No. 46 Squadron RAF

No. 46 Squadron of the Royal Flying Corps and the Royal Air Force, formed in 1916, was disbanded and re-formed three times before its last disbandment in 1975. It served in both World War I and World War II.

No. 46 Squadron
Active19 April 1916 – 31 December 1919
1936 – 20 February 1950
15 August 1954 – 30 June 1961
1 December 1966 – 31 August 1975
Country United Kingdom
Branch Royal Air Force
Motto(s)"We rise to conquer"[1]
Battle honoursWestern Front, 1916–18: Messines, 1917*: Cambrai, 1917*: Home Defence, 1917: Somme, 1918*: Hindenburg Line: Norway, 1940*: Battle of Britain, 1940*: Home Defence, 1940–41: Fortress Europe, 1941: Malta, 1941–42*: El Alamein*: Egypt & Libya, 1942–43: Mediterranean 1942–43: South-East Europe, 1944*:
Honours marked with an asterisk are those emblazoned on the Squadron Standard
Squadron badge heraldryTwo arrowheads, surmounted by a third, all in bend.
The arrows in the badge signify speed in getting into action and their position and number represent three aircraft climbing.
Squadron codesRJ Apr 1939 – Sep 1939
PO Sep 1939 – Jun 1941
XK Jan 1945 – Feb 1950

World War I

No. 46 Squadron was formed at Wyton aerodrome on 19 April 1916, from a nucleus trained in No. 2 Reserve Squadron; it moved to France in October of that year equipped with Nieuport two-seater aircraft.

The squadron undertook artillery co-operation, photography,[2] and reconnaissance operations until May 1917, when it took on a more offensive role after rearming with the Sopwith Pup.[3]

The change from a corps to a fighter squadron came at a moment when Allied air superiority was being seriously challenged by Germany, in particular through the introduction of the "circuses" formed and led by Manfred von Richthofen. Operating under the 11th Army Wing, the squadron was intensively engaged and had many combats with the enemy. In July 1917, No. 46 Squadron returned to Sutton's Farm (later Hornchurch) in Essex, for the defence of London, which had been heavily raided by Gotha bombers a short time before; no enemy aircraft penetrated its patrol area. The squadron returned to France at the end of August.

In addition to offensive patrol work, the unit undertook extensive ground strafing and did close support work in the attack on Messines Ridges.

In November 1917, the squadron was equipped with Sopwith Camels,[4] and gave valuable assistance to the infantry in the Battle of Cambrai attack.

During the last year of the war, the squadron bombed lines of communication and ammunition dumps in the enemy's rear areas.

Intensive low-level ground attack work was carried out after the German Spring Offensive, in March 1918; 46 Squadron suffered high casualties as a result.

In June 1918, the squadron became part of No. 80 Wing RAF, at Serny, Pas-de-Calais.[5] From 26 June, it was commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel Louis Strange. The wing specialised in large scale attacks on enemy airfields. In October and November, the squadron was heavily involved in attacks during the German Great Retreat, during the weeks before the signing of the Armistice.

Towards the end of January 1919, the squadron was reduced to a cadre, and in February it was returned to England early; it was disbanded on 31 December.

During the war, 46 Squadron claimed 184 air victories, creating 16 or 17 aces.[6][7]

Other members of the squadron during World War I included:

Between wars

The squadron was re-formed at Kenley under the RAF expansion scheme in 1936 by equipping B flight of No. 17 Squadron RAF as a full squadron. Gloster Gauntlets were the first airplanes to be allocated, and with these craft normal peacetime training activities were carried out. Wing Commander Bunny Currant, a future ace, joined the squadron as a sergeant pilot. Wing Commander Ian Gleed DSO DFC, another future ace, was posted the squadron as his first assignment after earning his wings on Christmas Day 1936.[13]

World War II


The outbreak of war found 46 Squadron at RAF Digby, equipped with Hawker Hurricanes. Action with the enemy came quickly when, at the end of October 1939, Squadron Leader Barwell and Pilot Officer Plummer attacked a formation of 12 Heinkel 115s, destroying one each, and scattering the remainder. The next six months were uneventful, consisting in the main of providing air cover for the shipping convoys steaming along the East Coast; a few enemy aircraft were sighted but no contacts were made.

