Nine (musical)

Nine is a musical, initially created and written by Maury Yeston as a class-project in Lehman Engel's BMI Music Theatre Workshop in 1973. It was later developed with a book by Mario Fratti, and then again with a book by Arthur Kopit, music and lyrics by Maury Yeston. The story is based also on Federico Fellini's semi-autobiographical film . It focuses on film director Guido Contini, who is dreading his imminent 40th birthday and facing a midlife crisis, which is blocking his creative impulses and entangling him in a web of romantic difficulties in early-1960s Venice.

Original Playbill
MusicMaury Yeston
LyricsMaury Yeston
BookArthur Kopit
BasisFederico Fellini's film
Productions1982 Broadway
1983 Stockholm
1984 US national tour
1987 Australia
1992 West End concert
1996 West End
2003 Broadway revival
AwardsTony Award for Best Musical
Tony Award for Best Original Score
Tony Award for Best Revival of a Musical

The original Broadway production opened in 1982 and ran for 729 performances, starring Raul Julia. The musical won five Tony Awards, including Best Musical, and has enjoyed a number of revivals.


Yeston began to work on the musical in 1973.[1] As a teenager, he had seen the Fellini film and was intrigued by its themes. "I looked at the screen and said 'That's me.' I still believed in all the dreams and ideals of what it was to be an artist, and here was a movie about an artist in trouble. It became an obsession," Yeston told the New York Times.[2] He would go on to say "Nine was the thing I really desperately wanted to write—never thinking for a minute that it would ever be produced. The movie had a phenomenal impact on me when I saw it as a teenager when it first came out. I was fascinated with Guido who was going through a second adolescence when I was going through my first! As I grew I began to realize that there was room to explore the reactions of the inner workings of the women in Guido’s wake. I think that’s what opened the gateways of creativity for Nine—to hear from these extraordinary women. The great secret of Nine is that it took 8 1/2 and became an essay on the power of women by answering the question, “What are women to men?” And Nine tells you: they are our mothers, our sisters, our teachers, our temptresses, our judges, our nurses, our wives, our mistresses, our muses."[3] Playwright Mario Fratti began working on the book of the musical in 1977, but the producers and director Tommy Tune eventually decided his script did not work, and brought in Arthur Kopit in 1981 to write an entirely new book, working (as Fratti had) with Maury Yeston as composer/lyricist, but now using Yeston's music, and Fellini's film, as the source. Kopit's new book, along with Yeston's now completed score, became the script that was produced on Broadway in 1982.

Fellini had entitled his film in recognition of his prior body of work, which included six full-length films, two short films, and one film that he co-directed. Yeston's title for the musical adaptation adds another half-credit to Fellini's output and refers to Guido's age during his first hallucination sequence. Yeston called the musical Nine, explaining that if you add music to , "it's like half a number more."[2]


Guido Contini, famous Italian film director, has turned forty and faces double crises: he has to shoot a film for which he can't write the script, and his wife of twenty years, the film star Luisa del Forno, may be about to leave him if he can't pay more attention to the marriage. As it turns out, it is the same crisis.

Luisa's efforts to talk to him seem to be drowned out by voices in his head: voices of women in his life, speaking through the walls of his memory, insistent, flirtatious, irresistible, potent. Women speaking beyond words (Overture delle Donne). And these are the women Guido has loved, and from whom he has derived the entire vitality of a creative life, now as stalled as his marriage.

In an attempt to find some peace and save the marriage, they go to a spa near Venice (Spa Music), where they are immediately hunted down by the press with intrusive questions about the marriage and—something Guido had not told Luisa about—his imminent film project (Not Since Chaplin).

As Guido struggles to find a story for his film, he becomes increasingly preoccupied—his interior world sometimes becoming indistinguishable from the objective world (Guido's Song). His mistress Carla arrives in Venice, calling him from her lonely hotel room (A Call from the Vatican), his producer Liliane La Fleur, former vedette of the Folies Bergeres, insists he make a musical, an idea which itself veers off into a feminine fantasy of extraordinary vividness (The Script/Folies Bergeres). And all the while, Luisa watches, the resilience of her love being consumed by anxiety for him and a gathering dismay for their lives together (My Husband Makes Movies / Only With You).

