New states of Germany

The new federal states of Germany (German: die neuen Bundesländer) are the five re-established states in the former East Germany that acceded to the Federal Republic of Germany with its 10 states upon German reunification on 3 October 1990.

Part of a series on the
History of Germany
Early history
Middle Ages
Early Modern period
German Reich
German Empire18711918
World War I19141918
Weimar Republic19181933
Nazi Germany19331945
Contemporary Germany
Expulsion of Germans19441950
Reunified Germany1990present
Germany portal

The new states, which were dissolved by the East German government in 1952 and were re-established in 1990, are Brandenburg, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt and Thuringia. The state of Berlin, the result of a merger between East and West Berlin, is usually not considered one of the new states, although many of its residents are former East Germans.

Since the reunification, Germany thus consists of 16 states.


Persisting differences in culture and mentality among the old East Germans and old West Germans are often referred to as the "wall in the head" ("Mauer im Kopf").[1] "Ossis" ("Easties") are stereotyped as racist, poor and largely influenced by Russian culture.[2] "Wessis" ("Westies") are usually considered snobbish, dishonest, wealthy, and selfish. The terms can be considered disparaging.

In 2009, twenty years after the fall of the wall, a poll found that 22% of former East Germans (40% of under-25s) considered themselves "real citizens of the Federal Republic".[3] 62% feel in a kind of limbo, no longer citizens of East Germany but not fully integrated into the unified Germany. Around 11% would have liked to have East Germany back.[3] A 2004 poll found that 25% of West Germans and 12% of East Germans wished reunification had not happened.[1]

Some East German brands have been revived, appealing to former East Germans who are nostalgic for the goods they grew up with.[4] Brands revived in this manner include Rotkäppchen, which holds about 40% of the German sparkling wine market, and Zeha, the sport shoe maker that supplied most of East Germany's sports teams and also the Soviet Union national football team.[4]

Pornography and prostitution were outlawed in the GDR as forms of exploitation, and West Germans commonly believe that those who grew up in the GDR are more sexually inhibited than their western counterparts. Nonetheless, better access to higher education and jobs along with free abortion, contraception and generous family policies made East German women more active sexually than before.[5] Another notable difference is the attitude towards naturism or FKK (short for Freikörperkultur) in German. While it existed in both East and West, only in the East was it a mass cultural phenomenon in which almost everybody participated. This can still be seen at beaches of former East Germany compared to their West German counterparts.

More children are born out of wedlock in eastern Germany than in western Germany. In 2009, in eastern Germany 61% of births were to unmarried women, while in western Germany 27% were. The states of Saxony-Anhalt and Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania had the highest rate of birth outside wedlock, each with 64%, followed by Brandenburg with 62%. The state of Baden-Württemberg had the lowest rate with 22%, followed by Hesse and Bavaria, each with 26%.[6]


Religion in East Germany with East Berlin (2016)[7]

  Protestants (24.1%)
  Catholics (5.2%)
  Muslims (0.3%)
  Judaism (0.1%)
  Other religion (1.3%)
  Not declared and unknown (0.8%)

Irreligion is predominant in the eastern part of Germany, which is considered to be the least religious region in the world.[8][9][10] An exception is former West Berlin, which had a Christian plurality in 2016 (44.4% Christian and 43.5% unaffiliated). It also has a higher share of Muslims, at 8.5%, compared to former East Berlin with only 1.5% self-declared Muslims as of 2016.[7] On the other hand, Christianity is the dominant religion of Western Germany, excluding Hamburg, which has a non-religious plurality.

Religion by state, 2016[7] Protestants Catholics Not religious Muslims Others
Brandenburg 24.9% 3.5% 69.9% 0.0% 1.5%
former East Berlin 14.3% 7.5% 74.3% 1.5% 2.4%
Mecklenburg-Vorpommern 24.9% 3.9% 70.0% 0.3% 0.9%
Saxony 27.6% 4.0% 66.9% 0.3% 1.1%
Saxony-Anhalt 18.8% 5.1% 74.7% 0.3% 1.2%
Thuringia 27.8% 9.5% 61.2% 0.0% 1.5%
Total 24.3% 5.2% 68.8% 0.3% 1.4%

