No. 3 Squadron RAF
|No. 3(F) Squadron RAF|
|Active||13 May 1912 – 1 April 1918 (RFC)|
1 April 1918 – present (RAF)
|Part of||No. 1 Group RAF|
|Home station||RAF Coningsby|
|Motto(s)||Tertius primus erit|
(Latin for The third shall be the first)
|Aircraft||Eurofighter Typhoon FGR4/T3|
|Squadron tail badge|
|Squadron badge heraldry||A cockatrice on a monolith, chosen because in mythology it was the first creature to fly. Approved by King George VI in September 1937.|
Foundation and First World War
No 3 Squadron (Royal Flying Corps) was formed at Larkhill on 13 May 1912 by the renaming of No. 2 (Aeroplane) Company of the Air Battalion Royal Engineers, under the command of Major Robert Brooke-Popham. Being already equipped with aeroplanes and manned by pilots and air mechanics, No. 2 (Aeroplane) Company was thus the first British, Empire or Commonwealth independent military unit to operate heavier-than-air flying machines, hence the 3 Squadron motto Tertius primus erit, meaning "The third shall be the first". On 5 July 1912, two members of the squadron, Captain Eustace Loraine and Staff Sergeant Wilson were killed in an aircraft crash, making them the first RFC fatalities. In 1913, No 3 Squadron deployed to Halton in Buckinghamshire to support the land manoeuvres of the Household Division. A temporary airfield was set up on what later became RAF Halton's Maitland Parade Square. During the exercise, No 3 Squadron flew a number of reconnaissance sorties and staged the first confrontation between an airship and an aeroplane.
Sent to France on the outbreak of the Great War, the squadron initially operated in the reconnaissance role using a variety of aircraft types. On 22 August 1914, Captain L.E.O. Charlton, 3 Sqn Flight commander and Lieutenant V.H.N. Wadham reported German General Alexander von Kluck's army was preparing to surround the BEF, contradicting all other intelligence.
The English ace James McCudden served as a mechanic and later observer with 3 Squadron from June 1913 to January 1916 before leaving to become a pilot. Cecil Lewis, author of Sagittarius Rising flew Morane Parasols with No 3 Squadron during the Somme offensive in the summer of 1916. Later in October 1917, with the introduction of Sopwith Camels, a fighter/scout role was taken on, with 59 enemy aircraft being claimed by the end of the war. The squadron disbanded in October 1919.
There were nine flying aces among its ranks, including Douglas John Bell, George R. Riley, Will Hubbard, Adrian Franklyn, Hazel LeRoy Wallace, Lloyd Hamilton, David Hughes, Neil Smuts, and William H Maxted.
It reformed in India in 1920 as a fighter squadron equipped with Sopwith Snipes, being disbanded again in October 1921. It was immediately reformed at RAF Leuchars, Scotland, as a naval observation squadron equipped with the Airco DH.9A, receiving the Westland Walrus and Avro Bison before being disbanded to form two independent flights in April 1923.
It reformed as a fighter squadron with Snipes in April 1924, operating a succession of different types, based in the UK, including the Gloster Gladiator. The only highlight of these years was the 1935 deployment to the Sudan during the Italian invasion of Abyssinia.
Second World War
At the start of the Second World War No 3 Squadron was posted as part of Fighter Command to RAF Station Biggin Hill equipped with the Hawker Hurricane. It briefly deployed to France in support of the British Expeditionary Force following the German attack on the West in 1940, being forced to withdraw after 10 days, having claimed 60 German aircraft for the loss of 21 of its own. On 21 July 1940 "B" flight was detached to form the nucleus of the newly formed No. 232 Squadron. Once back up to strength, No. 3 Squadron was used as air defence for the Royal Naval base at Scapa Flow, remaining in Scotland until April? 1941, based at RAF Station Wick in Northern Scotland. In June 1941 No 3 Squadron moved from Martlesham Heath to RAF Stapleford Tawney operating 4 canon Hurricane 11s in 'Rhubarb' attacks on defended ground targets and shipping in northern France and Belgium.