Guido's fugitive imagination, clutching at women like straws, eventually plunges through the floor of the present and into his own past where he encounters his mother, bathing a nine-year-old boy—the young Guido himself (Nine). The vision leads him to re-encounter a glorious moment on a beach with Saraghina, the prostitute and outcast to whom he went as a curious child, creeping out of his Catholic boarding school St. Sebastian, to ask her to tell him about love. Her answer, be yourself (Ti Voglio Bene / Be Italian), and the dance she taught him on the sand echoes down to the forty-year-old Guido as a talisman and a terrible reminder of the consequences of that night—punishment by the nuns and rejection by his appalled mother (The Bells of St. Sebastian). Unable to bear the incomprehensible dread of the adults, the little boy runs back to the beach to find nothing but the sand and the wind—an image of the vanishing nature of love, and the cause of Guido Contini's artistry and unanchored peril: a fugitive heart.

Back into the present, Guido is on a beach once more. With him, Claudia Nardi, a film star, muse of his greatest successes, who has flown from Paris because he needs her, but this time she does not want the role. He cannot fathom the rejection. He is enraged. He fails to understand that Claudia loves him, too, but wants him to love her as a woman 'not a spirit'—and he realizes too late that this was the real reason that she came—in order to know, and now she does. He cannot love her that way. She is in some way released to love him for what he is, and never to hope for him again. Wryly she calls him "My charming Casanova!" thereby involuntarily giving Guido the very inspiration he needs and for which has always looked to her. As Claudia lets him go with "Unusual Way," Guido grasps the last straw of all—a desperate, inspired movie—a 'spectacular in the vernacular'—set on "The Grand Canal" and cast with every woman in his life.

The improvised movie is a spectacular collision between his real life and his creative one—a film that is as self-lacerating as it is cruel, during which Carla races onto the set to announce her divorce and her delight that they can be married only to be brutally rejected by Guido in his desperate fixation with the next set-up, and which climaxes with Luisa, appalled and moved by his use of their intimacy—and even her words—as a source for the film, finally detonating with sadness and rage. Guido keeps the cameras rolling, capturing a scene of utter desolation—the women he loves, and Luisa whom he loves above all, littered like smashed porcelain across the frame of his hopelessly beautiful failure of a film. "Cut. Print!"

The film is dead. The cast leaves. They all leave. Carla, with "Simple"—words from the articulate broken heart, Claudia with a letter from Paris to say that she has married, and Luisa in a shattering exit from a marriage that has, as she says, been 'all of me' (Be On Your Own).

Guido is alone. "I Can't Make This Movie" ascends into the scream of "Guido out in space with no direction,' and he contemplates suicide. But, as the gun is at his head, there is a final life-saving interruption—from his nine-year-old self (Getting Tall), in which the young Guido points out it is time to move on. To grow up. And Guido surrenders the gun. As the women return in a reprise of the Overture (Reprises), but this time to let him go, only one is absent: Luisa. Guido feels the aching void left by the only woman he will ever love. In the 2003 Broadway production, as the boy led the women off into his own future to the strains of "Be Italian", Luisa steps into the room on the final note, and Guido turned toward her—this time ready to listen.



Originally conceived as a male/female cast, many of the changes into a mostly all women cast were created in a workshop that rehearsed in the upstairs theatre at the New Amsterdam Theatre in the Fall of 1981. For their participation, the workshop cast was given a small percentage of the show for a limited amount of time. Kathi Moss was the only cast member of the original Broadway cast that did not participate in the workshop (Pat Ast played the role of Saraghina in the workshop).

Original Broadway Production

After nineteen previews, the Broadway production, directed by Tommy Tune and choreographed by Thommie Walsh, opened on May 9, 1982 at the 46th Street Theatre, where it ran for 729 performances. The cast included Raul Julia as Guido, Karen Akers as Luisa, Liliane Montevecchi as Liliane, Anita Morris as Carla, Shelly Burch as Claudia, Camille Saviola as Mama Maddelena, Kathi Moss as Saraghina, Cameron Johann as Young Guido, and Taina Elg as Guido's mother. Rounding out the cast were Christopher Evans Allen, Jeanie Bowers, Stephanie Cotsirilos, Kim Criswell, Kate DeZina, Colleen Dodson, Lulu Downs, Louise Edeiken, Laura Kenyon, Linda Kerns, Nancy McCall, Cynthia Meryl, Rita Rehn, Dee Etta Rowe, Jadrien Steele,Frankie Vincent , Patrick Wilcox, Alaina Warren Zachary. Raul Julia played Guido for one year, from May 9, 1982, to May 8, 1983. (Bert Convy replaced Julia while he was on vacation for two weeks, beginning January 10, 1983.) Sergio Franchi starred as Guido for 330 performances, from May 9, 1983, to February 4, 1984, the date the production closed; composer Maury Yeston added a Franchi-style ballad, "Now Is the Moment," to the lovely Italian-sounding score.[4] Other replacements were Maureen McGovern and then Eileen Barnett as Luisa, Wanda Richert as Carla, Priscilla Lopez as Liliane, and Barbara Stock as Claudia. Once the original boys reached the required height for their roles, they were replaced by Derek Scott Lashine as Little Guido, Jeffrey Vitelli (also the understudy for Little Guido), Braden Danner, and Peter Brendon. The musical won five Tony Awards, including best musical and three Drama Desk Awards, including Best Music, Best Lyrics, and Best Musical. An original cast recording was released by Sony and was nominated for a Grammy Award.

