Nikolaus Harnoncourt (Johann Nikolaus Graf [Count] de la Fontaine und d'Harnoncourt-Unverzagt; 6 December 1929 – 5 March 2016) was an Austrian conductor, particularly known for his historically informed performances of music from the Classical era and earlier. Starting out as a classical cellist, he founded his own period instrument ensemble, Concentus Musicus Wien, in the 1950s, and became a pioneer of the Early Music movement. Around 1970, Harnoncourt started to conduct opera and concert performances, soon leading renowned international symphony orchestras, and appearing at leading concert halls, operatic venues and festivals. His repertoire then widened to include composers of the 19th and 20th centuries. In 2001 and 2003, he conducted the Vienna New Year's Concert. Harnoncourt was also the author of several books, mostly on subjects of performance history and musical aesthetics.
Graf de la Fontaine und d'Harnoncourt-Unverzagt
Harnoncourt in 1980
Johann Nikolaus Graf de la Fontaine und d'Harnoncourt-Unverzagt
6 December 1929
|Died||5 March 2016 86) (aged|
St Georgen im Attergau, Austria
|Organization||Concentus Musicus Wien|
|Known for||Pioneer of historically informed performance|
(1953-2016; his death)
|Children||4 children (including Elisabeth von Magnus)|
Harnoncourt was born Johann Nikolaus Graf de la Fontaine und d'Harnoncourt-Unverzagt in Berlin, Germany. His mother, Ladislaja Gräfin von Meran, Freiin von Brandhoven, was the great-granddaughter of the Habsburg Archduke Johann, the 13th child of the Emperor Leopold II, making him a descendant of various Holy Roman Emperors and other European royalty. His father, Eberhard de la Fontaine Graf d'Harnoncourt-Unverzagt, was an engineer working in Berlin who had two children from a previous marriage. Two years after Nikolaus's birth, his brother Philipp was born. The family eventually moved to Graz, where Eberhard had obtained a post in the state government (Landesregierung) of Styria.
If you didn't go there every Wednesday and Saturday, the Hitler Youth police would come, fetch you, cut your hair and toss you into a group with other difficult ones who were treated terribly.
Harnoncourt was a cellist with the Vienna Symphony from 1952 to 1969. In 1953, he founded the period-instrument ensemble Concentus Musicus Wien with his wife, Alice Hoffelner, whom he married that year. The Concentus Musicus Wien was dedicated to performances on period instruments, and by the 1970s his work with it had made him quite well known. He played the viola da gamba at this time, as well as the cello. For the Telefunken (later Teldec) label, Harnoncourt recorded a wide variety of the Baroque repertoire, beginning with the viol music of Henry Purcell, and extending to include works like Bach's The Musical Offering, Monteverdi's L'incoronazione di Poppea, and Rameau's Castor et Pollux. One of his final recordings with the Concentus Musicus Wien was of Beethoven's Symphonies Nos. 4 and 5.
One reason that Harnoncourt left the Vienna Symphony was to become a conductor. He made his conducting debut at La Scala, Milan, in 1970, leading a production of Monteverdi's Il ritorno d'Ulisse in patria.
In 1971, Harnoncourt started a joint project with conductor Gustav Leonhardt to record all of J. S. Bach's cantatas. The Teldec Bach cantata project was eventually completed in 1990 and was the only cantata cycle to use an all-male choir and soloist roster, with the exception of cantatas nos. 51 and 199, which were intended for a female soprano voice. He also made the first recordings in historically informed performance of Bach's Mass in B minor (1968) and St Matthew Passion (1970). In 2001 a critically acclaimed and Grammy Award winning recording of the St Matthew Passion with the Arnold Schoenberg Choir was released, which included the entire score of the piece in Bach's own hand on a CD-ROM. This was his third recording of the work.
Harnoncourt later performed with many other orchestras that played on modern instruments, but still with an eye on historical authenticity in terms of tempi and dynamics, among other things. He also expanded his repertoire, continuing to play the baroque works, but also championing the Viennese operetta repertoire. He made a benchmark recording of Beethoven's symphonies with the Chamber Orchestra of Europe (COE), and recorded Beethoven's piano concertos with Pierre-Laurent Aimard and the COE.