Pro Reli

On 26 April 2009, a referendum (de) was held on whether Berlin pupils should be allowed to choose between the ethics class, a compulsory class introduced in all Berlin schools in 2006, and a religion class.[11] The SPD, the Left Party and Greens supported the "Pro Ethics" camp for a "No" vote, stressing that the ethics class should remain compulsory, and pupils could voluntarily take an extra religion class alongside it if they so chose; the CDU and FDP supported the "Pro Reli" camp for a "Yes" vote, wanting to give pupils a free choice.[11] In East Berlin, an overwhelming majority[11] of 74.62% voted against the introduction of religious education. In West Berlin, only 41.41% voted "No". In total, 51.5% voted "No" and 48.4% voted "Yes".[11]


The economic reconstruction of eastern Germany (German: Aufbau Ost) is proving to be longer-term than originally foreseen.[12] The standard of living and average annual income remain significantly lower in the new federal states.[13]

Reunification cost the federal government 2 trillion.[14] At reunification, almost all East German industry was considered outdated.[12] The government privatised 8,500 state-owned East German enterprises.[14] Since 1990, between €100 billion and €140 billion a year have been transferred to the new states.[14] More than $60 billion were spent supporting businesses and building infrastructure in the years 2006-2008.[15]

A €156 billion economic plan, Solidarity Pact II, came into force in 2005, and provides the financial basis for the advancement and special promotion of the economy of the new federal states until 2019.[12] The "solidarity tax", a 5.5% surcharge on the income tax, was instated by the Kohl government to restore the infrastructure of the new states to the levels of the western ones[16] and to apportion the cost of unification as well as the expenses of the Gulf War and of European integration. The tax, which raises €11 billion a year, will be maintained until 2019 at least.[16]

Ever since reunification, the unemployment rate in the east has been almost twice that of the west. The unemployment rate reached 12.7%[17] in April 2010, after having reached a maximum of 18.7% in 2005. In the decade 1999-2009, economic activity per person has risen from 67% to 71% of western Germany.[15] According to Wolfgang Tiefensee, the minister then responsible for the development of the new federal states, in 2009, "The gap is closing."[15] Eastern Germany is also the part of the country least affected by the 2007-2008 financial crisis.[18]

All the new federal states, excluding Berlin, qualify as Objective 1 development regions within the European Union, and are eligible to receive investment subsidies of up to 30% until 2013.


The "German Unity Transport Projects" (Verkehrsprojekte Deutsche Einheit, VDE) is a programme launched in 1991 and meant to upgrade the infrastructure of eastern Germany, and modernise transport links between the old and new federal states.[19]

The programme consists of nine railway and seven motorway projects, as well as one waterway project, with a total funding of €38.5 billion. As of 2009, all 17 projects are either under construction or have already been completed.[20] The construction of new railway lines and high-speed upgrades of existing lines reduced journey times between Berlin and Hanover from over four hours to 96 minutes.[19] Due to increasing car usage and depopulation since reunification, many railway lines (branches and main lines) have been closed by the unified Deutsche Bahn (German Railways). Some main lines are still not finished or upgraded according to the VDE, with the Leipzig-Nuremberg line (via Erfurt and part of the Munich-Berlin route) scheduled to come on-line in December 2017, almost three decades after reunification. Some lines, even those connecting large cities, are still in a worse state then they were in the 1930s, with travel time from Berlin to Dresden slower in 2015 than in 1935.

"DEGES" (Deutsche Einheit Fernstraßenplanungs- und -bau GmbH, German Unity Road Construction Company) is the state-owned project management institution responsible for the construction of approximately 1,360 km of federal roads within the VDE, with a total investment of €10.2 billion. It is also involved in other transport projects, including 435 km of roads costing about €1,760 million as well as a city tunnel in Leipzig, at the cost of €685 million.[21]

The Federal Transport Infrastructure Plan 2003 includes plans for the extension of the A14 motorway from Magdeburg to Schwerin and construction of the A72 from Chemnitz to Leipzig.[20]

Private ownership rates of cars have markedly increased since 1990: in 1988, 55% of East German households had at least one car, in 1993 this had already risen to 67%, and to 71% in 1998. This compares to the West German rates of 61% in 1988, 74% in 1993 and 76% in 1998.[22][23]


Unlike the West, there was a three-party system (SPD, CDU, PDS/The Left) until the rise of the AfD,[24][25][26] which has led to a four-party system.[27] Since 2009 at least four factions have been represented in each of the East German regional parliaments, in Saxony even six, while in 1998/1999, for example, only one of the regional parliaments included more than three factions.[28]

In the East, there is usually a low turnout at elections.

The East German Länder have - with the exception of the regional conference of the heads of government of the East German states (MPK-Ost)[29] - no joint state or public representation.