National Tour

The original plans were for the Broadway show to continue even as the National Tour commenced. However the new producers (James Nederlander and Zev Buffman) made the right offer for the road show, and the Broadway production was closed so that the whole Broadway cast could go on the road with Sergio Franchi as the headliner.[5] Nineteen cities were originally planned, but several venue changes were made during the tour. The most prominent was the canceling of a Baton Rouge venue so that show could serve for the Grand Opening of the Los Angeles Civic Light Opera season. This was to accommodate the cancellation of On Your Toes after Leslie Caron (the star) was hospitalized due to a hip injury.[6] When the decision was made to close the road show after the San Francisco shows, Louisiana fans were upset that an alternate date had not been created for them. (Sergio Franchi was extremely popular in Louisiana.)[7] The reviews were generally very favorable, although a DC reviewer lamented some production changes (although admitting that they had not viewed the original Broadway production).[8] The production venue was changed from a spa to a railroad station, principally to accommodate the volume of scenery that needed to be transported from location to location.[9] The other change lamented in DC was the lighting. One review of the Florida production acknowledged that the grey railroad station with light-studded arches may have been "even more surreal than its creators may have intended."[10] In contrast, the San Diego reviewer expressed admiration for Marcia Madeira's "flattering light design" and declared "Nine" to be "wonderful to watch."[11]

  • 1984 "Nine" – The National Tour – Sergio Franchi starring as Guido Contini (although not a complete list, the following references were found):
Washington, DC – Kennedy Center Opera House – April 4, 1984 through April 21, 1984[12]
Miami Beach, FL – Miami Beach Theater of Performing Arts – May 4, 1984 through May 17, 1984[13]
Los Angeles – Dorothy Chandler Pavilion Music Center - May 23, 1984 through June 1, 1984[14]
Dallas, TX – Majestic Theater – June 5, 1984 through June 17, 1984[15]
San Diego, CA - Fox Theater - July 2, 1984 through July 7, 1984[11]
Seattle, WA - 5th Avenue Theater - July 10, 1984 through July 15, 1984[16]
San Francisco, CA - Week of August 24, 1984[7]

London productions

On June 7, 1992, the largest production of Nine to date was presented in concert in London at Royal Festival Hall with Jonathan Pryce, Becky Norman, Elizabeth Sastre, Ann Crumb, Kate Copstick, and Liliane Montevecchi. 165 people were in the cast, including male characters, as originally conceived. The production was directed by Andrew MacBean and a recording of the concert (with Elaine Paige stepping in as Claudia) was released by RCA Victor.

On December 12, 1996, a small-scale production directed by David Leveaux and choreographed by Jonathan Butterell opened at the Donmar Warehouse, where it ran for three months. Performers included Larry Lamb (Guido Contini), Ian Covington (Young Guido), Sara Kestelman (Liliane La Fleur), Clare Burt (Carla), Eleanor David (Claudia), Susannah Fellows (Luisa), Jenny Galloway (Saraghina), Ria Jones (Stephanie Necrophorus), Dilys Laye (Guido's Mother), Kiran Hocking (Our Lady of the Spa). Other cast members included Emma Dears, Kristin Marks, Tessa Pritchard, Sarah Parish, Norma Atallah and Susie Dumbreck.[17] It was designed by Anthony Ward.[18]

