Newspaper of record
A newspaper of record is a major newspaper that has a large circulation and whose editorial and news-gathering functions are considered authoritative. A newspaper of record may also be a publicly available newspaper that has been authorised or maintained by a government to publish public or legal notices, and therefore serves as a "newspaper of public record".
Newspapers of public record
A "newspaper of public record", sometimes referred to as an "official newspaper", refers to a publicly available newspaper that has been authorized by a government to publish public or legal notices. It is often established by statute or official action and publication of notices within it, whether by the government or a private party, is usually considered sufficient to comply with legal requirements for public notice.
In some jurisdictions, privately owned newspapers may register with the public authorities to publish public and legal notices, or be otherwise eligible to publish said notices (terms used may include "newspaper of general circulation" among others). Likewise, a private newspaper may be designated by the courts for publication of legal notices, such as notices of fictitious business names. These are sometimes referred to as "legally adjudicated newspapers".
A variation of newspapers of public record are those newspapers controlled by governments or political parties that serve as official newspapers reflecting the positions of their controlling bodies. State organs such as the Soviet-era Izvestia (the name of which translates to "delivered messages", derived from the verb izveshchat which means "to inform", "to notify") and the People's Daily in China are examples of this type.
Newspapers of record (by reputation)
The second type of "newspaper of record" (also known as a "journal of record", or by the French term presse de référence) is not defined by any formal criteria and its characteristics can be variable. The category typically consists of those newspapers that are considered to meet higher standards of journalism than most print media, including editorial independence and attention to accuracy, and are usually renowned internationally. Despite changes in society, such newspapers have historically tended to maintain a similar tone, coverage, style, and traditions.
Origin of the term
The term is believed to have originated among librarians, who began referring to The New York Times as the "newspaper of record" when, in 1913, it became the first U.S. newspaper to publish an index of the subjects covered in its pages. In recognition of the usage, the Times held an essay contest in 1927 in which entrants had to demonstrate "The Value of The New York Times Index and Files as a Newspaper of Record". The Times, and other newspapers of its type, then sought to be chroniclers of events, acting as a record of the day's announcements, schedules, directories, proceedings, transcripts and appointments. The Times no longer considers itself a newspaper of record in the original, literal sense.
Over time, historians began to rely on The New York Times and similar titles as a reliable archival record of significant past events and a gauge of societal opinions at the time of printing. The term "newspaper of record" thus evolved from its original literal sense to its currently understood meaning.
|Country||Newspaper||City of publication||Founded||Language||Source(s)|
|Argentina||La Nación||Buenos Aires||1870||Spanish|
|The Sydney Morning Herald||Sydney||1831||English|
Staff split in 1864 to form Neue Freie Presse, aryanized by the Nazis in 1938 and closed in 1939, reestablished as Die Presse in 1946
|Bangladesh||—||The Daily Star||Dhaka||1991||English|
Incorporated in 1914, but publication delayed due to the First World War.
|Bolivia||—||El Diario||La Paz||1904||Spanish|
|Brazil||O Estado de S. Paulo||São Paulo||1875||Portuguese|
|Folha de S.Paulo||São Paulo||1921||Portuguese|
|O Globo||Rio de Janeiro||1925||Portuguese|
|The Globe and Mail||Toronto||1844
Successor to The Globe (founded 1844), The Toronto Mail (1872) and Toronto Empire (1887); papers merged in 1895 and 1936
Spun off from El Mercurio de Valparaíso (founded 1827)
Le Figaro is France's oldest national newspaper still operating to this date.
Founded as a successor to the discredited collaborationist Le Temps (founded 1861).
|Germany||Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung||Frankfurt||1949
Considered a successor to the Frankfurter Zeitung (founded 1856), banned in 1943 by the Nazis
|Hong Kong||South China Morning Post||Hong Kong||1903||English|
|The Times of India||Mumbai||1838
Named The Bombay Times and Journal of Commerce until mergers in 1860–1.
|Ireland||The Irish Times||Dublin||1859||English|
|Israel||Haaretz||Tel Aviv||1919||Hebrew and English|
|Italy||Corriere della Sera||Milan||1876||Italian|
|—||Il Fatto Quotidiano||Rome||2009||Italian|
Originated as the Swahili Taifa in 1958.
Founded as Pagaidu Valdības Vēstnesis in 1918, closed 1940-1991, current form since 1993
|Malaysia||New Straits Times||Kuala Lumpur||1965
Spun off from The Straits Times (founded 1845) upon Singapore's independence.