While "only" 56% want better relations with Russia in the West, 66% of the population of the former Soviet satellite state want better relations with Russia after 28 years (and above all the stronger parties in the East: AfD 74% and the Left 71%).[30]

Far left

Map of German Reichstag election 1912. (Good example of Social Democrats (SPD))
Results of the Reichstag election 1920 (Good example of Independent Socialists (USPD))
Communists (KPD)
Even before the German division, the east was a high-rise of left-wing and Far-left parties.

The democratic socialist party, The Left (Die Linke, successor to the Party of Democratic Socialism, the GDR state party's successor) has been successful throughout eastern Germany, perhaps as a result of the continued disparity of living conditions and salaries compared with western Germany, and high unemployment.[31] Since its association with the WASG, The Left mostly loses in state elections, and has been losing members since 2010.[32]

Historically, in the German Empire and the Weimar Republic the strongholds of the SPD, USPD and KPD were Thuringia, Brandenburg, Berlin, Saxony-Anhalt and Saxony.

The Party of Democratic Socialism (PDS), and The Left from 2005, have achieved the following vote shares in recent elections:

Election Vote percentages
1990 East German general election 16.4%, Communist Party of Germany (KPD) 0.1%
1990 all-German federal election East 11.1%, West 0.2%
1990 State elections East Berlin 30.1%, KPD 0.2%; Mecklenburg-Vorpommern 15.7%; Saxony 10.2%; Saxony-Anhalt 12.0%; Thuringia 9.7%; East Berlin 23.6%
1994 federal election East 19.8%, West 1%
1994 state elections 18.7% in Brandenburg; 19.9% in Saxony-Anhalt; Saxony 16.5%; Thuringia 16.6%; 22.7% in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern
1995 Berlin state election in East Berlin the PDS was the biggest party with 36.3%.
1998 federal election East 21.6%, West 1.2%.
1998–99 state elections 23.3% in Brandenburg; 19.6% in Saxony-Anhalt; Saxony 22.2%, KPD 0.1%; Thuringia 21.3%; 24.4% in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern; 39.5% in East Berlin.
2001–02 state elections 16.4% in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern; 20.4%, KPD/DKP 0.1% in Saxony-Anhalt; 47.6%, 0.2% DKP in East Berlin.
2002 federal election East 16.9%, West 1.1%
2005 federal election East 25.3%, West 4.9%
2004–06 state elections 16.8% in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (+0.5% WASG), 24.1% in Saxony-Anhalt and 28.1% (+3.3% WASG) in East Berlin (–19.5%).
2009 federal election East 28.5% (The Left became the strongest force in Brandenburg and Saxony-Anhalt); West 8.3%.
2009 state elections 20.6% in Saxony, 27.2% in Brandenburg and 27.4% in Thuringia
2011 state elections 18.6% in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, 23.7% in Saxony-Anhalt and 22.7% in East Berlin.
2013 federal election East 22.7%, West 5.2%.
2014 state elections 18.9% in Saxony, 28.2% in Thuringia and 18.6% in Brandenburg (–8.6%).
2014 European Parliament election German Communist Party (DKP) had its strongest vote in Eastern Germany (0.2% in East,[33] 0.0% in West[34]).
2016 state elections 16.3% in Saxony-Anhalt, 13.2% in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern and 23.4% in Berlin
2017 federal election East 17.8%; West 7.4%.

Due to the loss of votes to the AfD, the Left plans to establish a regional group East.[35][36][37][38]

Far right

After 1990, far-right and German nationalist groups gained followers. Some sources claim mostly among people frustrated by the high unemployment and the poor economic situation.[39] Der Spiegel also points out that these people are mostly single men and that there may also be socio-demographic reasons.[40] Since around 1998 the Party stronghold moved from the south of Germany to the east.[41][42][43][44]

Already in the German Empire and the Weimar Republic the strongholds of the German Conservative Party (DKP), German National People's Party (DNVP) and Nazi Party (NSDAP) they were Pomerania, Lower Silesia, East Prussia and Brandenburg. (Prussia)

The Far-right party German People's Union (DVU) was since 1998 in Saxony-Anhalt and in Brandenburg sice 1999. A study of the University of Berlin from 1998/99 comes to 13% for the whole of Germany, and 12% for the West and 17% for the East for right-wing extremist recruitment potential.[45]