Broadway Revival

In 2003, the Roundabout Theatre Company produced a Broadway revival with director Leveaux and choreographer Butterell. It opened on April 10, 2003 at the Eugene O'Neill Theatre, where it ran for 283 performances and 23 previews and won two Tony Awards, including Best Revival of a Musical. The cast included Antonio Banderas as Guido (who received a Tony Award nomination), Mary Stuart Masterson as Luisa (who received a Tony Award nomination), Chita Rivera as Liliane, Jane Krakowski as Carla (winning the Tony), Laura Benanti as Claudia, and Mary Beth Peil as Guido's mother. Replacements later in the run included John Stamos as Guido, Eartha Kitt as Liliane, Rebecca Luker as Claudia, and Marni Nixon as Guido's mother. Yeston replaced a waltz dance from the original Folies Bergere number with a showstopping Tango Duet for Banderas and Rivera, A revival cast recording was released by PS Classics. Jenna Elfman was hired and advertised to join the cast as Carla at the same time that Stamos and Kitt were joining the production. A few days before the opening it was announced she needed more rehearsal time and that her understudy Sara Gettelfinger would take over temporarily.[19] Elfman never did join the company and Gettelfinger played the rest of the run.

International productions

The European premiere of Nine opened in Sweden, at the Oscarsteatern, Stockholm, September 23, 1983, with Ernst-Hugo Järegård (Guido), Siw Malmkvist (Luisa), Viveka Anderberg (Claudia), Suzanne Brenning (Carla), Anna Sundqvist (Saraghina), Berit Carlberg (Liliane La Fleur), Helena Fernell (Stephanie), Maj Lindström (Guido's Mother), Moa Myrén (Lady of the Spa), Ewa Roos (Mama Maddalena), Lena Nordin[20](Maria). Other cast members included Monica Janner, Marit Selfjord, Berit Bogg, Ragnhild Sjögren, Solgärd Kjellgren, Ann-Christine Bengtsson, Siw Marie Andersson, Anna Maria Söderström, Susanne Sahlberg, Vivian Burman, Hanne Kirkerud, Susie Sulocki, Annika Persson, Charlotte Assarsson, Anna-Lena Engström, and Kim Sulocki (Guido as a child).

The Australian premiere of Nine was staged in Melbourne at the Comedy Theatre in 1987. John Diedrich produced, directed and starred as Guido Contini. As Luisa Contini, Maria Mercedes's portrayal received critical acclaim and nominations for Best Actress in a Musical at the Melbourne Green Room Awards and the Sydney Theatre Critics Circle Awards . Maury Yeston after attending the Sydney opening night proclaimed that Maria Mercedes was the definitive Luisa Contini. The cast also included a young Tina Arena, the Australian singer, songwriter and actress who went on to have an international recording and performing career. Other cast members included Nancye Hayes (as Liliane La Fleur), Peta Toppano as Claudia, Caroline Gillmer as Sarragina, Jackie Rees, Gerda Nicholson, Kerry Woods, Anna Lee, Sally Anne Bourne, Alana Clark, Sally Clark, Alison Jiear, Donna Lizzio, Cammie Munro, Marie-Jackson, Sharon Jessop, Alix Longman, Lisa O'Dea, Anne Sinclair, Janice Torrens, Penny Richards, and Mimi Rubin. A cast recording of the Australian production was recorded for Polydor and later released on CD by the TER record label. It won the ARIA Award for Best Original Soundtrack or Cast Album.

The Argentinian premiere of Nine (1998) won several ACE Awards. Performers included Juan Darthes (as Guido), Elena Roger, Ligia Piro, Luz Kerz, Sandra Ballesteros and Mirta Wons.

The musical premiered in Germany at the Theater des Westens in 1999 in Berlin.

The musical played in Malmö, Sweden at Malmö Opera in 2002 with Jan Kyhle (Guido), Marie Richardson (Luisa), Sharon Dyall (Claudia), Petra Nielsen (Carla), Marianne Mörck (Sarraghina), Lill Lindfors (Liliane La Fleur), Annica Edstam (Stephanie Nechrophorus), Victoria Kahn (Gudio's Mother).

A Dutch production of Nine opened in an open-air theatre in Amersfoort in June 2005. Directed by Julia Bless, the production starred René van Zinnicq Bergmann, Frédèrique Sluyterman van Loo, Marleen van der Loo, Kirsten Cools, Tine Joustra, Veronique Sodano, Aafke van der Meij and Donna Vrijhof. The Dutch translation was by Theo Nijland.

The original Japanese production premiered in Tokyo in 2005 with Tetsuya Bessho as Guido Contini and Mizuki Ōura as Liliane La Fleur.