Merger of Algemeen Handelsblad (founded 1828) and Nieuwe Rotterdamsche Courant (1844).
|New Zealand||The New Zealand Herald||Auckland||1863||English|
|North Korea||Rodong Sinmun||Pyongyang||1945||Korean|
|Panama||—||La Prensa (Panama City)||Panama City||1980||Spanish|
|Philippines||—||Philippine Daily Inquirer||Makati||1985||English|
First dissolved in 1931 and revived in 1944, second dissolution in 1951, revived again in 1982
|Portugal||Diário de Notícias||Lisbon||1864||Portuguese|
(previously the Soviet Union)
Founded as a Lebanese newspaper that shut down in 1978, refounded in 1988 under a new ownership.
|Singapore||The Straits Times||Singapore||1845||English|
|South Korea||Chosun Ilbo||Seoul||1920
Suspended between 1940 and 1945 by the Japanese imperial authorities.
|Switzerland||Neue Zürcher Zeitung||Zurich||1780||German|
Merger of Journal de Genève (founded 1826), Gazette de Lausanne (1798), and Nouveau Quotidien (1991).
|United Kingdom||The Daily Telegraph||London||1855||English|
Named The Daily Universal Register until 1788.
|United States||The New York Times||New York City||1851||English|
|The Washington Post||Washington, D.C.||1877||English|
- Martin, Shannon E. (1998). Newspapers of Record in a Digital Age: From Hot Type to Hot Link. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers. p. 1. ISBN 0-275-95960-0.
- Martin, Shannon E. (1998). Newspapers of record in a digital age: from hot type to hot link. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers. p. 5. ISBN 0-275-95960-0.
- Black's Law Dictionary, 6th edn. West Publishing. 1990. ISBN 90-6544-631-1.
- See, for example, L.N. 362 of 1997 of The Government of The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Gazette
- [For example, see http://www.statutes.legis.state.tx.us/Docs/LG/htm/LG.52.htm#52.004 Texas Local Government Code - Section 52.004. Official Newspaper]
- "City of McCleary, Official Newspaper".
- "Fictitious Names: Adjudicated Newspapers". County Clerk. County of Sonoma. Retrieved 4 October 2012.
- "Izvestiia Digital Archive 1917-2010. Online access to the Kremlin's newspaper of record" (PDF). Minneapolis, MN: East View Information Services. p. 5. Retrieved 18 February 2012.
- Frederick, Brian (9 May 2005). "Genocide v. Civil Conflict: Comparing Coverage of the Darfur Crisis in the New York Times and the People's Daily" (PDF). University of Colorado at Boulder.
The New York Times and the People's Daily were chosen because of their status as their respective countries' "newspaper of record." In the case of the People's Daily, it is the official newspaper of record.
- Mattis, Michael (November 1995). "(Not) Wild about Harry". Prism.
With a circulation over three million the People's Daily is the official newspaper of China's Communist Party. It is the newspaper of record for state socialism in China.
- "Officials Warn Against Rural Instability". China News Digest. 11 January 2002.
On Tuesday the People's Daily, the Communist Party's newspaper of record, published a front-page article and a strongly worded editorial
- "Research Databases". University of Massachusetts Amherst. 10 February 2012.
People's Daily (Ren Min Ri Bao): Chinese newspaper of record, 1946–present.
- Badiou, Alain. The Rational Kernel of the Hegelian Dialectic (PDF). re.press. p. xx.
Among the venues that published philosophically charged writings... during the heat of the GPCR were Renmin Ribao (People's Daily, the newspaper of record that continues to be so today)
- Mattis, Michael (November 1995). "(Not) Wild about Harry". Prism.
- Salles, Chloë (January 2010). "Media Coverage of the Internet: An Acculturation Strategy for Press of Record?" (PDF). Innovation Journalism. 7 (1): 5.
- Martin, Shannon (1998). Newspapers of Record in a Digital Age: From Hot Type to Hot Link. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers. pp. 6, 27, 31. ISBN 0275959600.
- Martin, Shannon E. (1998). Newspapers of record in a digital age: from hot type to hot link. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers. p. 7. ISBN 0-275-95960-0.
- Okrent, Daniel. "The Public Editor — Paper of Record? No Way, No Reason, No Thanks". The New York TImes. Retrieved 18 April 2013.
- Vigón, Mercedes (12 July 2013). "Journalism ethics is 'personal and non-transferable'" (Interview). Interviewed by International Press Institute. Retrieved 10 April 2019.
In spite of the readership crisis in the United States, The New York Times is a newspaper of record in many countries, as is Le Monde in France or La Nación in Argentina.