In May 2001, the Düsseldorf Federal Party Congress of the FDP decided the strategy, the "Strategy 18" which is premised by Jürgen Möllemann as a goal. Jürgen Möllemann stood behind Jamal Karsli who is criticized as anti-Semitic,[46] Möllemann was criticized by the then FDP leader Guido Westerwelle that he wanted to make the FDP a right-wing populist party[47] and got the backing of Jörg Haider.[48] The name referred to the election goal of tripling the share of electoral votes from 6 to 18%. In the midst of controversy over a possibly associated right-wing populist orientation, the FDP ultimately achieved 7.4% and moved away from the course after the election, but gained in all new states in 2002 between 3.6% in Saxony and 2.4% in East Berlin.[49][50] At the Saxony-Anhalt state election, 2002 failed, the right-wing populist[51][52] Schill party just short of the 5% threshold (4.5%) and the FDP moved into the state parliament. In East-Berlin election, 2001 won the FDP 5.3% (+4.2%) and in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern just short of the 5% threshold (4.7%)

The National Democratic Party of Germany (NPD) won 9.2% of the vote in 2004 state parliament elections in Saxony, and the party has eight seats in the state parliament in Dresden, just behind the 13 held by the Social Democrats. In 2004 won the DVU votes in Brandenburg (+0.8%). In Mecklenburg-Vorpommern was the NPD represented since 2006.[53]

In the Saxony state election of September 2009 the NPD lost votes (-3.6%) and seats (-4),[54] while in the same month the German People's Union lost its representation in the Landtag of Brandenburg.[55]

A survey of 14- to 25-year-olds carried out by the Forsa opinion poll institute in 2007 found that one out of two youths in eastern Germany now believe that National Socialism had "its good sides".[39]

In 2009, Junge Landsmannschaft Ostdeutschland, which is supported by the NPD, organized a march on the anniversary of the Bombing of Dresden in World War II. There were 6,000 Nationalists, met by tens of thousands of ″anti-Nazis″ and several thousand police.[56]

The Free Voters of Germany emerged in 2009 from the Land Brandenburg regional branch of Free Voters, after this had been excluded because of "signs of right infiltration" from the Federal Association of Free Voters Germany.[57]

In the Mecklenburg-Vorpommern state election, 2011, the NPD lost 1.3% and 1 seat, but won in Saxony-Anhalt compared with the DVU 1.6%.

AfD (2013–present)

In the German federal election, 2013, Alternative for Germany (AfD) had its strongest vote in Eastern Germany, and again in 2017.[58] The party is seen as having an anti-immigration approach.[59]

The Pegida has its focus in East Germany.[60] According to a survey by TNS Emnid, in mid-December 2014, 53% of East Germans in each case understood the PEGIDA demonstrators. (48% in the West)[61]

In 2014, the NPD in Saxony cut short on the threshold (4.9%), but AfD entered the state parliaments in Saxony, Brandenburg and Thuringia.

In 2016, AfD reached at least 17% in Saxony-Anhalt,[62] Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (where the NPD lost all seats)[63] and East Berlin;[64] whereas they won up to 15% in Baden-Württemberg,[65] Rhineland-Palatinate[66] and West Berlin.[64]

In 2015, Rhineland-Palatinate interior minister Roger Lewentz said the former communist states were ″more susceptible″ to ″xenophobic radicalization″ because Eastern Germany had not had the same exposure to foreign people and cultures over a period of decades that the people in the west of the country have had.[67]

In the 2017 Federal Election, AfD reached ~ 22%[68] in the East and ~ 11%[69] in the West.[70] The AfD became even the strongest party in Saxony.[71]

*With the votes of the FDP gains of 2001/02.[72]

Protest vote

Non-mainstream parties, especially the AfD and The Left,[73][74][75] receive a large number of protest votes in Eastern Germany, which quickly causes voter shifting from left to right and vice versa.[76]

The Pirate Party Germany were chosen slightly more frequently in the East (10.1 percent) than in the West (8.1 percent) of the city. Among the under-30s in East Berlin, the pirates with 20 percent were even the second strongest party.[77] For example, none of the parties elected to the Berlin House of Representatives in 2011 lost such a high proportion of their voters to the AfD as the pirates at the next election in 2016, namely 16%.[78][79] This and other finding suggests that some of their voters, like the AfD, regard the Pirate Party primarily as a protest party.[73][80]

The election slogans of the DVU in the regional elections in Saxony-Anhalt in 1998 were directed primarily against the already represented in parliament politicians: "Not the people - the political bigwigs will dole!" And "German let's not make the sow you. DVU - The protest in the election against dirty things from above ". In particular, politically dissatisfied people were advertised with the slogan "vote protest - vote German".[81] At the time, the DVU stood at 12.9%.