Harnoncourt was also a guest conductor of the Vienna Philharmonic and made several recordings with the orchestra. Between 1987 and 1991, he conducted four new productions of Mozart operas at the Vienna State Opera (1987–91: Idomeneo; 1988–90: Die Zauberflöte; 1989: Die Entführung aus dem Serail; 1989–91: Così fan tutte). He directed the Vienna Philharmonic's New Year's Day concerts in 2001 and 2003.
In 1992, Harnoncourt debuted at the Salzburg Festival conducting a concert with the Chamber Orchestra of Europe. In the following years, he led several concerts with the Chamber Orchestra of Europe, the Vienna Philharmonic and the Concentus Musicus. Harnoncourt also served as the conductor for major opera productions of the Festival: L'incoronazione di Poppea (1993), Mozart's Le nozze di Figaro (1995 and 2006), Don Giovanni (2002, marking also Anna Netrebko's international breakthrough as Donna Anna, and 2003) and La clemenza di Tito (2003 and 2006), and Purcell's King Arthur (2004). In 2012, Harnoncourt conducted a new production of Die Zauberflöte staged by Jens-Daniel Herzog.
Harnoncourt made his guest-conducting debut with the Concertgebouw Orchestra, Amsterdam, in 1975. He continued as a guest conductor with the orchestra, including in several opera productions and recordings. In October 2000, the Royal Concertgebouw Orchestra (KCO) named him their Honorair gastdirigent (Honorary Guest Conductor). His final appearance with the KCO was in October 2013, leading Bruckner's Symphony No. 5.
Other recordings outside of the baroque and classical era repertoire included his 2002 recording of Bruckner's Symphony No. 9 with the Vienna Philharmonic. An accompanying second CD contained a lecture by Harnoncourt about the symphony with musical examples, including the rarely heard fragments from the unfinished finale. In 2009, Harnoncourt recorded Gershwin's Porgy and Bess, taken from live performances at Graz.
On 5 December 2015, one day before his 86th birthday, Harnoncourt announced his retirement via his website. "My bodily strength requires me to cancel my future plans," he wrote in a hand-written letter inserted into the program on his 86th birthday of a concert by the Concentus Musicus Wien.
Harnoncourt met his wife Alice through their mutual interest in historically informed performances of Baroque music and co-founded the Concentus Musicus Wien. Their daughter is the mezzo-soprano Elisabeth von Magnus. Their two surviving sons are Philipp and Franz. Their third son Eberhard, a violin maker, died in 1990 in an automobile accident.
Harnoncourt died on 5 March 2016 in the village of Sankt Georgen im Attergau, north east of Salzburg. His widow Alice, their three adult children, seven grandchildren, and three great-grandchildren survive him.
- Erasmus Prize (Praemium Erasmianum Foundation, Netherlands, 1980)
- Joseph Marx Music Prize of the Province of Styria (1982)
- Austrian Cross of Honour for Science and Art, 1st class (1987)
- Honorary Membership of the Society of Music Friends in Vienna (1992)
- Léonie Sonning Music Prize (Denmark, 1993)
- Polar Music Prize (Sweden, 1994)
- Honorary Membership of the University of the Arts Graz (1995)
- Hanseatic Goethe Prize (1995)
- Robert Schumann Prize of the City of Zwickau (1997)
- Hans von Bülow Medal (Berlin, 1999)
- Honorary Guest Conductor of the Royal Concertgebouw Orchestra (Amsterdam, 2000)
- Grammy Award (2001)
- Ernst von Siemens Music Prize (Bavarian Academy of Fine Arts, 2002)
- Bremen Music Festival Prize (2002)
- Georg Philipp Telemann Prize (Magdeburg, 2004)
- Kyoto Prize for Lifetime Achievement (Japan, 2005)
- Grand Gold Decoration with Star of Styria (2005)
- Bach Medal (Leipzig, 2007)
- Austrian Decoration for Science and Art (2008)
- Honorary doctor (Mozarteum University Salzburg, 2008)
- Honorary Citizenship of Sankt Georgen im Attergau (2009)
- Gramophone Lifetime Achievement Award (London, 2009)
- Royal Philharmonic Society Gold Medal (2010)
- Honorary Doctorate from the University of Music and Dance Cologne (2011)
- Gold Medal for services to the city of Vienna (2011)(together with Alice Harnoncourt)
- Romano Guardini Prize (2012)
- Voted into the Gramophone Hall of Fame (London, 2012)
- Harnoncourt, Nikolaus (1983). Musik als Klangrede: Wege zu einem neuen Musikverständnis. Salzburg: Residenz Verlag. ISBN 978-3-7017-0315-9.
