|Iwi (tribe) in Māoridom|
The Northland Peninsula
|Waka (canoe)||Māmari, Ngātokimatawhaorua, Māhūhū, Ruakaramea, Tainui|
Despite such diversity, the people of Ngāpuhi maintain their shared history and self-identity. The iwi is administered by Te Rūnanga ā Iwi o Ngāpuhi, based in Kaikohe. The Rūnanga acts on behalf of the iwi in consultations with the New Zealand Government. It also ensures the equitable distribution of benefits from the 1992 settlement with the Government, and undertakes resource management and education initiatives.
The founding ancestor of Ngāpuhi is Rāhiri, the son of Tauramoko and Te Hauangiangi. Tauramoko was a descendant of Kupe, from Matawhaorua, and Nukutawhiti, of the Ngātokimatawhaorua canoe. Te Hauangiangi was the daughter of Puhi, who captained the Mataatua canoe northwards from the Bay of Plenty. Rāhiri was born at Whiria pā, near Opononi in the Hokianga. The early tribes led by Rāhiri's descendants lived in the Hokianga, Kaikohe and Pouerua areas.
Through intermarriage with other iwi and expansionist land migration, the descendants of Rāhiri formed tribes across the Northland peninsula. These actions also fostered ties with neighbouring iwi. Auha and Whakaaria, for example, led expansion eastward from Kaikohe and Pouērua into the Bay of Islands area, overrunning and often intermarrying with Ngāi Tāhuhu, Ngāti Manaia, Te Wahineiti and Ngāti Miru. These tribes in the east were the first to use the name Ngāpuhi. As the eastern and western groups merged, the name came to describe all the tribes settled in the Hokianga and Bay of Islands. In the late 1700s and early 1800s the Ngāpuhi tribes pushed further east through the southern Bay of Islands to the open coast, absorbing tribes such as Ngāti Manu, Te Kapotai, Te Uri o Rata, Ngare Raumati and Ngātiwai.
Hosting the first Christian mission
Ruatara was chief of the Ngāpuhi from 1812 to his death in 1815. In 1814, he invited the Rev. Samuel Marsden to set up the first ever Christian mission in New Zealand on Ngāpuhi land. The presence of these influential Pakeha secured Ruatara's access to European plants, technology and knowledge, which he distributed to other Māori, thus increasing his mana. After the death of Ruatara, his uncle Hongi Hika became protector of the mission.
Thomas Kendall, John King, and William Hall, missionaries of the Church Missionary Society, founded the first mission station in Oihi Bay (a small cove in the north-east of Rangihoua Bay) in the Bay of Islands in 1814 and over the next decades established farms and schools in the area. In 1823 Rev. Henry Williams and his wife Marianne established a mission station at Paihia on land owned by Ana Hamu, the wife of Te Koki. In 1826 Henry's brother William and his wife Jane joined the CMS mission at Paihia. Marianne and Jane Williams established schools for the Ngāpuhi. William Williams lead the CMS missionaries in the translation of the Bible and other Christian literature; with the first chapters of the Māori Bible being printed at Paihia by William Colenso in 1827. The missionaries did not succeed in converting a single Māori until 1830 when Rawiri Taiwhanga (1818–1874), a Ngāpuhi chief, was baptised. Ruatara and Hongi Hika themselves welcomed the missionaries' presence, but did not convert. Hōne Heke attended the CMS mission school at Kerikeri and Heke and his wife Ono, were baptised in 1835.
By the early 19th century, the Bay of Islands had become a prominent shipping port in New Zealand. Through increased trade with Europeans, initiated by Ruatara, Ngāpuhi gained greater access to European weapons, including muskets. Armed with European firearms, Ngapuhi, led by Hongi Hika, launched a series of expansionist campaigns, with resounding slaughters across Northland and in the Waikato and Bay of Plenty.
The United Tribes of New Zealand and the Declaration of Independence
On 28 October 1835 various Northland chiefs, primarily from the Ngapuhi tribe, met at Waitangi with British resident James Busby and signed the Declaration of Independence of New Zealand, proclaiming the United Tribes of New Zealand. In 1836, the Crown received and recognized the United Tribes independence under King William IV. By 1839, 52 chiefs from around Northland and central North Island had signed the Declaration, including most Ngāpuhi chiefs and Pōtatau Te Wherowhero, ariki of the Tainui tribes of the Waikato (iwi).