- Simons, Margaret; Buller, Bradley (December 2013). "Journals of Record - Measure of Quality, or Dead Concept?" (PDF). Centre for Advancing Journalism, University of Melbourne. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 January 2014. Retrieved 6 May 2014.
- "What We're Reading". The New York Times. 14 October 2011. Archived from the original on 18 February 2015. Retrieved 6 May 2014.
- "Die Presse - Die Geschichte". Archived from the original on 6 February 2014.
- "Die Presse". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on 13 October 2013.
- "The Daily Star". infoasaid.org. Retrieved 18 May 2014.
- "The press in Belgium". BBC News. 16 November 2005.
- "O Estado de S. Paulo". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Retrieved 10 October 2013.
It is the...country's newspaper of record. O Estado is sometimes called the "New York Times of Latin America” because of its grave editorial demeanour.
- Fabricio, Roberto (16 April 1992). "Brazilian Officers Issue Manifesto". Sun-Sentinel. Retrieved 10 October 2013.
The statement, published on Tuesday by O Estado de Sao Paulo, Brazil`s newspaper of record, was datelined in Fortaleza, a mid-sized city in northeastern Brazil.
- Pomela, Marina. "Top 10 Printed Newspaper in Brazil". The Brazil Business. Retrieved 29 January 2018.
- "Maiores Jornais do Brasil" (in Portuguese). ANJ - Associação Nacional de Jornais. Retrieved 29 January 2018.
- "Les parlementaires québécois et Le Devoir dans le monde des médias". Communication, Vol. 29 No. 2 (2012).
- "The Globe and Mail". Encyclopædia Britannica.
- "Canadian Studies Resources - Canadian Studies Databases and Indexes". Michigan Canadian Studies Roundtable. 5 September 2006. Archived from the original on 8 July 2008.
- Agence France-Presse (11 January 2009). "Globe and Mail to cut jobs". The Straits Times. Archived from the original on 30 January 2009. Retrieved 17 January 2010.
- "What's behind the shake up at 'Canada's newspaper of record'?". rabble.ca. 2 June 2009. Retrieved 17 January 2010.
- Buchanan, Carrie (March 2009). Gasher, Mike (ed.). "Sense of Place in the Daily Newspaper" (PDF). Aether: The Journal of Media Geography. 4: 62–84 . Retrieved 14 October 2012.
[T]he Toronto-based Globe and Mail has had the kind of success in Canada that the New York Times had enjoyed in the U.S., as the leading 'newspaper of record' with a national readership.
- Jiwani, Yasmin (2009). "Helpless Maidens and Chivalrous Knights: Afghan Women in the Canadian Press". University of Toronto Quarterly. 2. 78: 728–744. doi:10.3138/utq.78.2.728.
This essay interrogates representations of Afghan women in the Globe and Mail, Canada's major English-language daily and newspaper of record.
- Roger Keil; S. Harris Ali (2011). Networked Disease: Emerging Infections in the Global City. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 144439911X. Retrieved 14 October 2012.
- "Where's Mario". Maclean's. 25 August 2008. Retrieved 17 January 2010.
- "Endorsements, opinions flourish in Quebec". cbc.ca. 10 October 2008. Retrieved 17 January 2010.
- "El fenómeno de Bachelet pone en jaque a la derecha chilena". BBC Mundo. 7 November 2013. Retrieved 21 February 2014.
- "China profile". 6 March 2018. Retrieved 11 March 2019.
- Middle East Institute, 1950, p. 155.|quote=Al Ahram is... what The Times is to Englishmen and the New York Times to Americans
- Perreault, Gregory (2011). "Islam is Everywhere": Coverage of Islam in the English Egyptian Press". Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly: 14. Retrieved 10 October 2013.
This is significant because the state-run Al Ahram is considered the paper of record in Egypt
- Muir; Worther, Simo; Hana (2013). Finland's Holocaust: Silences of History. ISBN 978-1137302649.
- paidContent. "Le Figaro opts for freemium web model". the Guardian. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
- "Le Figaro". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
... one of the great newspapers of France and of the world.
- "Le Monde, whose print edition comes out around lunchtime, was launched at the end of Nazi occupation of France in 1944 and took on the role of France's newspaper of record alongside the more conservative Le Figaro." - France's Le Monde newspaper editor quits after power struggle with staff, Reuters, 14 May 2014
- "A capital crisis may bring down leftist French paper / Liberation, founded in 1968, has seen circulation plummet". San Francisco Chronicle. 27 October 2006. Retrieved 25 February 2017.