The musical premiered in San Juan, Puerto Rico in the fall of 2010 with Ernesto Concepción as Guido Contini, Sara Jarque as Luisa, Wanda Sais as Carla, Marian Pabón as Lilliane Le Fleur, Tita Guerrero as Lina Darling, Michelle Brava as Claudia Nardi, Aidita Encarnación as Saraghina, Yezmín Luzzed as Stephanie Necrophorus and Hilda Ramos as Mamma. The production was directed by Miguel Rosa who previously directed the Puerto Rico premiere of Rent in 2009.

The Phoenix Theatre in Arizona revived Nine in the spring of 2011, starring Craig Laurie (Guido), Patti Davis Suarez (Mother), Jeannie Shubitz (Luisa), Kim Manning (Liliane), Jenny Hintze (Claudia), and Johanna Carlisle (Saraghina).

The musical premiered in Manila, the Philippines, in September 2012, produced by Atlantis Productions. Jett Pangan starred as Guido Contini alongside an all-star cast of women, scenic design by Tony Award winning David Gallo and costume design by Robin Tomas.[21]

The musical premiered in the Czech Republic, at the Josef Kajetán Tyl Theatre in Pilsen in December 2012.

The Greek production opened in theatre Pantheon in Athens in November 2015, starring Vassilis Charalampopoulos as Guido, Helena Paparizou as Saraghina.

The musical premiered in Brazil, at Teatro Porto Seguro, in São Paulo,[22] directed by Charles Möeller and Claudio Botelho, starring Italian actor Nicola Lama as Guido, Carol Castro as Luisa, Totia Meireles as Lili la Fleur, Malu Rodrigues as Carla, Karen Junqueira e Vanessa Costa alternating as Claudia, Letícia Birkheuer as Stephanie, Beatriz Segall, Sonia Clara alternating as Guido's mother and Myra Ruiz as Saraghina .[23]

A Spanish production is scheduled to premiere on 7 June 2018 at the Teatro Amaya in Madrid, with a cast formed by Alvaro Puertas as Guido Contini, Roko as Luisa Contini, Patrizia Ruiz as Claudia Nardi, Chanel Terrero as Carla Albanese, Marcela Paoli as Liliane Le Fleur, Idaira Fernández as Saraghina, Chus Herranz as Stephanie and Angels Jiménez as Guido’s Mother.


On April 12, 2007, Variety announced that Rob Marshall would direct a feature film adaptation of Nine for the Weinstein Company. Marshall had previously directed Chicago for the Weinsteins while they were still at Miramax. The screenplay is written by Anthony Minghella with Michael Tolkin serving as an uncredited co-scripter. The cast consists of Academy Award winners Daniel Day-Lewis, Marion Cotillard, Penélope Cruz, Judi Dench, Nicole Kidman, and Sophia Loren, with Academy Award nominee and Golden Globe winner Kate Hudson and Grammy winning singer Fergie.[24] Among other cast changes in the film version, the character of Mama Maddelena does not appear, and Claudia's surname was changed from Nardi to Jenssen. The script makes Guido 50 (Day-Lewis's actual age), not 40 as in the stage original. The film's final coda is more hopeful and optimistic than the stage version. In addition, director Marshall cut most of the original production's score, with only "Overture delle Donne," "Guido's Song," "A Call from the Vatican," "Folies Bergeres," "Be Italian," "My Husband Makes Movies," "Unusual Way," and an extended version of "I Can't Make This Movie" making it into the final edit of the film. Composer Maury Yeston wrote three new songs for the movie including "Cinema Italiano," "Guarda la Luna" to replace the title song, and "Take It All" in place of "Be On Your Own," as well as the instrumental concluding the film. The film is co-produced by Marshall's own production company Lucamar Productions. The film was released in the US on December 18, 2009 in New York and Los Angeles and opened for wide release on December 25, 2009.

Musical numbers

  • Maury Yeston added a new number, "Now is the Moment" for Sergio Franchi.
  • The 2003 revival eliminated "The Germans at the Spa".

Awards and nominations

Original Broadway production

Year Award Category Nominee Result
1982 Tony Award Best Musical Won
Best Book of a Musical Arthur Kopit Nominated
Best Original Score Maury Yeston Won
Best Performance by a Leading Actor in a Musical Raul Julia Nominated
Best Performance by a Featured Actress in a Musical Karen Akers Nominated
Liliane Montevecchi Won
Anita Morris Nominated
Best Direction of a Musical Tommy Tune Won
Best Choreography Thommie Walsh Nominated
Best Scenic Design Lawrence Miller Nominated
Best Costume Design William Ivey Long Won
Best Lighting Design Marcia Madeira Nominated
Drama Desk Award Outstanding Musical Won
Outstanding Featured Actress in a Musical Shelly Burch Nominated
Liliane Montevecchi Won
Anita Morris
Outstanding Director of a Musical Tommy Tune Won
Outstanding Lyrics Maury Yeston Won
Outstanding Music Won
Outstanding Costume Design William Ivey Long Won
Outstanding Lighting Design Marcia Madeira Won
Theatre World Award Karen Akers Won
1983 Grammy Award Best Musical Show Album Nine The Musical Nominated