In 1991, the parliamentary group of the PDS demanded in its draft for a constitution the right of Thuringia to leave the Federal Republic of Germany.[82][83] However, the group could not prevail with its draft.

Tatjana Festerling she was after the withdrawal of Kathrin Oertel from February 2015 to mid-April 2016, a leader in the Dresden Pegida demonstrations, they demanded on October 12, 2015 the "Säxit" - meaning the secession of Saxony from the Federal Republic of Germany - after she had already demanded the rebuilding of German border installations on 9 March 2015.[84][85]

Opinion polls

Polling firm Fieldwork date Sample size  Brandenburg  Berlin  Mecklenburg-Vorpommern  Saxony  Saxony-Anhalt  Thuringia
YouGov[86] 2017 2076 19 13 21 21 20 22
infratest dimap 2014 2020 16
Insa-Consulere[87] 2014 ~1000 19 (partially)
Emnid 2010 1001 15 (+8 partially)
Sozialwissenschaftliche Forschungszentrum Berlin-Brandenburg 2010 ~1900 10
Emnid 2009 1208 57 (partially)
RP Online 2009 2892 11
Infratest dimap 2007 ? 23
Institut für Marktforschung Leipzig 2007 1001 18
mitBERLIN 1996 6000 63.6
Infratest 1996 2000 22
Infratest 1990 ? 11

Demographic development

The former East German states have experienced significant depopulation and extremely low birth rates since 1990, with a recovery in recent years. About 1.7 million people have left the new federal states since the fall of the Berlin Wall, or 12% of the population.[15] A disproportionately high number of them were women under 35.[40] In fact about 500,000 women aged under 30 have left for western Germany in the past 15 years.[88]

After 1990, the fertility rate in the East dropped to 0.77. In 2006, the rates in the new states (1.30) was approaching those in the West (1.34), and is now higher (1.64 vs 1.60 in West, year 2016).[89][90] Since 1989, about 2,000 schools have closed because of a paucity of children.[15]

In some regions the number of women between the ages of 20 and 30 has dropped by more than 30 percent.[15] In 2004, in the age group 18-29 (statistically important for starting families) there were only 90 women for every 100 men in the new federal states (including Berlin).[91] In parts of the state of Thuringia, there are 82 women for every 100 men.[88] The town of Königstein has the biggest demographic imbalance in Europe between young men and women.[88] This is in contrast to many areas in Europe as many cities across the continent suffer an imbalance of younger women to men.[92] This has led to the concern to local leaders, as a large imbalance of males to females is usually linked to historical social instabilities and increased crime rates.[88]

Around 300,000 homes have been demolished in recent years. In parts of eastern Germany, wolves and lynx have reappeared after many decades.[88]

Demographic evolution

Brandenburg had a population of 2,660,000 in 1989, and 2,447,700 in March 2013.[93] It has the second lowest population density in Germany. In 1995, it became the only new state to experience population growth, aided by the vicinity of Berlin.[94]

Mecklenburg-Vorpommern had a population of 1,970,000 in 1989, and 1,598,000 in March 2013,[93] with the lowest population density in Germany. The local Landtag held several inquiries over population trends, the opposition has requested an annual report on the topic.[94]

Saxony had a population of 5,003,000 in 1989, which fell to 4,044,000 in March 2013.[93] It still remains the most populous among the five new states. The proportion of the population under 20 fell from 24.6% in 1988 to 19.7% in 1999.[94] Dresden and Leipzig are among the fastest growing cities in Germany both rising their population over half a million inhabitants again and in strong contrast to the other districts of Saxony.

Saxony-Anhalt had a population of 2,960,000 in 1989, and 2,253,000 in March 2013.[93] The state has a long history of demographic decline: its current territory had a population of 4,100,000 in 1945. The emigration already began during the GDR years.[94]

Thuringia had a population of 2,680,000 in 1989, and 2,166,000 in March 2013.[93] In Thuringia, the migration has less of an impact than the decrease of the fertility rate. Former Minister-President Bernhard Vogel called for a stop to the exodus of skilled workers and young people.[94]

Total change in population of former East Germany is from 15.273 million in 1989, just before reunification, to 12.509 million in 2013, a decrease of 18.1%.


