New York State Senate

The New York State Senate is the upper house of the New York State Legislature.[2] Its members are elected to two-year terms;[3] there are no term limits.[4] As of 2014, there are 63 seats in the Senate.[5]

New York State Senate
New York State Legislature
Kathy Hochul (D)
since January 1, 2015
Andrea Stewart-Cousins (D)
since January 2, 2019
John J. Flanagan (R)
since January 2, 2019
Political groups


Vacant: 1
Length of term
Two years[1]
AuthorityArticle III, New York Constitution
Last election
November 6, 2018
Next election
November 3, 2020
RedistrictingLegislative Control
Meeting place
Senate Chamber at New York State Capitol, Albany

Partisan composition

The New York State Senate was dominated by the Republican Party for much of the 20th century. Between World War II and the turn of the 21st century, the Democratic Party only controlled the upper house for one year.[6] The Democrats took control of the Senate following the 1964 elections;[7] however, the Republicans quickly regained a Senate majority in special elections later that year.[8]

In April 2018, The Wall Street Journal described the State Senate as the "last bastion of power" of the Republican Party in the State of New York.[9] On Election Day 2018, Democrats gained eight Senate seats, taking control of the chamber from the Republicans.[10][11] The following day, The New York Times wrote that the Democrats had "decisively evict[ed] Republicans from running the State Senate, which they [had] controlled for all but three years since World War II."[12] The 2018 election results gave Democrats their "largest share of seats in the state’s upper house since 1912".[2] At the beginning of the 2019-2020 legislative session, the Senate Democratic Conference held 39 of the chamber's 63 seats.[13] In July 2019, Simcha Felder — who had caucused with the Republicans during their time in the majority — was accepted into the Senate Democratic Conference; this action gave the Conference a total of 40 members.[14][15]

Affiliation Recent party affiliation history
(Shading indicates majority caucus)
Democratic GOP
SDC[lower-alpha 1] IDC SF[lower-alpha 2] Vacant
Begin 2007 session[16] 29 33 62 0
End 2008 session 30 31 61 1
Begin 2009 session[17] 32 30 62 0
End 2010 session 32 29 61 1
Begin 2011 session 26 4 32 62 0
End 2012 session 25 33 62 0
Begin 2013 session[18] 27 5 1 30 63 0
End 2014 session 24 2 29 61 2
Begin 2015 session[19] 25 1 5 1 32 63 0
End 2016 session 25 31 62 1
Begin 2017 session[20] 24 7 1 31 63 0
End 2018 session[21] 31
Begin 2019 session[22][23] 39 1 23 63 0
March 10, 2019[lower-alpha 3][24] 22 62 1
July 1, 2019[lower-alpha 4][25] 40
Latest voting share 64.5% 35.5%

Recent history

2009–2010: Democrats control Senate; coup occurs

Democrats won 32 of 62 seats in New York's upper chamber in the 2008 general election on November 4, capturing the majority for the first time in more than four decades.[48][49]

However, a power struggle emerged before the new term began. Four Democratic senators — Rubén Díaz Sr. (Bronx), Carl Kruger (Brooklyn), Pedro Espada, Jr. (Bronx), and Hiram Monserrate (Queens) — immediately refused to caucus with their party.[50] The self-named "Gang of Four" refused to back Malcolm Smith (Queens) as the chamber's majority leader and sought concessions.[51] Monserrate soon rejoined the caucus after reaching an agreement with Smith that reportedly included the chairmanship of the Consumer Affairs Committee.[52] The remaining "Gang of Three" reached an initial compromise in early December that collapsed within a week,[53] but was ultimately resolved[54] with Smith becoming majority leader.[55]

At the beginning of the 2009–2010 legislative session, there were 32 Democrats and 30 Republicans in the Senate. On June 8, 2009, then-Senators Hiram Monserrate and Pedro Espada, Jr.--both Democrats—voted with the 30 Republican members to install Senate Republican Leader Dean Skelos (R-Rockville Centre) as the new majority leader of the Senate, replacing Democratic Senate Majority Leader Malcolm Smith.[56][57] The Associated Press described the vote as a "parliamentary coup". The move came after Republican whip Tom Libous introduced a surprise resolution to vacate the chair and replace Smith as temporary president and majority leader. In an effort to stop the vote, Democratic whip Jeff Klein (Bronx) unilaterally moved to recess, and Smith had the lights and Internet cut off; however, they were unable to prevent the vote from being held. In accordance with a prearranged deal, Espada was elected temporary president and acting lieutenant governor while Skelos was elected majority leader.[58]