In February 1943 it re-equipped with the Hawker Typhoon for fighter-bomber and anti-shipping strikes. It re-equipped in March 1944 with the new Hawker Tempest fighter, operating over the Normandy beach-head and against German V1 flying bombs, claiming 288 V-1s shot down.
It then deployed across the Channel, flying as part of the 2 TAF fighting through the low countries and into Germany. Amongst its pilots was F/L Pierre Clostermann, who flew with 3 Squadron from March 1945 until the end of the war in Europe.
The squadron moved onto jets with the De Havilland Vampire during 1948, in Germany, where it had remained after moving there in the latter stages of the war. Sabres and Hunters replaced the Vampires during the 1950s, followed by Gloster Javelins and then a conversion onto Canberra bombers. Most of its time with Canberras was spent at RAF Geilenkirchen moving to RAF Laarbruch in January 1968.
3 Squadron's association with the Harrier began in the early 1970s with the Harrier GR1 at RAF Wildenrath where it reformed from Canberras to Harriers and they joined 4 & 20 Squadron equipped with Harrier GR1's who were already operational at RAF Wildenrath. The squadron received the later GR3 and GR5 model Harriers successively at RAF Gütersloh, finally receiving the GR7 and relocating to RAF Laarbruch in the 1992. In 1999, with the drawdown of the RAF in Germany, the squadron moved back to the UK along with its sister squadron No IV (AC) Squadron RAF. The two squadrons operated at RAF Cottesmore, being joined by the other Harrier operator, No. 1 Squadron RAF, in summer 2000.
As part of Joint Force Harrier, 3 Squadron operated alongside the Fleet Air Arm Sea Harriers, and was capable of deployment from the Royal Navy aircraft carriers. Operations included Operation Allied Force over Kosovo in 1999, Operation Palliser over Sierra Leone in 2000 and Operation Telic over Iraq in 2003. In August 2004, it was announced that 6 Harriers would be deployed to Afghanistan in support of NATO forces.
After the Harrier GR7s had been passed to the Fleet Air Arm to be used by the recommissioned No. 800 Naval Air Squadron, No. 3 Squadron moved to RAF Coningsby where it re-equipped with the Eurofighter Typhoon in March 2006 and became the first operational front line RAF Typhoon squadron in July 2007.
In May 2012 four aircraft were deployed to RAF Northolt in an air defence role covering the duration of the Olympic Games, the first time RAF fighters had been stationed at the base since the Second World War.
During March 2018, six Typhoons from No. 3 Squadron deployed to Andravida Air Base in Greece for Exercise Iniochos. It was the first time that RAF Typhoons had participated in the annual NATO exercise.