There are more migrants in the former West Germany than in the former East Germany.[95][96][97]

Major cities

Federal capital
State capital
Rank City Pop.
per km²
1. Berlin3,336,0263,274,0163,208,7193,048,7593,433,6953,382,1693,460,725887,703,8992.321747 Berlin
2. Dresden494,187493,603502,432516,225490,571477,807523,058328,311,5939.471852 Saxony
3. Leipzig617,574589,632583,885562,480511,079493,208522,883297,361,7586.021871 Saxony
4. Chemnitz293,373286,329299,411317,644294,244259,246243,248220,841,101−6.171883 Saxony
5. Halle289,119277,855257,261232,294247,736247,736232,963135,021,725−5.961890 Saxony-Anhalt
6. Magdeburg260,305261,594272,237289,032278,807231,450231,549200,991,1520.041882 Saxony-Anhalt
7. Erfurt188,650186,448196,528211,575208,989200,564204,994269,147622.211906 Thuringia
8. Rostock133,109158,630198,636232,506248,088200,506202,735181,261,1181.111935 Mecklenburg-Vorpommern
9. Potsdam118,180115,004111,336130,900139,794129,324156,906187,5383721.331939 Brandenburg
Rank City Pop.
per km²

See also


  1. "Breaking Down the Wall in the Head". Deutsche Welle. 2004-10-03. Retrieved 2009-10-11.
  2. Cameron Abadi (2009-08-07). "The Berlin fall". Foreign Policy. Archived from the original on 2009-08-09. Retrieved 2009-10-11.
  3. "Noch nicht angekommen - Survey of 2900 adults in the New Länder in summer 2008". Berliner Zeitung. 21 January 2009. Archived from the original on 3 October 2009. Retrieved 11 October 2009.
  4. "East German brands thrive 20 years after end of Communism". Deutsche Welle. 2009-10-03. Retrieved 2009-10-11.
  5. Balmer, Etienne (2009-10-19). "'Women's love lives were better in East Germany before the Berlin Wall fell'". Telegraph. London. Retrieved 2009-10-11.
  6. "One third of children born out of wedlock". 12 August 2011.
  7. "Konfession, Bundesland - weighted (Kumulierter Datensatz)". Politbarometer 2016: Question V312.F1. 2016 via GESIS.
  8. "Ostdeutschland: Wo der Atheist zu Hause ist". Focus. 2012. Retrieved 2017-11-11.
  9. "WHY EASTERN GERMANY IS THE MOST GODLESS PLACE ON EARTH". Die Welt. 2012. Archived from the original on 2013-03-13. Retrieved 2009-05-24.
  10. "East Germany the "most atheistic" of any region". Dialog International. 2012. Retrieved 2009-05-24.
  11. Antoine Verbij (27 April 2009). "Berlijn blijft een heidense stad". Trouw (in Dutch). Retrieved 24 January 2018.
  12. "Aufbau Ost, economic reconstruction in the East". Deutsche Bundesregierung. 2007-08-24. Archived from the original on October 1, 2009. Retrieved 2009-10-12.
  13. "The Price of a Failed Reunification". Spiegel International. 2005-09-05. Retrieved 2006-11-28.
  14. Boyes, Roger (2007-08-24). "Germany starts recovery from €2,000bn union". Times Online. London. Retrieved 2009-10-12.
  15. Kulish, Nicholas (2009-06-19). "In East Germany, a Decline as Stark as a Wall". New York Times. Retrieved October 11, 2009.
  16. Hall, Allan (2007-08-01). "Calls grow to lift burden of Germany's solidarity tax". The Independent. London. Retrieved 2009-10-12.
  17. "Current statistics of the Bundesagentur für Arbeit comparing east and west". Archived from the original on 2010-05-23. Retrieved 2010-05-26.
  18. "Eastern Germany Less Hard Hit than the West". Spiegel International. Retrieved 2009-10-11.
  19. "Infrastructure for unified Germany". Federal Government Commissioner for the New Federal States. Archived from the original on September 15, 2009. Retrieved 2009-10-11.
  20. "Draft Federal Transport Infrastructure Plan" (PDF). United Nations Economic Commission for Europe. Retrieved 2009-10-11.
  21. "Firmenprofil". DEGES. Archived from the original on 2009-05-25. Retrieved 2009-10-11.
  22. Wilhelm Hinrichs: Die Ostdeutschen in Bewegung – Formen und Ausmaß regionaler Mobilität in den neuen Bundesländern Archived 2004-08-29 at the Wayback Machine (PDF-Dokument)
  23. bpb: Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung: Die DDR in den siebziger Jahren