The Northern War / Flagstaff War
In 1840, the Ngāpuhi chiefs were all signatories to the Treaty of Waitangi. However, from 1845–1846, Ngāpuhi fought against the British Crown over treaty disputes and European encroachment and interference. The Māori forces were led by Te Ruki Kawiti and Hōne Heke, who instigated the war when he chopped down the flagpole at Kororāreka to commence what is sometimes called the Flagstaff War. The British did not fight alone but had Ngāpuhi allies; Tāmati Wāka Nene had given the government assurances of the good behaviour of the Ngāpuhi and he felt that Hōne Heke had betrayed his trust in instigating the Flagstaff War.
The outcome of the Flagstaff War is a matter of some debate. Although the war was widely lauded as a British victory, it is clear that the outcome was somewhat more complex, even contentious. The flagstaff which had proved so controversial was not re-erected by the colonial government. Whilst the Bay of Islands and Hokianga was still nominally under British influence, the fact that the Government's flag was not re-erected was symbolically very significant. Such significance was not lost on Henry Williams, who, writing to E. G. Marsh on 28 May 1846, stating that "the flag-staff in the Bay is still prostrate, and the natives here rule. These are humiliating facts to the proud Englishman, many of whom thought they could govern by a mere name."
The flagstaff that now stands at Kororareka was erected in January 1858 at the direction of Kawiti's son Maihi Paraone Kawiti; the symbolism of the erection of the fifth flagstaff at Kororareka by the Ngāpuhi warriors who had conducted the Flagstaff War, and not by government decree, indicates the colonial government did not want to risk any further confrontation with the Ngāpuhi.
In a symbolic act, the 400 Ngāpuhi warriors involved in preparing and erecting the flagpole were selected from the ‘rebel’ forces of Kawiti and Heke – that is, Ngāpuhi from the hapū of Tāmati Wāka Nene (who had fought as allies of the British forces during the Flagstaff War), observed, but did not participate in the erection of the fifth flagpole. The restoration of the flagpole was presented by Maihi Paraone Kawiti was a voluntary act on the part of the Ngāpuhi that had cut it down on 11 March 1845, and they would not allow any other to render any assistance in this work.
The legacy of Kawiti's rebellion during the Flagstaff War was that during the time of Governor Grey and Governor Thomas Gore Browne, the colonial administrators were obliged to take account of opinions of the Ngāpuhi before taking action in the Hokianga and Bay of Islands. The continuing symbolism of the fifth flagpole at Kororareka is that it exists because of the goodwill of the Ngāpuhi.
The Waitangi Tribunal in The Te Roroa Report 1992 (Wai 38) state that "[a]fter the war in the north, government policy was to place a buffer zone of European settlement between Ngapuhi and Auckland. This matched Ngati Whatua's desire to have more settlers and townships, a greater abundance of trade goods and protection from Ngapuhi, their traditional foe."
Notwithstanding the achievements of Te Ruki Kawiti and Hōne Heke in pushing back colonial government control over the Ngāpuhi, in the years after the Flagstaff War over 2,000 km² of Ngāpuhi land was alienated from Māori control. A significant transfer of land occurred in 1857/1858 when Maihi Paraone Kawiti, the son of Te Ruki Kawiti, arranged for the fifth flagpole to be erected at Kororareka. The flagpole was intended as a signal to Governor Thomas Gore Browne, that Maihi did not follow his father's path. Tawai Kawiti described the circumstances of the offer of land as being "[a]s a whariki” (or mat) for the flag to repose on, Maihi offered to the Governor all lands between Karetu and Moerewa to north of Waiomio and as far south as the Ruapekapeka Pa. This offer was accepted but was paid for at half the value.
20th and 21st century
Amidst cultural and economic decline, the twentieth century saw a steady migration of Ngāpuhi Māori from Northland into other regions of the North Island, mainly Auckland, Waikato and the Bay of Plenty. In part, this has seen the organisation of Ngāpuhi into large geographic and urban divisions.