Original London production

Year Award Category Nominee Result
1996 Laurence Olivier Award Best New Musical Nominated

2003 Broadway revival

Year Award Category Nominee Result
2003 Tony Award Best Revival of a Musical Won
Best Performance by a Leading Actor in a Musical Antonio Banderas Nominated
Best Performance by a Featured Actress in a Musical Jane Krakowski Won
Mary Stuart Masterson Nominated
Chita Rivera Nominated
Best Direction of a Musical David Leveaux Nominated
Best Lighting Design Brian MacDevitt Nominated
Best Orchestrations Jonathan Tunick Nominated
Drama Desk Award Outstanding Revival Won
Outstanding Actor in a Musical Antonio Banderas Won
Outstanding Featured Actress in a Musical Mary Stuart Masterson Nominated
Chita Rivera Nominated
Jane Krakowski Won
Outstanding Director of a Musical David Leveaux Nominated
Theatre World Award Antonio Banderas Won
Mary Stuart Masterson Won
2004 Grammy Award Best Musical Show Album Nine The Musical Nominated


  1. Q&A with Yeston in
  2. Kalfatovic, Mary. "Maury Yeston", Contemporary Musicians (ed. Luann Brennan). Vol. 22, Gale Group, Inc., 1998
  3. Cline, Sara (2014-06-10). "REVIEW: Musical 'Nine' offers comic delight in Mansfield". The Enterprise. Retrieved 2019-07-13.
  4. Arnold, Christine. "Franchi: Italian to the 'Nine.'" (May 21, 1984). Los Angeles Times
  5. Foil, David. (January 25, 1984). "En Harde / Notes from all over." The Advocate (Louisiana), Baton Rouge, LA
  6. "'On Your Toes' Cancelled." (April 26, 1984). Los Angeles Times
  7. No headline. (August 24, 1984). The Advocate (Louisiana), Baton Rouge, LA
  8. "'Nine': Fellini Sans Feeling." (April 13, 1984). The Washington Post, Washington, DC
  9. Sheward, David. (1994). It's a Hit! The Backstage Book of the Longest-Running Broadway Shows. (Watson-Guptil, New York). ISBN 0823076369
  10. Arnold, Christine. (May 21, 1984). "Franchi: Italian to the 'Nine'." Los Angeles Times
  11. Harper, Hillard. (July 14, 1984). "'Nine' in S.D. / Fox [theater] Tests Voices of Play's Cast." Los Angeles
  12. "Performance / Mini Reviews." April 20, 1984). The Washington Post," Washington, DC
  13. Advertisement. (May 3, 1984). The Miami News, Miami Beach, FL
  14. Drake, Sylvia. (May 26, 1984). "An Italian-Style 'Nine' Makes Points of its Own." Los Angeles Times
  15. "Dallas / Theater / 'Nine' at Dallas Majestic June 5–17." (June, 1984) Texas Monthly, (Ennis Publishing; Austin, TX)
  16. Advertisement. (June 24, 1984). "'Nine' at the 5th Avenue July 10–15, 1984." The Seattle Times, Seattle, WA
  17. Domar Warehouse production Archived 2009-11-24 at the Wayback Machine
  18. "Library Services - Information Services - University of Kent". Retrieved on 4 February 2017.
  19. Hernandez, Ernio."Report: Jenna Elfman Replaced by Sara Gettelfinger in 'Nine'", October 10, 2003
  20. operasolisterna. "Lena Nordin – Kungliga Teaterns Solister". Retrieved 2019-02-12.
  21. "Nine". Atlantis Productions Inc. Archived from the original on 2 July 2012.
  22. Carvalho, Eduardo. "Novo musical de Charles Möeller e Claudio Botelho, 'Nine' estreia 21 de maio, no Teatro Porto Seguro, em São Paulo" Archived 2016-03-05 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on 4 February 2017.
  23. Carvalho, Eduardo. "Nine - Um Musical Felliniano (2015)". Retrieved on 4 February 2017.
  24. Nine synopsis and cast on Apple Movie Trailers
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