  24. Steffen Schoon: Wählerverhalten und Strukturmuster des Parteienwettbewerbs, in: Steffen Schoon, Nikolaus Werz (Hrsg.): Die Landtagswahl in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern 2006, Rostock 2006, S. 9.
  27. "Landtagswahlen 2016: AfD wird Ost-Volkspartei, FDP läuft sich für Bundestag warm".
  28. Bildung, Bundeszentrale für politische. "Parteien und Parteienwettbewerb in West- und Ostdeutschland - bpb".
  29. Regionalkonferenz der Regierungschefin und der Regierungschefs der ostdeutschen Länder (MPK-Ost) Archived 2012-07-02 at the Wayback Machine, Webseite der Sächsischen Staatskanzlei (Ministerpräsident). Abgerufen am 18. April 2013.
  30. (28 October 2017). "Umfrage: Mehrheit der Deutschen will bessere Beziehungen zu Russland".
  31. "DIE LINKE: Ostdeutschland".
  32. "Linke verliert massiv Mitglieder".
  33. "Wahlen zum Europäischen Parlament in den Neuen Bundesländern und Berlin-Ost".
  34. "Wahlen zum Europäischen Parlament in den alten Bundesländern".
  35. "Nach der Bundestagswahl: Linkspartei will Protestwähler zurückholen".
  36. "Landesgruppe Ost soll Protestwähler zurückholen".
  37. (7 October 2017). "Nach AfD-Erfolg: Linksfraktion will "Landesgruppe Ost" gründen".
  38. Nachrichtenfernsehen, n-tv. "Linke plant Landesgruppe Ost im Bundestag".
  39. Boyes, Roger (2007-08-20). "Neo-Nazi rampage triggers alarm in Berlin". The Times. London. Retrieved 2009-10-11.
  40. "Lack of Women in Eastern Germany Feeds Neo-Nazis". Spiegel International. 2007-05-31. Retrieved 2009-10-11.
  41. "Es war nicht immer der Osten – Wo Deutschland rechts wählt"./
  42. Pickel, Gert; Walz, Dieter; Brunner, Wolfram (2013-03-09). Deutschland nach den Wahlen: Befunde zur Bundestagswahl 1998 und zur Zukunft des deutschen Parteiensystems. ISBN 9783322933263.
  43. Steglich, Henrik (2010-04-28). Rechtsaußenparteien in Deutschland: Bedingungen ihres Erfolges und Scheiterns. ISBN 9783647369150.
  44. "Rechtsextremismus - ein ostdeutsches Phänomen?".
  45. Nach Iris Huth: Politische Verdrossenheit, Band 3, 2004, S. 226.
  46. Möllemanns und Westerwelles unerträgliche Angriffe gegen Friedman, Zentralrat der Juden in Deutschland, 22 May 2002.
  47. "FDP wirft Möllemann Rechtspopulismus vor".
  48. "Möllemann bekommt Beifall von Haider".
  49. "Veränderung der Zweitstimmenanteile der FDP in den Ländern bei der Bundestagswahl 2002 im Vergleich zu 1998". FDP/DVP Baden-Württemberg. Retrieved 2017-11-09.
  50. "Bundestagswahlen – Berlin-Ost". Retrieved 2017-11-09.
  51. Dürr, Tobias (2003). On "Westalgia": Why West German Mentalities and Habits Persist in the Berlin Republic. The Spirit of the Berlin Republic. Berghahn Books. p. 47.
  52. Søe, Christian (2005). A False Dawn for Germany's Liberals: The Rise and Fall of Project 18. Precarious Victory. p. 117.
  53. "Right-Wing Extremists Find Ballot-Box Success in Saxony". Spiegel International. 2008-09-06. Retrieved 2009-10-11.
  54. "Landtagswahl in Sachsen". Mitteldeutscher Rundfunk. Archived from the original on 2009-10-12. Retrieved 2009-10-22.
  55. "Landtagswahl Brandenburg 2009". Tagesschau. Archived from the original on 2009-09-30. Retrieved 2009-10-22.
  56. Patrick Donahue. "Skinheads, Neo-Nazis Draw Fury at Dresden 1945 'Mourning March'". Retrieved 2009-02-14.
  57. Freie Wähler schließen zwei Landesverbände wegen Rechtskurs aus, (Associated Press), 4. April 2009.
  58. Oltermann, Philip (28 September 2017). "'Revenge of the East'? How anger in the former GDR helped the AfD" via
  59. Troianovski, Anton (21 September 2017). "Anti-Immigrant AfD Party Draws In More Germans as Vote Nears" via
  60. "Pegida – "Ein überwiegend ostdeutsches Phänomen"" (in German). Retrieved 2016-10-01.
  61. Mehrheit der Ostdeutschen zeigt Verständnis. In: N24, 14. Dezember 2014.