'"Kia tū tika ai te whare tapu o Ngāpuhi"'
May the sacred house of Ngāpuhi always stand firm— Ngāpuhi motto
Waitangi Tribunal - Te Paparahi o te Raki (Wai 1040)
In 2010 the Waitangi Tribunal began hearings into the Ngāpuhi's claim that sovereignty was not given up in their signing of the Treaty of Waitangi. The Tribunal, in Te Paparahi o te Raki inquiry (Wai 1040), is considering the Māori and Crown understandings of He Whakaputanga o te Rangatiratanga / The Declaration of Independence 1835 and Te Tiriti o Waitangi / the Treaty of Waitangi 1840.
Many of the arguments used were outlined in Paul Moon's 2002 book Te Ara Ki Te Tiriti: The Path to the Treaty of Waitangi, which argued that not only did the Māori signatories have no intention of transferring sovereignty, but that at the time the British government and James Busby did not wish to acquire it and that the developments and justifications leading to the present state were later developments. A common Ngāpuhi interpretation of the Declaration of the United Tribes is that the British government was simply recognizing Māori independence and putting the world on check, merely re-asserting sovereignty that had existed from "time immemorial".
The Te Paparahi o Te Raki stage 1 inquiry hearings phase was intended to reach conclusions as to the meaning and effect of the treaty for the Crown and Te Raki Māori in 1840. Hearings began in May 2010 and on 14 November 2014, the Te Raki stage 1 report handover took place at Te Tii Marae, Waitangi.
The key conclusion of the stage 1 report was that the treaty signatories did not cede sovereignty in February 1840. "That is, they did not cede authority to make and enforce law over their people or their territories." The rangatira did, however, agree "to share power and authority with Britain".
The consequences of the findings in the stage 1 report are being considered in the Te Raki stage 2 inquiry, with the Tribunal hearings considering issues including the immediate aftermath of the Treaty of Waitangi, the Northern War (1844–46) and Crown pre-emption (the right of the Crown to acquire Māori land that is addressed in the treaty).
Hapū and marae
The Ngāpuhi hapū (sub-tribes) of the east coast include:
- Ngā Uri o Puhatahi, of Omauri marae
- Ngāti Hao, of Pehiaweri and Whakapara marae
- Ngāti Hau, of Akerama, Ngāraratunua, Pehiaweri and Whakapara marae
- Ngāti Hine, of Ngārartunua marae
- Ngāti Kahu o Torongare, of Ngāraratunua marae
- Te Parawhau, of Ngāraratunua, Pehiaweri and Toetoe marae
- Te Patuharakeke, of Takahiwai marae
- Te Uriroroi, of Pehiaweri and Toetoe marae
- Uri o Te Tangata, of Te Kotahitanga Marae o Otangarei and Terenga Parāoa marae
The Ngāpuhi hapū (sub-tribes) of the area around Pākotai include:
- Ngāti Horahia Parahaki, of Parahaki, Parakao, Te Oruoru and Te Tārai o Rāhiri marae
- Ngāti Moe, of Parakao, Te Oruoru and Te Tārai o Rāhiri marae
- Ngāti Te Rino, of Maungārongo, Parahaki, Parakao, Te Oruoru and Te Tārai o Rāhiri marae