- Harnoncourt, Nikolaus (1993). Die Macht der Musik: Zwei Reden. Salzburg: Residenz Verlag. ISBN 978-3-7017-0827-7.
- Harnoncourt, Nikolaus; Pauly, Reinhard G. (1988). Baroque Music Today: Music As Speech. Portland, OR: Amadeus Press. ISBN 978-0-931340-91-8.
- Harnoncourt, Nikolaus (1997). The Musical Dialogue: Thoughts on Monteverdi, Bach, and Mozart. Portland, OR: Amadeus Press. ISBN 1-57467-023-9.
- Barry Millington (6 March 2016). "Nikolaus Harnoncourt obituary". The Guardian. Retrieved 6 March 2016.
- Munzinger-Archiv GmbH, Ravensburg. "Nikolaus Harnoncourt". Retrieved 6 March 2016.
- James R Oestreich (6 March 2016). "Nikolaus Harnoncourt, Conductor and Early-Music Specialist, Dies at 86". The New York Times. Retrieved 7 March 2016.
- Andrew Clements (18 April 2003). "Concentus Musicus Wien: A Celebration". The Guardian. Retrieved 12 August 2007.
- Wolff, Christoph (July 1972). "Reviews of Records, Johann Sebastian Bach: Musikalisches Opfer". The Musical Quarterly. 58 (3): 496–501. doi:10.1093/mq/LVIII.3.496. Retrieved 12 August 2007.
- Glover, Jane (1975). "Review of Monteverdi's L'incoronazione di Poppea". The Musical Times. 116 (1590): 715. doi:10.2307/960052. JSTOR 960052.
- Cyr, Mary (April 1973). "Reviews of Records, Rameau: Castor et Pollux". The Musical Quarterly. 59 (2): 328–333. doi:10.1093/mq/LIX.2.328. Retrieved 12 August 2007.
- Nicholas Kenyon (21 February 2016). "Beethoven: Symphonies 4 & 5 CD review – Harnoncourt bows out with blazing intensity". The Observer. Retrieved 6 March 2016.
- James R. Oestreich (2 March 2003). "Only the Best Follow His Beat". New York Times. Retrieved 13 October 2007.
- "Matthaus-Passion BWV 244 – conducted by Nikolaus Harnoncourt". Retrieved 6 March 2016.
- John Rockwell (17 November 1993). "Harnoncourt Gives Beethoven a Mild Jolt". New York Times. Retrieved 12 August 2007.
- Andrew Clements (28 February 2003). "Beethoven: Piano Concertos Nos 1 -5: Aimard/Chamber Orchestra of Europe/Harnoncourt". The Guardian. Retrieved 12 August 2007.
- Andrew Clements (2 October 2002). "Smetana: Ma Vlast". The Guardian. Retrieved 12 August 2007.
- Andrew Clements (24 October 2003). "Bruckner Symphony No 9: Vienna Philharmonic / Harnoncourt". The Guardian. Retrieved 12 August 2007.
- James R. Oestreich (2 January 2003). "A New Year Comes to Old Vienna". New York Times. Retrieved 12 August 2007.
- Gotoh, Nahoko (10 August 2012). "A visually brilliant but serious Zauberflöte at the Salzburg Festival". Bachtrack Ltd. Retrieved 6 March 2016.
- Andrew Clements (23 May 2003). "Dvorak: The Golden Spinning Wheel; The Noon Witch; The Water Goblin; The Wild Dove: Royal Concertgebouw Orchestra/ Harnoncourt". The Guardian. Retrieved 12 August 2007.
- "Austrian conductor Nikolaus Harnoncourt dies at 86". BBC. 6 March 2016. Retrieved 6 March 2016.
- "31 Jahre styriarte mit Nikolaus Harnoncourt" (in German). Styriarte. 2016. Retrieved 21 September 2017.
- James R. Oestreich (20 November 1996). "Following His Fixations, Early Music to Whatever". New York Times. Retrieved 29 March 2016.
- Klapper, Bradley; Jahn, George (6 March 2016). "Austrian Conductor Nikolaus Harnoncourt Dies at 86". ABC News. Associated Press. Retrieved 6 March 2016.