In May 1940, the squadron was selected to form part of the Expeditionary Force in Norway, which had been invaded by the Germans on 9 April. The Hurricanes were embarked on HMS Glorious and, despite doubts that a Hurricane could take off from a carrier flight deck in a flat calm, they all took to the air without difficulty, thanks to the efforts of the ship's engineers, who managed to get the Glorious up to a speed of 30 knots. No. 46 Squadron assembled at Bardufoss and began operation on 26 May; patrols were maintained over the land and naval forces at Narvik without respite, some of the pilots going without sleep for more than 48 hours. Conditions on the ground were very basic with poor runways and primitive servicing and repair facilities.

Many air combats took place, and in its brief campaign in Norway the squadron accounted for at least 14 enemy aircraft, besides probably destroying many others. On 7 June the squadron was ordered to evacuate Norway immediately and, on the night of 7 through 8 June, the Hurricanes were successfully flown back to Glorious — a dangerous procedure as none of the aircraft were fitted with deck arrester hooks. The ground parties embarked on HMS Vindictive and SS Monarch of Bermuda[14] and reached the UK safely, but the squadron's aircraft and eight of its pilots were lost when Glorious[15][16] was sunk by German warships on 9 June 1940. The two pilots who survived were the Squadron Commander, Squadron Leader (later Air Chief Marshal) "Bing" Cross,[17] and the Flight Commander, Flight Lieutenant (later Air Commodore) "Jamie" Jameson.[18]

Battle of Britain

The squadron re-formed at RAF Digby,[19] becoming operational once again at the end of June, and for the next two months it was occupied in uneventful convoy and defensive patrols before moving south to Stapleford Tawney, the satellite of RAF North Weald,[20] for the defence of London during the Battle of Britain. The Luftwaffe's main effort at the time was against coastal objectives and shipping off the coast of Essex and Kent.

The squadron, now consisting of novice pilots and without any experienced command after its decimation in Norway, suffered heavy casualties during continuous action against far superior numbers of enemy bombers and escorting fighters. But the enemy sustained such shattering losses amongst their long-range bomber forces that they had to change their tactics. The attacking forces began to fly their fighter bombers at very high altitudes and to make use of every possible patch of cloud cover. Interception became difficult, and the squadron had to change its tactics too – principally maintaining patrols at heights between 20,000 and 30,000 feet.

Early in November 1940, No. 46 Squadron, whilst on patrol over the town of Foulness, encountered some 50 Italian bombers and fighters; at least eight of them were destroyed, with no casualties or damage to the squadron, and the remainder of the Italians scattered in disorder.[21]

The squadron claimed 34 aircraft destroyed July to December 1940, but lost 26 aircraft itself, with 16 pilots killed and three badly wounded. After the Battle of Britain ended. the squadron engaged in convoy patrols, interspersed with escort duty to medium bombers in their attack on objectives in occupied France.

North Africa

In May 1941, the squadron was withdrawn from the line in preparation for going overseas; they embarked on the SS Almanzora[22] at the end of the month. The ground crews reached Egypt early in July and with the squadron headquarters at Kilo 17 Fayoum Road, various detachments cooperated in the formation of maintenance, repair, and salvage units.

Pilots were operating in the defence of Malta, first as 46 Squadron and later absorbed into 126 Squadron.[23] They were in action continuously, claiming the destruction of nearly 10 German and 10 Italian aircraft,

In May 1942, the airmen moved to Idku and reformed as a night fighter squadron with Beaufighters for action in the eastern Mediterranean. They became operational at the end of the month, and their main tasks were the interception of enemy reconnaissance and bombing aircraft, principally over Alexandria, and the escort of shipping convoys laden with supplies for Malta. At the end of October, after the 8th Army's advance from El Alamein, 46 Squadron carried out attacks on the retreating enemy columns in the Mersa Matruh area.

In November 1942, the squadron was reorganised as part of the RAF Coastal Command and operated convoy cover in Malta and Benghazi. Targets in Africa and Sicily were strafed and barges, trawlers and other small ships were attacked along the Tripolitanian coast with cannon and machine-gun fire. The New Year found the squadron preparing to resume its original role as a night fighter unit and at the end of January, two detachments left Idku — one for Tobruk and the other for RAF Abu Sueir.[24] By the end of April two more detachments were operating at St. Jean (Palestine) and Bu Amud. With the most distant bases nearly 1,000 miles apart, administration of the squadron became very difficult.

Some out-of-the-ordinary tasks came the squadron's way. On one occasion, the Bu Amud detachment searched and found a convoy of local troops who were lost in the desert and long overdue; on another a grounded destroyer was located and given air cover until it could be refloated.

