Nonane

Nonane is a linear alkane hydrocarbon with the chemical formula C9H20. It is a colorless, flammable liquid, occurring primarily in the component of the petroleum distillate fraction commonly called kerosene, which is used as a heating, tractor, and jet fuel.[4] Nonane is also used as a solvent, distillation chaser, fuel additive, and a component in biodegradable detergents.[5]

Nonane
Names
IUPAC name
Nonane[1]
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
1696917
ChEBI
ChEMBL
ChemSpider
ECHA InfoCard 100.003.558
EC Number
  • 203-913-4
240576
MeSH nonane
RTECS number
  • RA6115000
UN number 1920
Properties
C9H20
Molar mass 128.259 g·mol−1
Appearance Colorless liquid
Odor Gasoline-like
Density 0.718 g/mL
Melting point −54.1 to −53.1 °C; −65.5 to −63.7 °F; 219.0 to 220.0 K
Boiling point 150.4 to 151.0 °C; 302.6 to 303.7 °F; 423.5 to 424.1 K
log P 5.293
Vapor pressure 0.59 kPa (at 25.0 °C)
1.7 nmol Pa−1 kg−1
-108.13·10−6 cm3/mol
1.405
Thermochemistry
284.34 J K−1 mol−1
393.67 J K−1 mol−1
−275.7–−273.7 kJ mol−1
−6125.75–−6124.67 kJ mol−1
Hazards
GHS pictograms
GHS Signal word Danger
H226, H304, H315, H319, H332, H336
P261, P301+310, P305+351+338, P331
NFPA 704 (fire diamond)
3
0
0
Flash point 31.0 °C (87.8 °F; 304.1 K)
205.0 °C (401.0 °F; 478.1 K)
Explosive limits 0.87–2.9%
NIOSH (US health exposure limits):
PEL (Permissible)
none[2]
REL (Recommended)
TWA 200 ppm (1050 mg/m3)[2]
IDLH (Immediate danger)
N.D.[2]
Related compounds
Related alkanes
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Infobox references

Nonane has 35 structural isomers.

Its substituent form is nonyl. Its cycloalkane counterpart is cyclononane, (C9H18).

Unlike most alkanes, the numeric prefix in its name is from Latin, not Greek. (A name using a Greek prefix would be enneane.)

Combustion reactions

Nonane undergoes combustion reactions that are similar to other alkanes. In the presence of sufficient oxygen, nonane burns to form water and carbon dioxide.

C9H20 + 14O2 → 9CO2 + 10H2O

When insufficient oxygen is available for complete combustion, the burning products include carbon monoxide.

2C9H20 + 19O2 → 18CO + 20H2O

See also

References

  1. "nonane - Compound Summary". PubChem Compound. USA: National Center for Biotechnology Information. 16 September 2004. Identification and Related Records. Retrieved 6 January 2012.
  2. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. "#0466". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).
  3. "NFPA Hazard Rating Information for Common Chemicals". Archived from the original on 2015-02-17. Retrieved 2015-03-13.
  4. "Petroleum - Chemistry Encyclopedia - reaction, water, uses, elements, examples, gas, number, name". www.chemistryexplained.com. Retrieved 2016-01-28.
  5. Health Council of the Netherlands: Committee on Updating of Occupational Exposure Limits. Nonane; Health-based Reassessment of Administrative Occupational Exposure Limits. The Hague: Health Council of the Netherlands, 2005; 2000/15OSH/155. http://www.gezondheidsraad.nl/sites/default/files/0015osh155.pdf
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