- Ngāti Toki, of Parahaki, Parakao, Te Oruoru marae and Te Tārai o Rāhiri marae
- Ngāti Whakahotu, of Parahaki marae
- Ngāti Whakaminenga, of Te Kiore marae
- Te Kumutu, of Parahaki and Te Oruoru marae
- Te Parawhau, of Korokota, Maungārongo, Parakao and Tangiterōria marae
- Te Uriroroi, of Maungārongo and Tangiterōria marae
The Ngāpuhi hapū (sub-tribes) of the area south of Kaikohe include:
- Ngāi Tāwake, of Pukerātā marae
- Ngāi Tāwake ki te Waoku, of Kaingahoa, Ngāi Tāwake and Paripari marae
- Ngaitu te Auru, of Pukerātā marae
- Ngāti Hine, of Te Hūruhi marae
- Ngāti Hinemutu, of Parihaka and Ōkorihi marae
- Ngāti Kura, of Kohewhata and Te Kotahitanga marae
- Ngāti Māhia, of Te Hūruhi and Ururangi marae
- Ngāti Moerewa, of Te Hungāiti, Te Maata and Te Rīngi marae
- Ngāti Rangi, of Kaingahoa, Te Hungāiti and Te Maata marae
- Ngāti Tautahi, of Parihaka, Te Kotahitanga and Ōkorihi marae
- Ngāti Ueoneone, of Ōkorihi marae
- Ngāti Whakaeke, of Te Kotahitanga marae
- Takoto Kē, of Kohewhata and Te Kotahitanga marae
- Te Uri o Hua, of Kohewhata and Te Kotahitanga marae
Inner Hokianga Harbour
The Ngāpuhi hapū (sub-tribes) of the inner Hokianga Harbour include:
- Kōhatutaka, of Mangamuka and Te Arohanui Mangataipa marae
- Ngāi Tāwake ki te Moana, of Mokonuiārangi Piki te Aroha Rāhiri, Puketawa and Tauratumaru marae
- Ngāi Tāwake ki te Tuawhenua, of Piki te Aroha Rāhiri marae
- Ngāti Hao, of Paremata, Piki te Aroha Rāhiri, Puketawa and Tauratumaru marae
- Ngāti Toro, of Mataitaua, Mokonuiārangi, Paremata, Piki te Aroha Rāhiri, Puketawa and Rangatahi marae
- Te Honihoni, of Puketawa and Tauratumaru marae
- Te Ngahengahe Mokonuiārangi, of Mokonuiārangi and Rangatahi marae
- Te Popoto, of Rangatahi and Tauratumaru marae
- Te Uri Māhoe, of Mangamuka and Te Arohanui marae
The Ngāpuhi hapū (sub-tribes) of the west coast include:
- Ngāti Hau, of Te Pīti marae
- Ngāti Kairewa, of Mātai Aranui, Mōria and Pā te Aroha marae
- Ngāti Kerewheti, of Mātai Aranui, Mōria and Pā te Aroha marae
- Ngāti Korokoro, of Kōkōhuia, Pākanae, Te Whakamaharatanga Waimamaku and Waiwhatawhata Aotea marae
- Ngāti Pākau, of Māhuri and Tāheke marae
- Ngāti Rauwawe, of Tāheke marae
- Ngāti Te Pou, of Kōkōhuia Ōmāpere, Mātai Aranui, Mōria, Pā te Aroha, Te Pīti Ōmanaia, Te Whakamaharatanga Waimamaka marae
- Ngāti Toro, of Mataitaua, Mokonuiārangi, Motukiore, Paremata, Piki te Aroha Rāhiri, Rangatahi and Tauratumaru marae
- Ngāti Tuapangom, of Matahuru Papakainga, Mōria and Pā te Aroha marae
- Ngāti Whārara, of Kōkōhuia Ōmāpere, Pākana, and Waiwhatawhata Aotea marae
- Te Hikutu, of Mātai Aranui, Mōria and Pā te Aroha marae
- Māhurehure, of Māhuri, Moehau, Arohamauora, Ōtātara, Tāheke and Tuhirangi marae
- Te Ngahengahe Mokonuiārangi, of Mokonuiārangi, Motukiore and Rangatahi marae
- Te Poukā, of Kōkōhuia Ōmāpere, Pākanae and Waiwhatawhata Aotea marae
- Te Whānau Whero, of Mātai Aranui, Mōria and Pā te Aroha marae
- Ngāti Wai
Western Bay of Islands