In April 1943, for the first time in the war a night fighter was controlled from a warship – the squadron's signal officer, Flight Lieutenant Muir a Canadian, having devised a homing beacon for use on the controlling ship. In July, with confirmed "kills" for one year's operations in the Middle East standing at 31, the squadron helped shepherd the invasion fleet sailing for Sicily. The end of August found a large detachment stationed in Cyprus with the main task of doing night intruder operations over Rhodes. On 14 September, Squadron leader Cuddie in command of the detachment, landed on the recently seized Dodecanese Island of Kos — the first Allied aircraft to do so; less than three weeks later the Germans invaded and Wing Commander G.A. Reid was killed.

In early 1944, with detachments operating from Abu Sueir, St. Jean and Tocra, night intruder patrols over Rhodes, Kos and Crete formed the backbone of activities. In February and March, the squadron claimed the destruction of five Junkers Ju 52s and the probable destruction of three more. April and May were quiet, despite the dovetailing of patrols with No. 252 Squadron over the islands, giving complete coverage from dusk to dawn. In September, the aircraft were controlled by HMS Ulster Queen,[25] a Ground-controlled interception ship and the score for the month amounted to 11 enemy aircraft destroyed.

From 26 September to 11 October (a full-moon period) a detachment was established at Gambut and 16 enemy aircraft were destroyed, with one probable and four damaged. Four airmen were decorated for their part:

A Ju 52 destroyed by the detachment on 3 October was the last German aircraft destroyed by the squadron and with the withdrawal of German forces from Greece almost completed, the airmen ended their mission.

End of the war

The airmen arrived at RAF Stoney Cross at the beginning of January 1945 and began operation under Transport Command.[26] Equipped with the Short Stirling, they manned service to the Far East between Stoney Cross and RAF Arkonam via Poona and between Stoney Cross and Dum Dum via Palam. With the end of the war in August 1945, flights were first confined to India and the Middle East and then, with Dakotas replacing the Stirlings at the beginning of 1946, passengers and freight were carried mostly to Rome, Berlin, Warsaw, and Vienna.

Berlin Airlift

The squadron moved to RAF Manston in October 1946 and to Abingdon in December. From July 1948, the squadron was almost exclusively engaged on the Berlin Airlift; it operated at first from Wunsdorf, carrying food, and later from Fassberg and Lübeck, carrying coal. It returned to RAF Oakington in August 1949 and resumed its normal transport role until it disbanded on 20 February 1950.

First postwar re-formation


The squadron once again re-formed, this time at RAF Odiham on 15 August 1954 as a night fighter unit equipped with Meteor NF12s and 14s. Training began almost immediately, but it took until the end of October for the squadron to reach a strength of 12 NF12 or 14s and one Meteor 7 for training and categorisation.

When Wing Commander Birchfield took over as commanding officer from Squadron Leader Ross, the manpower situation was improving, but mechanical-transport shortages caused problems for the squadron, whose dispersal was on the opposite side of the airfield from the rest of the station. By June 1955, the squadron had received "some Meteor 8s for target towing" and its strength had reached 48 officers and 110 airmen. By August, when the squadron went to Acklington for its armament practice station, there were 16 aircraft.


In January 1956, the unit began converting to Javelins,[27] and the first arrived in February, together with eight Meteor NF 11s: the NF 12s were sent off to No. 72 Squadron RAF. By May, all squadron pilots had converted and 15 Javelins were held; eight were earmarked for intensive flying trials whose target was 1,000 hours in two months – a feat believed by some to be impossible, but achieved in fact by "a wartime spirit." On 15 June, the squadron lost its commanding officer, Wing Commander Birchfield, in a Javelin crash. He was replaced by Wing Commander Harold ("Harry") E. White DFC** AFC (subsequently appointed CBE on retiring as an Air Commodore in 1978).

Over the years, the squadron continued to train by participating in many exercises such as Halyard, Cold Wing, Kingpin Adex, Ciano and Bombex, and it took part in various trials, including those of new pressure suits and helmets. The problem of poor serviceability and lack of spares continued when the Mk 2 Javelins replaced the Mk 1s in 1957.

In April 1959, the squadron sent six Javelins for an exchange visit to the French Air Force 1/30 Squadron at Tours, whilst the French sent Sud Aviation Vautour aircraft to Odiham. In June the squadron won the Ingpen Trophy after being third in 1957 and second in 1958. On 30 June 1961, the squadron was disbanded again.