- "Former Laureates: Nikolaus Harnoncourt 1980". Praemium Erasmianum Foundation. Retrieved 8 March 2016.
- Ableitinger, Alfred (2002). Steiermark: die Überwindung der Peripherie (in German). Vienna: Bohlau. p. 590. ISBN 9783205992172. Retrieved 8 March 2016.
- "Reply to a parliamentary question" (PDF) (in German). p. 802. Retrieved 12 December 2012.
- Merk, Beate (12 May 2012). "Grußwort der Staatsministerin Dr. Beate Merk anlässlich der Verleihung des Romano Guardini Preises am 10. Mai 2012 in München" (PDF) (in German). Die Bayerische Staatsministerin der Justiz und für Verbraucherschutz Dr. Beate Merk. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 March 2016. Retrieved 8 March 2016.
- "Léonie Sonning Awards 1993 Nikolaus Harnoncourt". Léonie onning Music Prize. Retrieved 8 March 2016.
- "Nikolaus Harnoncourt Laureate of the Polar Music Prize 1994". Polar Music Prize. Retrieved 8 March 2016.
- "Die Kunstuniversität Graz trauert um ihr Ehrenmitglied Nikolaus Harnoncourt" (in German). Art University of Graz. 7 March 2016. Retrieved 8 March 2016.
- "Weitere Ehrendoktorwürde für Harnoncourt" (in German). Klassik.com. Retrieved 8 March 2016.
- "Preisträger" (in German). Schumann in Zwickau. Retrieved 8 March 2016.
- Fuhrmann, Wolfgang (31 March 2000). "Nikolaus Harnoncourt und die Berliner Philharmoniker Wenn Bruckner ganz nach Bruckner klingt". Berliner Zeitung (in German). Retrieved 8 March 2016.
- "Past Winners Search". Grammy. Retrieved 8 March 2016.
- "Archiv: Hauptpreisträger" (in German). Ernst von Siemens Musikstiftung. Retrieved 8 March 2016.
- "History". Musik Fest Bremen. Retrieved 8 March 2016.
- "Telemann-Preis für Nikolaus Harnoncourt". MDR (in German). 14 March 2004. Retrieved 8 March 2016.
- "Star conductor Nikolaus Harnoncourt wins Kyoto Prize". Kyocera. 10 June 2005. Retrieved 8 March 2016.
- "Groß Gold mit Stern für Nikolaus Harnoncourt" (in German). Steiermark.at. Retrieved 8 March 2016.
- "Bach-medaille voor dirigent Nikolaus Harnoncourt". NRC (in Dutch). 11 June 2007. Retrieved 8 March 2016.
- "Reply to a parliamentary question" (PDF) (in German). p. 1840. Retrieved 12 December 2012.
- "Lifetime Achievement. Pierre-Laurent Aimard pays tribute to Nikolaus Harnoncourt, a true visionary". Gramophone. Retrieved 8 March 2016.
- "Nikolaus Harnoncourt". Royal Philharmonic Society. Retrieved 8 March 2016.
- "Goldenes Ehrenzeichen für Alice und Nikolaus Harnoncourt" (in German). Wien.at. 30 March 2011. Retrieved 8 March 2016.
- "Nikolaus Harnoncourt (conductor and cellist)". Gramophone. Retrieved 10 April 2012.
- Gratzer, Wolfgang (ed.) (2009). Ereignis Klangrede. Nikolaus Harnoncourt als Dirigent und Musikdenker (klang-reden 3), Freiburg/Br.: Rombach. ISBN 978-3-7930-9551-4
- Official catalogue Nikolaus Harnoncourt. Die Universität Mozarteum Salzburg ehrt den Dirigenten und Musikdenker. Salzburg: Universität Mozarteum 2008
- Official website
- November 2000 Interview with Norman Lebrecht
- Royal Concertgebouw Orchestra page on Nikolaus Harnoncourt
- Warner Classics page on Nikolaus Harnoncourt
- John Rockwell: Recordings; Harnoncourt's Mozart shows steady growth The New York Times, 1 April 1990
- 'Descendants of Archduke Johann of Austria', web page of Hein Bruns
- Memorial service notice for Nikolaus Harnoncourt, 18 March 2016 (Graz) and 19 March 2016 (Vienna)