Following the coup, Senate Democrats voted for John Sampson (D-Brooklyn) to replace Smith as Democratic Leader. On June 14, Monserrate declared that he would once again caucus with the Democrats. This development meant that the Senate was evenly split, 31–31, between the Republican Conference and the Democratic Conference. Due to a vacancy in the office of the Lieutenant Governor, there was no way to break the deadlock.[59]

Between June 8 and the end of the coup on July 9, the Senate did not conduct any official business.[60] According to The New York Times, Espada's power play "threw the Senate into turmoil and hobbled the state government, making the body a national laughingstock as the feuding factions shouted and gaveled over each other in simultaneous legislative sessions."[61] The coup also led to litigation.[62]

On July 9, 2009, the coup ended. Espada rejoined the Senate Democratic Conference after reaching a deal in which he would be named Senate Majority Leader,[61] Sampson would remain Senate Democratic Leader, and Smith would be Temporary President of the Senate during a "transition period" after which Sampson would ascend to the Temporary Presidency.[63] On February 9, 2010, the Senate voted to expel Monserrate from the Senate following a misdemeanor domestic violence conviction.[64] Espada was defeated in a September 2010 primary election[65] in which the Democratic Party backed his challenger, Gustavo Rivera.

2011–2012: Republicans return to power; IDC forms

Republicans retook the Senate majority in the 2010 elections,[66] winning 32 seats to the Democrats' 30 on Election Day.[67][68] One Republican Senate incumbent (Sen. Frank Padavan of Queens) was defeated,[69] while Democratic candidate David Carlucci was elected to an open seat in Senate District 38[70] that had been vacated due to the death of Republican Senator Thomas Morahan on July 12, 2010.[71] Four Democratic incumbents lost their seats to Republicans in the 2010 elections: Sen. Brian Foley was defeated by Lee Zeldin,[72] Sen. Antoine Thompson was defeated by Mark Grisanti,[73] Sen. Darrel Aubertine was defeated by Patty Ritchie,[74] and Craig M. Johnson was defeated by Jack Martins.[75][67]

Just before the new legislative session convened in January 2011, four Senate Democrats--led by former Democratic whip Jeff Klein--broke away from the Senate Democratic Conference to form an Independent Democratic Conference (IDC). Klein said that he and his three colleagues, Diane Savino, David Carlucci and David Valesky could no longer support the leadership of Senate Democratic Leader John Sampson.[76]

In March 2011, "Gang of Four" member Senator Carl Kruger surrendered to bribery charges. He later pleaded guilty to those charges in December 2011.[77] On March 20, 2012, Republican David Storobin defeated Democrat Lew Fidler in a special election to fill Kruger's vacated seat; results of the special election took weeks to finalize.[32][78]

2013–2014: Coalition government

In the November 6, 2012 elections, Democrats won a total of 33 seats for a three-seat majority. Democrats gained seats in Senate Districts 17 (where Democrat Simcha Felder defeated Republican incumbent David Storobin), 41 (discussed hereinbelow), and 55 (where Ted O'Brien defeated Sean Hanna to win the seat vacated by the retiring Republican Sen. Jim Alesi), and won the election in the newly-created Senate District 46 (discussed hereinbelow).[79][80][81]

The election in Senate District 46--a new district that was created through the redistricting process following the 2010 census--was noteworthy because the candidate who was sworn in as the victor was later found, following a recount, to have lost the election. Republican George Amedore was sworn in to the State Senate following the election. However, a recount revealed that Democrat Cecilia Tkaczyk had defeated Amedore by 18 votes; therefore, Amedore vacated the seat, becoming the shortest-tenured senator in modern New York history.[33][82][81] Amedore would eventually win a rematch with Tkaczyk in 2014.[83]