Second postwar re-formation


On 1 September 1966, the squadron again was re-formed, this time at RAF Abingdon as a transport unit. The first Hawker Siddeley Andover CMk1 aircraft arrived in December, and the squadron was tasked with transport support and tactical transport, for which the Andover's ability to "kneel" – to allow vehicle entry at a shallow angle via the rear ramp – was an asset. Over the years, the squadron acquired expertise in aero-medical evacuation, short take-off and landing, route flying and parachute and one-ton container drops. In addition to carrying equipment, vehicles, passengers or paratroops, the Andover could be fitted in a VIP role and carried Cabinet Ministers including (the late) John Davies, Julian Amery and Lord Carrington and was used for the parachute jump of HRH Prince Charles into Studland Bay during his RAF training in July 1971.

It also carried out various trials with voice broadcast and long-range ferry tanks. The latter became a regular item of equipment and enabled the short-range Andover to fly long distances, such as Gander to Abingdon direct in well under eight hours.

The detachment took part in exercises in Libya, Cyprus, the Middle East, and Norway, as well as in the UK and Germany. It won the Lord VC Trophy in 1968 and again in 1971, when it also won the No. 14 Air Dispatch Trophy. In July 1968, the squadron supported Exercise Icy Mountains in Greenland, re-supplying it, and finally recovering the team. In March 1969, three aircraft were deployed to Coolidge, Antigua, to help with the Anguillan crisis. The deployment continued, albeit later at a reduced scale, until early 1971 and led to the Caribbean Trainers. The squadron was the first in the RAF to have a German exchange officer, and exchange visits were made between 46 Squadron and LTG 63 at Ahlhorn and Hohn in Germany.

In August 1969, the unit became involved in Northern Ireland duties – in particular, personnel transport – and on 13 October the same year, it was presented with its standard by King Olav V of Norway in commemoration of the squadron's 1940 Norwegian operation.

In September 1970, the squadron moved to RAF Thorney Island and began a period of extended worldwide activity by taking part in a large Far East reinforcement exercise, Bersatu Padu. In 1971 it began a two-aircraft detachment at Masirah[28] (and added SAR to its many roles). In November 1971 and February 1972, it took part in Exercise Cold Stream with the Italian Air Force at Pisa and in Exercise Sun Pirate in Puerto Rico.

While flying the RAF Falcons on 8 April 1972, the Royal Air Force Parachute Team, one of Sqn 46's Anodver, XS-609, crashed on takeoff at Siena, Italy, killing four passengers.[29]

Twice a year, the squadron took part in Exercise MACDROP at RAF Machrihanish, in which Andovers were employed in parachute dropping with the Parachute Regiment, and SAS. In January and December 1974, unit aircraft supported Royal Engineers in Exercise Mirza – four-month civil-aid programmes whose main task was the construction of bridges in Sudan.

Finally, in March 1975 the closure of RAF Thorney Island and the dissolution of the squadron was announced.[30] An immediate reduction in the number of aircraft and a drastic reduction in flying hours followed. On 31 August 1975 the squadron standard was laid up in Chichester Cathedral, and the unit was disbanded. A number of Andovers were converted to flight calibration duties with No. 115 Squadron RAF at RAF Benson, two went to Boscombe Down and one (XS641) was shifted to photo reconnaissance role to provide the U.K.'s asset for the Open Skies Treaty. Later 10 Andovers were sold to the Royal New Zealand Air Force[31][32]


The squadron is unique in the Royal Air Force because it is the only one to have held reunions since 1917. The squadron's Association has held annual Reunion Dinners continuously since 1917. The 100th consecutive Reunion was held in the Officers' Mess, RAF Benson, on 3 June 2017.[33]