- "Le Monde | French newspaper". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 25 March 2018.
... one of the most important and widely respected newspapers in the world.
- Thomas Fuller (25 August 2003). "World of Le Monde looks set to expand". International Herald Tribune.
- "France profile". BBC News. 12 January 2014. Retrieved 24 January 2014.
Le Monde - respected national daily, considered to be France's newspaper of record
- "Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung | German newspaper". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 25 March 2018.
- "German language reform resisted". The Washington Times. 29 May 2004.
- "Gloves off in German Media Scramble". The New York Times. The New York Times. 13 March 2011. Retrieved 23 July 2015.
- "Die Welt | German newspaper". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 27 February 2016.
- "Greece - Post Report - e Diplomat". Retrieved 31 May 2015.
- Lanchester, John (2008). Family Romance: A Love Story. 0143112953: Penguin. p. 140.
The clippings are from the South China Morning Post, the paper of record in Hong Kong
- Drèze, Jean; Sen, Amartya (21 February 1991). The Political Economy of Hunger: Volume 1: Entitlement and Well-being. Clarendon Press. ISBN 9780191544460.
- Bald, Vivek; Chatterji, Miabi; Reddy, Sujani; Vimalassery, Manu (22 July 2013). The Sun Never Sets: South Asian Migrants in an Age of U.S. Power. NYU Press. ISBN 081478643X.
- Wilke, Mary; Manicini, Lawrence; Leonard, Spencer (Fall 2007). "Some recent CRL acquisitions related to colonial India". Centre for Research Libraries - Focus on Global Resources.
- The Politics of Post-Suharto Indonesia. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
- "Kompas Group Is Back on TV, This Time With Local Partners". The Jakarta Globe. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
- "Iran Media Guide". FRONTLINE - Tehran Bureau. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
- Journalism in Iran. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
- Dwan, David (April 2009). "The Irish Times, book review". The London Standard. Retrieved 26 May 2014.
Today, the Irish Times is one of Ireland's most authoritative journals – the newspaper of record for political and intellectual elites from Mayo to Monkstown. Mark O'Brien provides a detailed and colourful account of this transformation. His history of the Irish Times is also the story of modern Ireland: it tracks the newspaper's sceptical response to the emergence of the Free State in 1922 and the declaration of the Republic in 1949; it also examines its fractious relationship with the nation's governments and political figureheads from Eamon de Valera (whom the paper repeatedly compared to Hitler) to Bertie Ahern.
- Israel — Hebrew- and English-Language Media Guide Open Source Center (16 September 2008)
- Gregory Levey (21 August 2008). "Pushing right-wing American politics — in Israel". Salon. Retrieved 24 January 2014.
In the past few months, Haaretz, Israel's paper of record, has run a series of articles expressing misgivings about outside influence.
- Brant Rosen (11 May 2010). "Alan Dershowitz and the Politics of Desperation". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 24 January 2014.
Recent polling, alongside articles in both the New York Times and the Israeli paper of record, Ha'aretz, indicate that the American Jewish community no longer feels represented by our so-called representatives - if we ever did.
- Gershom Gorenberg (September 2002). "The Thin Green Line". Mother Jones. Retrieved 24 January 2014.
In late January, the declaration ran as an ad in Ha'aretz, the national paper of record...
- Israely, Jeff; Macleod, Scott (1 June 2003). "Editing Out Criticism". Time.
- Grove, Lloyd (6 February 1998). "Diplomatic Affinity". Los Angeles Times.
- Buckman, Robert T. Latin America 2013. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 247. ISBN 978-1475804775.
- Surlin, Stuart H.; Soderlund, Walter C. (1990). Mass Media and the Caribbean. Taylor & Francis. p. 20. ISBN 9782881244476.
- Merrill, John C. (June 2000). "Les quotidiens de référence dans le monde" (PDF). Les cahiers du journalisme (in French). Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 8 July 2017.
- "Mainichi shimbun | Japanese newspaper". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 25 March 2018.
... it appears with its rival on most experts’ lists of the world’s greatest newspapers.
- - Retrieved 14 March 2005. Archived 17 September 2008 at the Wayback Machine
- Benesch, Susan (21 March 2013). "The Kenyan Elections: Peace Happened". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 10 October 2013.
Kenya's newspaper of record, the Daily Nation, published a banner headline "Never Again" over an editorial with a sharp, eloquent warning
- Purs, Aldis; Plakans, Andrejs (2 May 2017). Historical Dictionary of Latvia. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 90. ISBN 9781538102213.