Of the four Republican state senators who voted for the Marriage Equality Act in 2011 (Sens. Roy McDonald, James Alesi, Mark Grisanti, and Stephen Saland),[84]) only Grisanti was re-elected in 2012.[85][86] The Conservative Party of New York withdrew support for any candidate who had voted for the bill.[87] Sen. Alesi opted to retire instead of facing a potential primary challenge;[88] Sen. McDonald lost a Republican primary to Saratoga County Clerk Kathy Marchione;[89] and Sen. Saland won his Republican primary, but lost the general election to Democrat Terry Gipson by a margin of approximately 2,000 votes[90] after his primary challenger, Neil Di Carlo, remained on the ballot on the Conservative line and acted as a spoiler.[91]

On December 4, 2012, it was announced that Senate Republicans had reached a power-sharing deal with the four-member Independent Democratic Conference (IDC). Under their power-sharing arrangement, the IDC and the Senate Republicans to "jointly decide what bills [would] reach the Senate floor each day of the session", would "dole out committee assignments", would "have the power to make appointments to state and local boards", and would "share negotiations over the state budget".[92] Sens. Klein and Skelos also agreed that the title of Senate President would shift back and forth between the two of them every two weeks.[92] Together, the Senate Republicans and the IDC held enough seats to form a governing majority; that majority was augmented when freshman Sen. Simcha Felder of Brooklyn, a Democrat, joined the Senate Republican Conference.[93] Also, former Democratic Senate Majority Leader Malcolm Smith joined the Independent Democrats in December 2012.[94]

On December 17, 2012, Senate Democrats elected Andrea Stewart-Cousins as Senate Democratic Leader.[95][96] Stewart-Cousins became the first woman in history to lead a conference in the New York State Legislature.[11][12]

Malcolm Smith was expelled from the IDC in April 2013 due to a scandal in which he attempted to bribe the Republican Party chairs in New York City for a Wilson Pakula to run in the upcoming New York City mayoral election.[97]

Former Senate Minority Leader John L. Sampson was expelled from the Senate Democratic Conference on May 6, 2013 following his arrest on embezzlement charges.[98][99] Sampson later forfeited his Senate seat after being convicted of making false statements to federal agents in relation to the initial embezzlement case.[100]

In February 2014, Tony Avella joined the Independent Democratic Conference.[101]

2015–2018: Republicans lead again

In June 2014, the IDC announced that it would end its political alliance with the Republicans and create a new one with the Senate Democratic Conference, citing a need "to fight for the core Democratic policies that are left undone."[102] In the 2014 elections, Senate Republicans retook an outright majority in the Senate.[103] The election results meant that Klein lost his position as co-leader, with Skelos taking over as the Senate Majority Leader and Temporary President of the Senate and regaining sole control over which bills would reach the Senate floor.[92][104][105] After the election, the IDC reversed course and continued their alliance with the Republicans in the 2015 legislative session[104][106] despite their conference's diminished role.[92]

On May 4, 2015, U.S. Attorney Preet Bharara announced the arrest of Senate Majority Leader Dean Skelos (along with his son, Adam Skelos) and the arrest of Assembly Speaker Sheldon Silver.[107] Within days, Skelos announced that he was stepping down as leader of the Republican Caucus and as Majority Leader. Senator John Flanagan, of Suffolk County, became the new Majority Leader, and the first Majority Leader from Suffolk County.[108] After Skelos was convicted in December 2015, his seat was declared vacant, with a special election to be held on the presidential primary of 2016.[109][110] The special election was won by Democrat Todd Kaminsky, resulting in the Democratic Party having a numerical 32-31 advantage over the Republicans in the State Senate.[111][112] Despite this, Senator Felder and the members of the IDC chose to remain in coalition with the Republican majority.[113]

Late in 2016, Senator Jesse Hamilton announced his intention to join the IDC if re-elected.[114] The IDC aided Hamilton in his first election in 2014, which had resulted in speculation he would eventually join the conference.[115]

After all 2016 election results were announced, Senate Republicans lost one seat on Long Island and gained an upstate seat in Buffalo. On Long Island, freshman Sen. Michael Venditto was defeated in a close race by Democrat John Brooks.[116] In Buffalo, the open seat vacated by Democratic Sen. Mark Panepinto (who did not seek re-election) was won by Republican Erie County Clerk Chris Jacobs. Sen. Simcha Felder announced that he would continue to caucus with the GOP; Felder's move ensured that the Republicans would retain control of the Senate by a margin of 32–31.[117] Newly elected Democratic Sen. Marisol Alcantara also announced that she would join the IDC, after Klein assisted her campaign.[118][119]