- Sopwith Camel (September 1917 – February 1919)
- Sopwith Snipe (April 1920 – October 1921; April 1924 – October 1925)
- Airco DH.9A (October 1921 – October 1922)
- Westland Walrus (January 1922 – April 1923)
- Hawker Woodcock II (July 1925 – September 1928)
- Gloster Gamecock I (August 1928 – July 1929)
- Bristol Bulldog II (May 1929 – December 1932)
- Bristol Bulldog IIA (February 1931 – January 1932; December 1932 – June 1937)
- Gloster Gladiator I (March 1937 – March 1939; July 1938 – July 1939)
- Hawker Hurricane I (March–July 1938; July 1939 – April 1941)
- Hawker Hurricane IIA/IIB (April – November 1941)
- Hawker Hurricane IIC (April 1941 – May 1943)
- Hawker Typhoon IB (February 1943 – April 1944)
- Hawker Tempest V (February 1944 – April 1948)
- De Havilland Vampire F.1 (April 1948 – May 1949)
- De Havilland Vampire FB.5 (May 1949 – May 1953)
- North American Sabre F.1/F.4 (May 1953 – June 1956)
- Hawker Hunter F.4 (May 1956 – June 1957)
- Gloster Javelin FAW.4 (January 1959 – December 1960)
- English Electric Canberra B(I).8 (January 1961 – January 1972)
- Hawker Siddeley Harrier GR.1A/T.2 (January 1972 – March 1977)
- Hawker Siddeley Harrier GR.3/T.4 (March 1977 – May 1989)
- BAE Harrier GR.5/T.4 (May 1989 – February 1992)
- BAE Harrier GR7/T10 (February 1992 – 31 March 2006)
- BAE Harrier GR7A (2004 – March 31, 2006)
- Eurofighter Typhoon F2 (1 April 2006 – July 2008)
- Eurofighter Typhoon FGR4/T3 (3 June 2011 – present)
|13 May 1912||Major H R M Brooke-Popham|
|12 Aug 1914||Major J M Salmond DSO|
|Apr 1915||Major D S Lewis DSO|
|1 Nov 1915||Major E R Ludlow-Hewitt MC|
|Jan 1916||Major H D Harvey-Kelly DSO|
|Sep 1916||Major D E Stodart|
|May 1917||Major E D Horsfall|
|Jun 1917||Major J A De Courcy|
|Sep 1917||Major R Raymond-Barker|
|Apr 1918||Major R St Clair-McClintock MC|
|Dec 1920||Sqn Ldr G G A Williams|
|Jun 1922||Sqn Ldr D G Donald|
|Feb 1923||Sqn Ldr C C Miles|
|Apr 1924||Sqn Ldr J C Russel DSO|
|Apr 1926||Sqn Ldr J M Robb DFC|
|Sep 1927||Sqn Ldr E D Johnson AFC|
|Aug 1930||Sqn Ldr C A Stevens MC|
|Mar 1934||Sqn Ldr G Martyn|
|Mar 1936||Sqn Ldr H L P Lester|
|Aug 1938||Sqn Ldr H H Chapman|
|Nov 1939||Sqn Ldr P Gifford DFC|
|May 1940||Sqn Ldr W M Churchill DSO DFC|
|Jun 1940||Sqn Ldr S F Godden|
|Sep 1940||Sqn Ldr G F Chater DFC|
|Nov 1940||Sqn Ldr A W Cole|
|Jan 1941||Sqn Ldr R E Barnett MBE|
|Jan 1941||Sqn Ldr E P P Gibbs|
|Apr 1941||Sqn Ldr R F Aitken|
|Apr 1942||Sqn Ldr A E Berry DFC|
|Aug 1942||Sqn Ldr L F De Soomer|
|Aug 1943||Sqn Ldr S R Thomas DFC AFC|
|Sep 1943||Sqn Ldr R Hawkins MC DFC|
|Oct 1943||Sqn Ldr A C Dredge DFC AFC|
|Aug 1944||Sqn Ldr K A Wigglesworth DFC|
|Sep 1944||Sqn Ldr H N Sweetman DFC|
|Jan 1945||Sqn Ldr K F Thiele DSO DFC**|
|Feb 1945||Sqn Ldr R B Cole DFC*|
|May 1947||Sqn Ldr C H Macfie DFC|
|Nov 1949||Sqn Ldr D R Griffiths DFC|
|Jun 1952||Sqn Ldr W J S Sutherland|
|Dec 1953||Sqn Ldr D C H Simmons CBE AFC|
|Dec 1954||Sqn Ldr T H Hutchinson|
|15 Jun 1957||Sqn Disbanded|
|Jan 1959||Wg Cdr D W B Farrar DFC AFC|
|May 1960||Wg Cdr A F Peers DFC|
|Jan 1961||Wg Cdr D G Walker AFC|
|Jan 1961||Wg Cdr D F C Ross DFC|
|Jul 1963||Wg Cdr J L Field CBE|
|Jul 1965||Wg Cdr L E H Scotchmer OBE|
|May 1967||Wg Cdr R Hollingworth|
|Dec 1969||Wg Cdr M R T Chandler|
- Pine, L.G. (1983). A dictionary of mottoes (1 ed.). London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. p. 231. ISBN 0-7100-9339-X.