  62. Statistisches Landesamt Sachsen-Anhalt: Wahl des 7. Landtages von Sachsen-Anhalt am 13. März 2016, Sachsen-Anhalt insgesamt
  63. "Wahl zum Landtag in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern 2016" (in German). Statistisches Amt MV: Die Landeswahlleiterin. 2016-09-04. Retrieved 2016-09-14.
  64. "".
  65. Statistisches Landesamt Baden-Württemberg: Endgültiges Ergebnis der Landtagswahl am 13. März 2016, Land Baden-Württemberg
  66. Landesergebnis Rheinland-Pfalz - Endgültiges Ergebnis Der Landeswahlleiter Rheinland-Pfalz
  67. (, Deutsche Welle. "Eastern Germany 'more susceptible' to 'xenophobic radicalization' - News - DW - 31.08.2015". DW.COM.
  68. "Neue Bundesländer und Berlin-Ost Zweitstimmen-Ergebnisse".
  69. "Alte Bundesländer und Berlin-West Zweitstimmen-Ergebnisse".
  70. "Bundestagswahl 2017".
  71. "AfD ist in Sachsen jetzt die stärkste Kraft".
  72. "Bundestagswahlen – Neue Bundesländer und Berlin-Ost". Retrieved 2017-11-09.
  73. Iris Huth: Politische Verdrossenheit. Erscheinungsformen und Ursachen als Herausforderungen für das politische System und die politische Kultur der Bundesrepublik Deutschland im 21. Jahrhundert, Dissertation Universität Münster 2003, LIT Verlag, Münster 2004, (Politik und Partizipation 3), S. 170.
  74. "Vor allem im Osten stark: AfD könnte Linke als Protestpartei ablösen".
  75. "Thüringer Soziologe: "AfD-Erfolg im Osten ist Ausdruck von Protest"".
  76. "Protestwähler: Wie AfD und Linke in Berlins Osten um Stimmen konkurrieren".
  77. Wahlanalysen. Forschungsgruppe Wahlen; abgerufen am 1. Oktober 2011
  78. Infratest dimap: Analysen zu den Wählerwanderungen in Berlin 2016, abgerufen am 29. September 2016.
  79. Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, 20. September 2016, S. 10.
  80. Felix Neumann: Plattformneutralität. Zur Programmatik der Piratenpartei. In: Oskar Niedermayer (Hrsg.): Die Piratenpartei. Springer, Wiesbaden 2013, S. 175.
  81. Steffen Kailitz (2004), "3.3 "Deutsche Volksunion"", Politischer Extremismus in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Eine Einführung Check |url= value (help) (in German) (1. ed.), Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, p. 44, ISBN 3-531-14193-7, retrieved 2010-12-12
  82. Zander, Peter (15 March 2010). "Weimarer Verhältnisse in der Berliner Republik" via
  83. Thüringer Landtag, Drucksache 1/678
  84. Pegida beschwört den Bürgerkrieg und fordert den Säxit coloRadio, 15. Oktober 2015.
  85. "Ö weiö!: Pegida-Frau droht mit "Säxit"". 14 October 2015 via Spiegel Online.
  86. WELT, DIE (17 July 2017). "Umfrage in Bundesländern: Wo die meisten Einwohner für die Abspaltung von Deutschland sind" via
  87. Germany, Süddeutsche de GmbH, Munich. "Umfrage: Gut jeder sechste Deutsche will Mauer zurück". Sü
  88. Burke, Jason (2008-01-27). "Slow death of a small German town as women pack up and head west". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 2009-10-11.
  89. publisher. "State & society - Births - Average number of children per woman - Federal Statistical Office (Destatis)".
  90. "Startseite - Statistisches Bundesamt (Destatis)". Retrieved 23 October 2015.
  91. "The Demographic State of the Nation" (PDF). Berlin Institute for Population and Development. 2006. Retrieved 2009-10-11.
  92. "Where do young European women go?".
  93. "Gemeinsames Datenangebot der Statistischen Ämter des Bundes und der Länder".
  94. "Abwanderung aus den neuen Bundesländern von 1989 bis 2000". Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung. 2001. Retrieved 2009-10-11.
  95. "Die Rechten ziehen in den Osten, Ausländer in den Westen".
  96. Bildung, Bundeszentrale für politische. "Ausländische Bevölkerung nach Ländern - bpb".
  97. "Ausländeranteil in Deutschland nach Bundesländern".
This article is issued from Wikipedia. The text is licensed under Creative Commons - Attribution - Sharealike. Additional terms may apply for the media files.