Liberal groups in New York State, including the Working Families Party, called on the governor to intervene and pressure Sen. Felder, the IDC, and the Senate Democratic Conference to unite to make New York a united one-party government in opposition to President-elect Donald Trump's incoming administration. Klein criticized those groups along with Minority Leader Andrea Stewart-Cousins for lack of outreach as well as for calling on the governor to intervene in a separate branch of government. On January 2, 2017, Senate Majority Leader Flanagan and Senate IDC Leader Klein announced the continuation of their coalition. Klein, in a statement to the press, opined that the coalition allowed for the passage of bipartisan legislation and the consideration of pragmatic, progressive ideas.[120] The Republicans retained Senate control with 32 votes, including every Senator elected as a Republican and Sen. Felder.[121] In late January 2017, Senator Jose Peralta announced that he was joining the IDC, expanding the IDC to 8 members, the Republican-IDC-Felder coalition to 40 members, and reducing the Democratic conference to 23 members.[122]

On April 4, 2018, the IDC announced that it would dissolve, that its members would rejoin the Senate Democratic Conference, that Stewart-Cousins would continue as Senate Democratic Leader, and that Sen. Klein would become the Deputy Democratic Conference Leader.[123] The announcement followed a meeting called by Governor Andrew Cuomo at which Cuomo requested that the IDC reunite with the Senate Democratic Conference.[123] On April 16, the IDC was dissolved.[124] After the IDC dissolved, the Senate Democratic Conference contained 29 Members, the Senate Republican Conference contained 32 Members (including Sen. Felder), and there were two vacant Senate seats.[125] After two April 24, 2018 special elections were won by Democrats, the Democrats gained a 32–31 numerical Senate majority; however, Felder continued to caucus with the Republicans, allowing them to maintain a 32–31 majority instead.[126]

In 2018, five Republican senators — John Bonacic, Tom Croci, John A. DeFrancisco, William J. Larkin Jr., and Kathy Marchione — announced that they would not seek re-election in the fall.[127]

In the September 13, 2018 Democratic primary elections, all eight Democratic senators who had been members of the IDC at the time of its dissolution faced challengers.[128] Six of the challengers prevailed. John Liu defeated Avella,[129] Robert Jackson defeated Alcantara,[130] Alessandra Biaggi defeated Klein,[131] Jessica Ramos defeated Peralta,[132] Zellnor Myrie defeated Hamilton,[133] and Rachel May defeated Valesky.[134] Carlucci and Savino won their respective primaries.[135][136] Another Democratic incumbent, Martin Malave Dilan, was also defeated by a primary challenger (Julia Salazar, a self-described democratic socialist).[137]

2019–present: Large Democratic majority follows 2018 election success

On November 6, 2018, the Democratic Party gained eight seats and won control of the State Senate.[10][11] Democratic challengers defeated incumbent Republican Sens. Carl Marcellino, Kemp Hannon, Martin Golden, Terrence Murphy, and Elaine Phillips and won races in three districts (Districts 3, 39, and 42, respectively) in which Republican incumbents had not sought re-election. The mainstream Democrats won 39 seats, a decisive majority.[12][138] In total, enrolled Democrats won 40 of the chamber's 63 seats, including all but one seat in New York City. Felder offered to rejoin the Democratic Conference, but was turned down in December 2018.[139] Senate Republicans won 23 seats in the 2018 elections.[138] Stewart-Cousins was formally elected Majority Leader and Temporary President on January 9, becoming the first woman to hold the post.[140]

Catharine Young challenged Republican leader John Flanagan in a post-election bid for the minority leader position, losing 14–9.[141] She resigned her seat effective March 10, 2019 to take another position.[142]

On July 1, 2019, Andrea Stewart-Cousins announced that Simcha Felder was joining the Senate Democratic Conference as its 40th member.[14]

On November 5, 2019, Republican Chautauqua County Executive George Borrello defeated Democrat Austin Morgan in a special election to fill the Senate seat in District 57 that was left vacant following the resignation of Catharine Young.[143] He took office on November 26, 2019.[144]

By December 2019, several other members of the Republican caucus (Michael Ranzenhofer, George Amedore, Bob Antonacci, Rich Funke and Betty Little) announced their intent to not seek re-election, in addition to Bob Ortt and Chris Jacobs, both of whom are seeking the same seat in the United States House of Representatives.


