's invasion of Poland because it was embarrassing, it moved instead to discuss the standardisation of level-crossings."
In 1997, Stone retired from his chair at Oxford and left to teach at the department of International Relations at Bilkent University, Ankara. As an example of Stone's wit and acute understanding, Niall Ferguson shares in his obituary paper , the answer Stone gave when asked why he had moved : "in the depth of my being, I'm a Scotsman and feel entirely at home in an enlightenment that has failed".
In 2005 Stone transferred to Koç University, Istanbul. He later returned to Bilkent University to teach for the 2007-2008 academic year. He guest lectured at Bogazici University, Istanbul. After moving to Turkey, Stone became a frequent contributor to Cornucopia, a magazine about the history and culture of Turkey. In 2010, Stone published a book on Turkish history, from the 11th century to the present day, Turkey: A Short History.
Stone questioned the use of the word genocide in connection with the deaths of approximately 1.5 million Armenians in the Ottoman Empire during World War One, arousing significant controversy. In 2004, he took part in a notable letter exchange on the pages of The Times Literary Supplement, where he strongly criticized Peter Balakian's 2003 book The Burning Tigris, saying that Balakian "should stick to the poems". Stone praised Guenter Lewy, Bernard Lewis and France-based scholar Gilles Veinstein, all of whom do not believe a genocide took place.
In 2009, he argued: "The myth of Winston Churchill is dangerous. Was it a sensible strategy in 1944 and 1945 to bomb Germany to bits? It was very bad realpolitik, whatever its moral purpose."
In his obituary of Stone in The Guardian, the historian Richard J. Evans stated that Stone had not been well regarded by other historians and his "provocations were little more than the voicing of his own personal political prejudices, and so had little or no effect on the way we think about the past". The Conservative Member of the European Parliament Daniel Hannan criticised Evans' obituary as 'a poisonous attack [on Stone] ... masquerading as a Guardian obituary'.
Stone's book of greatest note is The Eastern Front 1914-1917 (1975) which won the Wolfson History Prize. He also wrote Hitler (1980), Europe Transformed 1878-1919 (1983), which won the Fontana History of Europe Prize, and World War I: A Short History (2007). He mostly wrote about historical events in the past century and specifically was an expert on both World Wars.
While in Vienna in the 1960s, Stone met (Marie) Nicole Aubry, the niece of the finance minister in "Papa Doc" Duvalier's Haiti government. They married on 2 July 1966 and had two sons, Nicholas “Nick” (born 1966), a thriller writer, and Sebastian (born 1972). Stone and his first wife divorced in 1977. On 11 August 1982, he married Christine Margaret Booker (née Verity), a leading member of the British Helsinki Human Rights Group. They had a son, Rupert (born 1983), and remained married until her death on 15 November 2016.
- The Eastern Front, 1914-1917 (1975); ISBN 0-340-12874-7
- Hitler (1980); ISBN 0-340-24980-3 Hodder and Stoughton
- Europe Transformed, 1878-1919 (1983), ISBN 0-00-634262-0; 2nd ed. (1999); ISBN 0-631-21507-7
- The Makers of English History (1987), ISBN 0-297-78933-3 (ed.) Weidenfeld and Nicolson
- Czechoslovakia: Crossroads and Crises, 1918-88 (1989); ISBN 0-333-48507-6
- The Times Atlas of World History (1989); ISBN 0-7230-0304-1 (ed.)
- The Other Russia (1990); ISBN 0-571-13574-9 (with Michael Glenny)
- Turkey in the Russian Mirror, in Ljubica Erickson and Mark Erickson (ed.), Russia: War, Peace and Diplomacy. Essays in Honour of John Erickson, London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 2005, pp. 86–100.
- Islam in Turkey, in Caroline Y. Robertson-von Trotha (ed.), Europa in der Welt – die Welt in Europa (= Kulturwissenschaft interdisziplinär/Interdisciplinary Studies on Culture and Society, Vol. 1), Baden-Baden: Nomos, 2006, pp. 139–145.; ISBN 978-3-8329-1934-4
- World War One: A Short History (2007); ISBN 1-84614-013-7 Penguin Press
- The Atlantic and Its Enemies: A Personal History of the Cold War (2010); ISBN 978-1-84614-275-8 Allen Lane
- Turkey: A Short History (2010), ISBN 0-500-25175-4; Thames & Hudson
- World War Two: a Short History (2013), Allen Lane/Basic Books
- Hungary: a Short History (2019), Profile Books
- McKie, Andrew (20 June 2019). "Obituary: Norman Stone, hard-living Glaswegian historian who became an advisor to Margaret Thatcher". The Herald. Retrieved 23 June 2019.