- House, Freedom (13 September 2004). Nations in Transit 2004: Democratization in East Central Europe and Eurasia. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 342. ISBN 9781461731412.
- Christopher, H. Sterling. "A - C., Volume 1". Encyclopedia of Journalism. p. 108.
- Waterfield, Bruno (4 March 2010). "Geert Wilders on course to be next Dutch prime minister". The Daily Telegraph.
- University of California. "The Netherlands Semester and Academic Year 2011-12 Program Guide" (PDF). Education Abroad Program. p. 31. Retrieved 10 April 2019.
NRC Handelsblad is a serious newspaper of record; as is De Volkskrant, which is read by many students.
- "Hypocrisy at the NZ Herald: de Freitas given platform for more climate lies". Sciblogs. Retrieved 6 January 2019.
- "North Korea country profile". 24 August 2017. Retrieved 11 March 2019.
- , Journalism.co.uk
- I. Roberto Eisenmann Jr. (14 June 1989). "Panama Might Still Brake the New Narco-Militarism". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 6 March 2016. Retrieved 28 August 2012.
- "Socio-economic characteristics of newspaper readers in Latin America". ZonaLatina.com. Retrieved 28 March 2017.
- "Actor-politicians and understanding the vote of the poor". The Manila Times. Retrieved 19 November 2016.
- Claudio, Leloy. "Reform the country's 'paper of record". GMA News. Retrieved 19 November 2016.
- Publishing, Britannica Educational (1 June 2013). Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland. Britannica Educational Publishing. p. 131. ISBN 9781615309917.
- Hubred, Joni. "Portugal Press, Media, TV, Radio, Newspapers".
- "Diário de Notícias - Lisbonne" (in French).
- Maier, Michaela; Strömbäck, Jesper; Kaid, Lynda Lee (2011). Political Communication in European Parliamentary Elections. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 117. ISBN 9781409411338.
- "Izvestiia Digital Archive 1917-2010. Online access to the Kremlin's newspaper of record" (pdf). Minneapolis, MN: East View Information Services. p. 5. Retrieved 18 February 2012.
- Ibrahim, Youssef M. (15 January 1997). "Al Hayat: A Journalistic Noah's Ark". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 11 March 2019.
- "Danas". presseurop. 21 May 2012. Retrieved 18 December 2013.
Left leaning, Danas has become the independent daily of record in Serbia ...
- "Grigorev Commentary in Politika: Serbs Vote is Pragmatic". The Bulletin Arcadia University. 1 February 2011. Archived from the original on 8 January 2016.
... wrote a commentary in the Jan. 26 issue of Politika, the Serbian newspaper of record and the oldest daily in the Balkans.
- Dediu, Horace (19 May 2012). "An interview with Kenney Ho of The Chosun Daily of Korea". Asymco. Retrieved 10 October 2013.
The Chosunilbo "has a history of 90 years, has been the most dominant, and influential paper of all time in Korea. It is the No.1 newspaper company in Korea with more than 1.8 million circulation, firmly holding the largest market possession. The paper is recognized Asianwide, where there are many readers in Japan and China.”
- Phillips, Lindsay (18 December 2002). "Spanish and U.S. Relationship During the "War on Terror"". EU Notes — Texas A&M University.
- "President's Interview with Al-Arabiya Receives Good Coverage in Sweden". Retrieved 10 October 2013.
Paper of record Dagens Nyheter gave limited coverage, on the paper's website.
- "Immigrants outraged over Sweden's racial profiling". The Standard. 15 March 2013. Retrieved 10 October 2013.
Dagens Nyheter, Sweden's paper of record.
- "Neue Zürcher Zeitung". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 30 August 2012.
- The Quality of the Media, main findings, Research Department on Public Opinion and Society (FÖG) of the University of Zurich, 2012.
- "Reports: Israel to apologize for flotilla raid". Retrieved 31 May 2015.
- "The Daily Telegraph". Encyclopedia Britannica. 8 March 2018. Retrieved 23 March 2018.
... generally accounted, with The Times and The Guardian, as one of Britain’s “big three” quality newspapers.
- "The UK's 'other paper of record'". BBC News. 19 January 2004. Retrieved 21 March 2009.
- "The Times". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 23 March 2018.
It is generally accounted, with The Guardian and The Daily Telegraph, one of Britain’s “big three” and has long been recognized as one of the world’s greatest newspapers.
- "The New York Times". Encyclopædia Britannica.
... long the newspaper of record in the United States and one of the world’s great newspapers.
- "On The Washington Post and the 'newspaper of record' epithet". POLITICO. 2015.