Aircraft operated by No. 46 Squadron from 1916 to 1975
ModelService dates
Nieuport 12Apr 1916 – Apr 1917
BE2cNov 1916 – Apr 1917
BE2eFeb 1917 – Apr 1917
PupApr 1917 – Nov 1917
CamelNov 1917 – Feb 1919
Gauntlet IISep 1936 – Feb 1939
Hurricane IFeb 1939 – Dec 1940
Hurricane IIADec 1940 – May 1941
Hurricane IICMay 1941 – Jun 1941
Beaufighter IMay 1942 – Jul 1942
Beaufighter VIMay 1942 – Dec 1944
Beaufighter XApr 1944 – Jul 1944
Mosquito XIIApr 1944 – Jul 1944
Stirling VFeb 1945 – Feb 1946
Dakota III, IVFeb 1946 – Feb 1950
Meteor NF 12Aug 1954 – Mar 1956
Meteor NF 14Aug 1954 – Mar 1956
Javelin FAW 1Mar 1956 – Nov 1957
Javelin FAW 2Aug 1957 – Jun 1961
Javelin FAW 6Aug 1958 – Jun 1961
Andover CMk1Dec 1966 – Aug 1975


Bases for No. 46 Squadron from formation to disbandment
LocationAssignment dates
RAF WytonApr 1916 – Oct 1916
BoisdinghemMay 1917 – May 1917
La Gorgue[34]May 1917 – Jul 1917
BruayJul 1917 – Jul 1917
Sutton's FarmJul 1917 – Aug 1917
Ste Marie CappelAug 1917 – Sep 1917
(Izel) Le HameauSep 1917 – May 1918
LiettresMay 1918 – Jun 1918
SernyJun 1918 – Aug 1918
PoulainvilleAug 1918 – Sep 1918
CappySep 1918 – Oct 1918
AthiesOct 1918 – Oct 1918
BusignyOct 1918 – Nov 1918
BaizieuxNov 1918 – Feb 1919
RendcombFeb 1919 – Feb 1919 (disbanded)
Re-formed out of 'B' Flt, No. 17 Sqn, Kenley3 September 1936
RAF KenleySep 1936 – Nov 1937
RAF DigbyNov 1937 – Nov 1939
RAF AcklingtonNov 1939 – Jan 1940
RAF DigbyJan 1940 – May 1940
HMS GloriousMay 1940 – May 1940
SkaanlandMay 1940 – May 1940
BardufossMay 1940 – Jun 1940
HMS GloriousJun 1940 – Jun 1940
RAF DigbyJun 1940 – Sep 1940
Stapleford AerodromeSep 1940 – Nov 1940
RAF North WealdNov 1940 – Dec 1940
RAF DigbyDec 1940 – Feb 1941
RAF Church FentonFeb 1941 – Mar 1941
RAF Sherburn-in-ElmetMar 1941 – May 1941
En route EgyptMay 1941 – Jul 1941
Abu Sueir Jul 1941 – Sep 1941
Kilo 17[35]17 September 1941 – May 1942
IdkuMay 1942 – Dec 1944
RAF Stoney CrossJan 1945 – Oct 1946
RAF ManstonOct 1946 – Dec 1946
RAF AbingdonDec 1946 – Aug 1949
RAF OakingtonAug 1949 – Feb 1950 (disbanded)
RAF OdihamAug 1954 – Jul 1959
RAF Waterbeach Jul 1959 – Jun 1961 (disbanded)
RAF AbingdonSep 1966 – Sep 1970
RAF Thorney IslandSep 1970 – Aug 1975 (disbanded)

Commanding officers

RankNameDate of command
MajorG. E. ToddApril 1916
MajorE. L. ConranMay 1916
MajorL. DawesMay 1916
MajorP. BabingtonJuly 1916
MajorR. H. S. MealingDecember 1917
MajorA. H. O'Hara-WoodJuly 1918
MajorG. AllenOctober 1918
Squadron LeaderM. F. CalderSeptember 1936
Squadron LeaderP. R. BarwellJune 1937
Squadron LeaderK. B. B. CrossOctober 1939
Squadron LeaderJ. R. Maclachlan[36]June 1940
Squadron LeaderA. R. CollinsOctober 1940
Squadron LeaderL. M. Gaunce[37]October 1940
Squadron LeaderA. C. Rabagliati[38][39]December 1940
Wing CommanderG. A. ReidMay 1942
Wing CommanderT. P. K. ScadeOctober 1943
Wing CommanderR. W. DennisonJune 1944
Squadron LeaderG. E. RobertsonAugust–November 1944
(Temp Command)
Wing CommanderB. A. CoventryJanuary 1945
Wing CommanderS. G. BaggottDecember 1945
Wing CommanderG. Dutton[40]March 1946
Wing CommanderG. BurgesJuly 1946
Squadron LeaderE. MoodyOctober 1947
Squadron LeaderA. G. Salter[41]April 1948
Squadron LeaderA. ReeceAugust 1949
Squadron LeaderD. F. C. Ross[42]August 1954
(on re-forming)
Wing CommanderF. E. W. BirchfieldMarch 1955
Wing CommanderH. E. White DFC ** AFCJune 1956
Wing CommanderF. B. Sowrey[43]May 1958
Wing CommanderD. B. WillsJune 1960
Squadron LeaderM. T. RaysonSeptember 1966
(on re-forming)
Squadron LeaderJ. B. GrattonDecember 1967
Squadron LeaderD. O. Crwys-Williams[44]January 1970
Wing CommanderF. A. MallettFebruary 1971
Wing CommanderJ. A. ScamblerApril 1973
Wing CommanderS HitchenMarch 1975