- "STONE, Prof. Norman". Who's Who. ukwhoswho.com. 2019 (online ed.). A & C Black, an imprint of Bloomsbury Publishing plc. (subscription or UK public library membership required) (subscription required)
- Prof. Norman Stone profile at Debrett's People of Today. Debrett's Peerage Ltd., 2008. Reproduced in Biography Resource Center. Farmington Hills, Michigan: Gale, 2009. http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/BioRC.(fee via Fairfax County Public Library); accessed 13 September 2009 (Document Number: K2413027212)
- Harry, Mount. "A tribute to Norman Stone". The Spectator. Retrieved 19 June 2019.
- Norman Stone, Professor, Bilkent University, Department of History
- Advisory Board, Avrasya İncelemeleri Merkezi (Center for Eurasian Studies)
- Arestakes Simavoryan (5 March 2017), "Anti-Armenian activities of the university "Armenological" departments and analitycal centres in Turkey", Fundamental Armenology, Centre for Armenian Studies, Noravank Foundation
- Millard, Rosie (5 August 2007). "Britain's a terrible bore, that's why I left". The Times.
- "Professor Norman Stone obituary". The Times. 20 June 2019. Retrieved 21 June 2019.
- Evans, Richard J. (25 June 2019). "Norman Stone obituary". The Guardian. Retrieved 28 June 2019.
- "Faculty Profile: Norman Stone, Professor of Modern History, Director of the Center for Russian Studies". Department of International Relations, Bilkent University. Archived from the original on 22 March 2005. Retrieved 22 March 2005.
- Wyatt, Petronella (1 December 2012). "I was bullied out of Oxford for being a Tory". The Daily Telegraph.
- "Univ. Prof. Dr. Norman Stone: Europe in the Turkish Mirror". Austrian-Turkish Forum of Sciences. 2 February 2003. Archived from the original on 20 February 2011. Retrieved 13 September 2009.
- Griffiths, Lyndsay (13 April 1997). "Britain's Iron Lady is back, but who is she supporting?". Turkish Daily News. Reuters. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007.
- Allison Pearson (8 May 1994), "The rising cost of non-cows", The Independent
- "Norman Stone: 'There is No Armenian Genocide' - Famous British Historian says he is ready to be prisoned by France" (PDF). Journal of the Turkish Weekly. Turkish Coalition of America. 20 October 2006. Retrieved 13 September 2009. (reproduced)
- Sunday Times, 23 June 2019
- Alev Scott (21 February 2011), "A Turkish Delight – book review of Turkey: A Short History by Norman Stone", Standpoint
- "Turkey: A Short History", Insight Turkey, SETA Foundation, 14 (2), 1 April 2012
- Laqueur, Walter (1987). The Fate of the Revolution. New York City: Scribner. p. 235.
- Grim Eminence, London Review of Books, Vol. 5 No. 1 · 10 January 1983, pages 3-8
- Norman Stone, "A Bungled Case for the Prosecution" Archived 13 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine, The Spectator, 24 April 2004; "Armenia and Turkey", Times Literary Supplement, 15 October 2004; "Armenia in History," Times Literary Supplement, 5 November 2004; World War One: a Short History, London: Penguin Books, 2008, pp. 72-73 and 209; and Turkey: a Short History, London: Thames & Hudson, 2010, pp. 147-148 and 181.
- Dominiczakn, Peter (4 September 2009). "US politician puts blame on Churchill for Second World War". London Evening Standard. Archived from the original on 8 September 2009.
- https://www.conservativehome.com/thecolumnists/2019/10/daniel-hannan-where-would-we-now-find-another-norman-stone.html. Retrieved 5 November 2019.
- "Interview: Norman Stone has both entered history and written it". The Independent. 3 August 2007.
- "Yanukovich's friends". The Economist. 2 December 2004. Retrieved 14 September 2009.
[T]he British Helsinki group ... lost almost all its supporters when it threw its weight behind people like Mr Milosevic. Another leading member, Christine Stone, has also written approvingly of Zimbabwe's Robert Mugabe.
- Norman Stone (11 May 2003), "Turkish delights", The Times