The Ngāpuhi hapū (sub-tribes) of western and northern Bay of Islands include:
- Ngāi Tāwake, of Tauwhara marae
- Ngāti Hineira Parawhenua, of Parawhenua, Rāwhitiroa (Te Ahuahu), and Tauwhara marae
- Ngāti Kawa, of Oromāhoe marae, Te Tii Waitangi lower marae, Waitangi National upper marae
- Ngāti Kiriahi Ngāwhā, of E Koro Kia Tutuki marae
- Ngāti Korohue Parawhenua, of Parawhenua marae
- Ngāti Kura, of Mātauri (Te Tāpui) marae
- Ngāti Mau, of Ngāwhā and Wharengaere marae
- Ngāti Miru, of Mātauri (Te Tāpui) marae
- Ngati Moko, of Waitangi National upper marae
- Ngāti Rāhiri, of Oromāhoe, Te Tii Waitangi lower marae, and Waitangi National upper marae
- Ngāti Rangi, of Ngāwhā marae
- Ngāti Rēhia, of Hiruhārama Hou, Korokota, Mātoa, Maungārongo, Tākou, Tauwhara and Whitiora marae
- Ngati Ruamahue, of Piapia, Wainui, Mahinepua, Whangaihe and Ngati Ruamahue marae
- Ngāti Tautahi Tākou, of Te Whetū Marama marae
- Ngāti Tawake ki te Tuawhenua, of Tauwhara marae
- Ngāti Torehina, of Wharengaere marae
- Ngāti Tūpango Tākou, of Te Whetū Marama marae
- Ngāti Whakaeke, of Mātoa and Tākou marae
- Te Kapotai, of Kororareka, Rāwhitiroa (Te Ahuahu) and Waikare (Te Tūruki) marae
- Te Māhurehure, of Te Raukura marae
- Te Popoto, of Rangatahi and Rāwhitiroa (Te Ahuahu) marae
- Te Uri o Hawato, of Ngāwhā and Kaikou marae
- Te Uri Taniwha, of Ngāwhā, Parawhenua and Rāwhitiroa (Te Ahuahu) marae
- Te Whanauwhero, of Parawhenua marae
- Whānautara, of Tauwhara marae
- Ngāti Wai, Of Aotea
Eastern Bay of Islands
The Ngāpuhi hapū (sub-tribes) of eastern and southern Bay of Islands include:
- Ngāti Kuta, of Te Rāwhiti marae
- Ngāti Manu, of Kāretu Pākaru-ki te Rangi marae
- Ngāti Pare, of Te Tūruki marae
- Patukeha, of Kaingahoa Rāwhiti and Te Rāwhiti Omakiwi marae
- Te Kapotai, of Kororareka, Waihaahaa and Waikare Te Tūruki marae
- Te Rauwera, of Te Rauwera marae
- Te Uri Karaka Kāretu, of Ngāti Manu marae
- Te Uri Ongaonga, of Waimangaro
The hapū (sub-tribes) of Ngāti Hine takiwā (district) include:
- Ngāti Hine of Horomanga, Kaikou, Kawiti, Matawaia, Maungārongo, Miria, Mohinui, Mōtatau, Ōtiria, Parakao, Tau Henare, Te Rito, Tere Awatea, Ngāti Kahu o Torongare, Ngāti Kōpaki, Ngāti Ngāherehere, Ngāti Te Ara, Ngāti Te Tāwera, Te Kau i Mua and Te Orewai marae
- Ngāti Kahu o Torongare, of Mohinui marae
- Ngāti Kōpaki, of Ōtiria marae
- Ngāti Ngāherehere, of Matawaia marae
- Ngāti Te Ara, of Ōtiria marae
- Ngāti Te Tāwera, of Mōtatau marae
- Te Kau i Mua, of Matawaia marae
- Te Orewai, of Tau Henare marae
Notable Ngāpuhi people
- Ihaia Te Ahu
- Willie Apiata
- Fred Baker
- Marama Davidson
- Kelvin Davis
- Abby Erceg
- Sid Going
- Ana Hamu
- Hōne Heke
- Hongi Hika
- Moka Te Kainga-mataa
- Te Ruki Kawiti
- Maihi Paraone Kawiti
- Matt McCarten
- Anika Moa
- Tāmati Wāka Nene
- Te Pahi
- Eruera Maihi Patuone
- Pōmare I
- Pōmare II
- Rachael Rakena (1969- )
- Rawiri Taiwhanga
- Te Whareumu
- "TKM Ngāpuhi". tkm.govt.nz. Te Puni Kōkiri, New Zealand Government. Retrieved 2 March 2018.
