Norfenfluramine, or 3-trifluoromethylamphetamine, is a never-marketed drug of the amphetamine family that behaves as a serotonin and norepinephrine releasing agent and potent 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B, and 5-HT2C agonist. The action of norfenfluramine on 5-HT2B receptors on heart valves leads to a characteristic pattern of heart failure following proliferation of cardiac fibroblasts on the tricuspid valve, known as cardiac fibrosis. This side effect led to the withdrawal of fenfluramine as an anorectic agent worldwide, and to the withdrawal of benfluorex in Europe, as both fenfluramine and benfluorex form norfenfluramine as an active metabolite. It is a human TAAR1 agonist.
3D model (JSmol)
|Molar mass||203.208 g·mol−1|
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
- Setola, V.; Dukat, M.; Glennon, R. A.; Roth, B. L. (2005). "Molecular Determinants for the Interaction of the Valvulopathic Anorexigen Norfenfluramine with the 5-HT2B Receptor" (pdf). Molecular Pharmacology. 68 (1): 20–33. doi:10.1124/mol.104.009266. PMID 15831837.
- "European Medicines Agency recommends withdrawal of benfluorex from the market in European Union" (PDF). European Medicines Agency. 2009-12-18. Archived from the original (pdf) on 2009-12-22.
- Lewin AH, Miller GM, Gilmour B (December 2011). "Trace amine-associated receptor 1 is a stereoselective binding site for compounds in the amphetamine class". Bioorg. Med. Chem. 19 (23): 7044–8. doi:10.1016/j.bmc.2011.10.007. PMC 3236098. PMID 22037049.
See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • Monoamine reuptake inhibitors • Adrenergics • Dopaminergics • Serotonergics • Monoamine metabolism modulators • Monoamine neurotoxins
† References for all endogenous human TAAR1 ligands are provided at List of trace amines
‡ References for synthetic TAAR1 agonists can be found at TAAR1 or in the associated compound articles. For TAAR2 and TAAR5 agonists and inverse agonists, see TAAR for references.
See also: Receptor/signaling modulators
(and close relatives)