Next Japanese general election

The 49th general election of members of the House of Representatives (Japanese: 第49回衆議院議員総選挙, Hepburn: dai-yonjūkyūkai Shūgiin giin sōsenkyo) is scheduled on or before 22 October 2021, as required by the Constitution of Japan. Voting will take place in all Representatives constituencies of Japan including proportional blocks, in order to appoint Members of Diet to seats in the House of Representatives, the lower house of the National Diet of Japan. As the cabinet has to resign after a general House of Representatives election in the first post-election Diet session (Constitution, Article 70), the lower house election will also lead to a new designation election of the Prime Minister in the Diet, and the appointment of a new cabinet (even if the same ministers are re-appointed).

Next Japanese general election

On or before 22 October 2021

All 465 seats to the House of Representatives of Japan
233 seats needed for a majority
Opinion polls
Leader Shinzō Abe Yukio Edano Yuichiro Tamaki
Party Liberal Democratic Constitutional Democratic Democratic for the People
Leader since 26 September 2012 2 October 2017 7 May 2018
Leader's seat Yamaguchi-4th Saitama-5th Kagawa-2nd
Last election 284 seats, 33.28% 55 seats, 19.88% New party[lower-alpha 1]
Current seats 283 68 40
Seats needed 165 193

Leader Natsuo Yamaguchi Kazuo Shii Ichirō Matsui
Party Komeito Communist Ishin
Leader since 8 September 2009 24 November 2000 2 November 2015
Leader's seat Not contesting
Minami-Kantō PR Not contesting
(Mayor of Osaka)
Last election 29 seats, 12.51% 12 seats, 7.90% 11 seats, 6.07%
Current seats 29 12 11
Seats needed 204 221 N/A[lower-alpha 2]

Leader Seiji Mataichi Shigefumi Matsuzawa Takashi Tachibana
Party Social Democratic Kibō Protect the People from NHK
Leader since 25 February 2018 7 May 2018 17 June 2013
Leader's seat Not contesting
Not contesting
Last election 2 seats, 1.69% New party[lower-alpha 3] Did not contest
Current seats 2 2 1
Seats needed 231 231 232

Parliamentary districts not including proportional blocks

Incumbent Prime Minister

Shinzō Abe
Liberal Democratic

Election date

Under the post-occupation interpretation of Article 7 of the Constitution, the cabinet may instruct the Emperor to dissolve the House of Representatives before the end of term at will. Elections must be held within 40 days after dissolution.

The only time in postwar history that the House of Representatives was not dissolved before the end of its term was in 1976. If the House of Representatives completes a full four-year term, the election must be held within 30 days before that.[1]

Current composition

Composition of the House of Representatives of Japan (as of 1 October 2019 before 200th National Diet)[2]
In-House Groups
[innai] kaiha
Parties Representatives
Liberal Democratic Party
Jiyūminshutō・mushozoku no kai
(lit. "Liberal Democratic Party/Association of Independents")
LDP, independents 285
The Constitutional Democratic Party of Japan, Democratic Party For the People, The Reviewing Group on Social Security Policy, and the Independent
Rikken-minshu・Kokumin・Shaho・mushozoku fōramu
("Constitutional Democratic/People's/Soc[ial]-Sec[urity]/Independent Forum")
CDP, DPFP, SDP, independents 120
Kōmeitō 29
Japanese Communist Party
Nihon Kyōsantō
JCP 12
Nippon Ishin (Japan Innovation Party)
Nippon Ishin no Kai
Ishin 11
  The Party of Hope
Kibō no Tō
Kibō 2
Members not affiliated with a parliamentary group/non-inscrits
LDP (Speaker), CDP (Vice-Speaker), N-Koku, independents 6
Total 465

Opinion polls

See also


  1. Democratic Party merged with Kibō no Tō in May 2018, forming the Democratic Party for the People.
  2. The party only runs candidates in Osaka Prefecture, and as such is unable to obtain enough seats for a majority alone.
  3. After the DPFP merger, Kibō was re-established in a new form.


  1. "公職選挙法".
  2. House of Representatives: Strength of the In-House Groups in the House of Representatives (Japanese original which is updated more frequently and also contains lists of individual members for each group), retrieved 16 October, 2019.
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