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- Carleton, Hugh (1874). "Vol. I". The Life of Henry Williams. Early New Zealand Books (ENZB), University of Auckland Library.
- Fitzgerald, Caroline (2004). Marianne Williams: Letters from the Bay of Islands. Penguin Books, New Zealand. p. 62. ISBN 0-14-301929-5.
- Rogers, Lawrence M. (1973). Te Wiremu: A Biography of Henry Williams. Pegasus Press. p. 55.
- Fitzgerald, Caroline (2011). Te Wiremu: Henry Williams – Early Years in the North. Huia Publishers, New Zealand. pp. 25, 39–40. ISBN 978-1-86969-439-5.
- Orange, Claudia & Ormond Wilson. 'Taiwhanga, Rawiri fl. 1818 – 1874'. in: Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, updated 22 June 2007
- Missionary Impact > 'A high profile conversion' by Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa
- James Belich, Making Peoples; A History of the New Zealanders, 1996, ISBN 0-8248-2517-9, pp.141-168.
- "The Te Roroa Report 1992 (Wai 38)". Waitangi Tribunal. 1992. Archived from the original on 3 November 2011. Retrieved 3 October 2011.
- "Treaty events 1800-49 - Treaty timeline". Treaty events 1800-49 - Treaty timeline. New Zealand History online. Retrieved 6 September 2011.
- "OFFICIAL DESPATCHES. Colonial Secretary's Office, Auckland, January 17, 1846". New Zealander, Volume 1, Issue 34. 24 January 1846. p. 4. Retrieved 17 September 2011.
- Carleton, Hugh (1874). "Vol. II". The Life of Henry Williams. Early New Zealand Books (ENZB), University of Auckland Library. pp. 137–8.
- James Belich, The New Zealand Wars, p.70
- Carleton, Hugh (1874). "Vol. II". The Life of Henry Williams. Early New Zealand Books (ENZB), University of Auckland Library. pp. 328–331.
- The Te Roroa Report 1992 (Wai 38), Waitangi Tribunal (1992) Chapter 1, Section 1.1. p 8
- Kawiti, Tawai (October 1956). "Heke's war in the North". Te Ao Hou / The New World. Maori Affairs Department (16): 38–46. Retrieved 10 October 2012.
- Events of August 2004 may have the effect of recognising Ngāti Hine as an independent iwi rather than a hapū of Ngāpuhi.
- Field, Michael. "Hearing starts into Ngapuhi's claims". Stuff.co.nz. Fairfax New Zealand. Retrieved 6 September 2011.
- Te Paparahi o Te Raki (Northland) Te Paparahi o Te Raki (Northland) inquiry, Waitangi Tribunal
- "Book lies at the heart of Ngapuhi's sovereignty". NZNewsUK. New Zealand News Online. Retrieved 6 September 2011.
- "Joshua Hitchcock sets the record straight regarding Ngapuhi, sovereignty, and legal pluralism in New Zealand". Settler Colonial Studies Blog. 3 August 2010. Retrieved 6 September 2011.
- "Te Manutukutuku (Issue 67)". Waitangi Tribunal. February 2015. Retrieved 25 July 2015.
- "Te Paparahi o Te Raki (Northland) (Wai 1040) Volume 1" (PDF). Waitangi Tribunal. 2014. Retrieved 25 July 2015.
- "Te Paparahi o Te Raki (Northland) (Wai 1040) Volume 2" (PDF). Waitangi Tribunal. 2014. Retrieved 25 July 2015.
- "Report on Stage 1 of the Te Paparahi o Te Raki Inquiry Released". Waitangi Tribunal. 2014. Retrieved 25 July 2015.
- "TKM Te Rūnanga o Ngāti Hine". tkm.govt.nz. Te Puni Kōkiri, New Zealand Government. Retrieved 2 March 2018.
- "Iwi Radio Coverage" (PDF). maorimedia.co.nz. Māori Media Network. 2007. Retrieved 14 June 2015.
- Koti, Tepara. "Fire engulfs Tautoko FM in Mangamuka". Te Kaea. Māori Television. Retrieved 14 June 2015.