- Airmen's Cross Air Vice-Marshal Barry Newton Archived 8 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine
- Finn, C. J. et al. (2004). Air Publication 3003 – A Brief History of the Royal Air Force. p. 331. HMSO.
- Barass, Malcolm (6 June 2007). "Air Commodore L E O Charlton". Air of Authority – A History of RAF Organisation. Retrieved 3 November 2007.
- Lewis 1959, p.13.
- Ashworth 1989, p.30.
- "3 Squadron". www.theaerodrome.com. Retrieved 7 June 2019.
- "William Henry Maxted". www.theaerodrome.com. Retrieved 7 June 2019.
- Gustavsson, Håkan. "Gloster Gladiator in 3 RAF Squadron service". Biplane Fighter Aces from the Second World War. Retrieved 17 April 2013.
- Photo evidence shows A Flight based at St Andrews dated 1 July 1941 under group training
- Squadron logs, National Record Office
- "Stations-L". www.rafweb.org. Retrieved 15 November 2018.
- Graveling, Tony; Tulloch, James (1 May 2001). "RAF Cottesmore". Meteorological Office, RAF Cottesmore. doi:10.1002/wea.6080570405. Cite journal requires
- "Collection: Ministry of Defence: RAF Cottesmore". Imperial War Museum. Retrieved 7 June 2019.
- "Afghanistan: Deployment Of Raf Harrier G R7s". Hansard. 9 September 2004. Retrieved 7 June 2019.
- "Typhoon Goes Operational". Ministry of Defence. 11 July 2007. Retrieved 7 June 2019.
- "Typhoon factbox: £70m-a-piece jets which fly at twice the speed of sound". The Telegraph. 29 March 2011. Retrieved 7 June 2019.
- "An Olympics Vigil, From 30,000 Feet". New York Times. 1 August 2012. Retrieved 7 June 2019.
- "RAF Typhoons fly to Greece for Exercise Iniochos". Royal Air Force. 16 March 2018. Retrieved 19 March 2018.
- Ashworth, Chris. Encyclopedia of Modern Royal Air Force Squadrons. Wellingborough, UK: Patrick Stevens Limited, 1989. ISBN 1-85260-013-6.
- Halley, James J. The Squadrons of the Royal Air Force & Commonwealth, 1918–1988. Tonbridge, Kent, UK: Air-Britain (Historians) Ltd., 1988. ISBN 0-85130-164-9.
- Jefford, C.G. RAF Squadrons, a Comprehensive Record of the Movement and Equipment of all RAF Squadrons and their Antecedents since 1912. Shrewsbury: Airlife Publishing, 2001. ISBN 1-84037-141-2.
- Lewis, Peter. Squadron Histories: R.F.C, R.N.A.S and R.A.F., 1912–59. London: Putnam, 1959.
- Long, Jack T.C. Three's Company: An Illustrated History Of No. 3 (Fighter) Squadron RAF. Barnsley, South Yorkshire, UK: Pen & Sword Books Ltd., 2005. ISBN 1-84415-158-1.
- Moyes, Philip J.R. Bomber Squadrons of the RAF and their Aircraft. London: Macdonald and Jane's (Publishers) Ltd., 1964 (new edition 1976). ISBN 0-354-01027-1.
- Rawlings, John D.R. Coastal, Support and Special Squadrons of the RAF and their Aircraft. London: Jane's Publishing Company Ltd., 1982. ISBN 0-7106-0187-5.
- Rawlings, John D.R. Fighter Squadrons of the RAF and their Aircraft. London: Macdonald and Jane's (Publishers) Ltd., 1969 (new edition 1976, reprinted 1978). ISBN 0-354-01028-X.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to No. 3 Squadron RAF.|