  1. Pine, L.G. (1983). A dictionary of mottoes (1 ed.). London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. p. 264. ISBN 0-7100-9339-X.
  2. "WW1 – Photo Reconnaissance".
  3. "Sopwith Pup —The Aerodrome – Aces and Aircraft of World War I".
  4. "Sopwith Camel – The Aerodrome – Aces and Aircraft of World War I".
  5. Air Ministry, 1938, "80 Wing R.A.F.", Air Historical Branch: Papers (Series I), AIR 1/1938/204/245/8.
  6. "46 Squadron – The Aerodrome – Royal Flying Corps of World War I".
  7. "No. 46 Squadron". The Aerodrome. Retrieved 15 February 2010.
  8. "Donald Roderick MacLaren – The Aerodrome – Aces and Aircraft of World War I".
  9. "The Aces of World War I —The Aerodrome – Aces and Aircraft of World War I".
  10. Marchant instigated and, for more than 40 years, organised the squadron reunions. (Cecil James Marchant —The Aerodrome — Aces and Aircraft of World War I.)
  11. "Victor Maslin Yeates – The Aerodrome – Aces and Aircraft of World War I".
  12. "A S G Lee_P".
  13. "Battle of Britain London Monument – F/Lt. I R Gleed". Retrieved 5 January 2018.
  14. The SS Monarch of Bermuda — R. Nash Archived 28 August 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  15. HMS Glorious — David Curry — DigbyOps Archived 8 January 2006 at the Wayback Machine
  16. "The Loss of HMS Glorious — Vernon W. Howland –". Archived from the original on 20 November 2007.
  17. "K B B Cross_P".
  18. "P G Jameson".
  19. " :: Digby".
  20. "The North Weald Airfield Museum". Archived from the original on 24 April 2006.
  21. "Håkans Flygsida – The Falco and Regia Aeronautica in the Battle of Britain".
  22. "Jim McWilliams' Homepage".
  23. "History of No. 126 Squadron –".
  24. "A website in connection with the British Armed Forces serving in the Suez Canal Zone of Egypt during the early 1950s".
  25. 'Handskills' Kennedy Picture Gallery
  26. "RAF Stoney Cross airfield".
  27. "Thunder & Lightnings – Gloster Javelin – History".
  28. "BBC – WW2 People's War – Masirah (Petrol Tin Island)".
  29. Ranter, Harro. "ASN Aircraft accident Hawker Siddeley HS-748 Andover C.1 XS609 Siena/Ampugnano Airport (SAY)".
  30. "Thorney Island – Aviation in Hampshire". Archived from the original on 4 February 2012.
  31. "Kiwi Aircraft Images: HS/Bae Andover C1".
  32. "ADF Serials – Moved!".
  33. "No 46 Squadron RFC and RAF – 46 Squadron RFC and RAF History".
  34. La Gorgue in French Wikipedia
  35. RAF Form 540, No 46 Sqn, Nov–Dec 1941
  36. "The Battle of Britain – 1940".
  37. "Peaks of the Canadian Rockies – Mount Gaunce". Archived from the original on 12 June 2011. Retrieved 8 April 2010.
  38. "Ra-pilots".
  39. " – Informationen zum Thema rapidttp. Diese Website steht zum Verkauf!".
  40. "Search | The Australian War Memorial".
  41. Croke, Jon (10 April 2006). "Obituary: Arthur Salter" via
  42. "Station OCs – Germany".
  43. "King's Collections : Archive Catalogues : Military Archives".
  44. "British Forces Foundation Website: CVs Trustees".
This article is issued from Wikipedia. The text is licensed under Creative Commons - Attribution - Sharealike. Additional terms may apply for the media files.