The Lieutenant Governor of New York is the ex officio President of the Senate. Like the Vice President of the United States, the Lieutenant Governor has a casting vote in the event of a tie, but otherwise may not vote. With few exceptions, the Senate is presided over by the Temporary President, a post which is normally also held by the Majority Leader.

The Senate has one additional officer outside those who are elected by the people. The Secretary of the Senate is a post that is chosen by a majority vote of the senators, and does not have voting power (he/she is allowed, though officially discouraged, from discussing and negotiating legislative matters). The Secretary of the Senate is responsible for administering the Senate's office space, overseeing the handling of bills and the oversight of the sergeants-at-arms and the stenographer. Alejandra Paulino was appointed to the position in December 2018.[145]

Position Name Party District
President of the Senate/Lieutenant Governor Kathy C. Hochul Dem
Temporary President/Majority Leader Andrea Stewart-Cousins Dem 35
Minority Leader John J. Flanagan Rep 2

Democratic Conference leadership


Republican Conference Leadership

  • John J. Flanagan, Minority Leader
  • Joseph Griffo, Deputy Minority Leader
  • Kenneth P. LaValle, Chairman, Senate Minority Conference
  • James L. Seward, Chair Minority Program Development Committee
  • Josesph E. Robach, Secretary of the Senate Minority Conference
  • Elizabeth Little, Chair, Minority Steering
  • Andrew J. Lanza, Assistant Minority Whip
  • Michael H. Ranzenhofer, Deputy Minority Leader for Economic Development
  • Patrick M. Gallivan, Liaison to the Executive Branch
  • Patricia Ritchie, Deputy Minority Leader for Senate/Assembly Relations*


Current members

District Senator Party First elected Counties Represented
1Kenneth LaValleRepublican1976Suffolk
2John J. FlanaganRepublican2002Suffolk
3Monica MartinezDemocratic2018Suffolk
4Phil BoyleRepublican2012Suffolk
5James GaughranDemocratic2018Nassau, Suffolk
6Kevin ThomasDemocratic2018Nassau
7Anna KaplanDemocratic2018Nassau
8John BrooksDemocratic2016Nassau, Suffolk
9Todd KaminskyDemocratic2016*Nassau
10James SandersDemocratic2012Queens
11John LiuDemocratic2018Queens
12Michael N. GianarisDemocratic2010Queens
13Jessica RamosDemocratic2018Queens
14Leroy ComrieDemocratic2014Queens
15Joseph Addabbo, Jr.Democratic2008Queens
16Toby Ann StaviskyDemocratic1999*Queens
17Simcha FelderDemocratic[lower-alpha 2]2012Kings (Brooklyn)
18Julia SalazarDemocratic2018Kings
19Roxanne PersaudDemocratic2015*Kings
20Zellnor MyrieDemocratic2018Kings
21Kevin S. ParkerDemocratic2002Kings
22Andrew GounardesDemocratic2018Kings
23Diane SavinoDemocratic2004Kings, Richmond (Staten Island)
24Andrew J. LanzaRepublican2006Richmond
25Velmanette MontgomeryDemocratic1984Kings
26Brian KavanaghDemocratic2017*Kings, New York (Manhattan)
27Brad HoylmanDemocratic2012New York
28Liz KruegerDemocratic2002*New York
29Jose M. SerranoDemocratic2004New York, Bronx
30Brian BenjaminDemocratic2017*New York
31Robert JacksonDemocratic2018New York
32Luis SepúlvedaDemocratic2018*Bronx
33Gustavo RiveraDemocratic2010Bronx
34Alessandra BiaggiDemocratic2018Bronx, Westchester
35Andrea Stewart-CousinsDemocratic2006Westchester
36Jamaal BaileyDemocratic2016Bronx, Westchester
37Shelley MayerDemocratic2018*Westchester
38David CarlucciDemocratic2010Rockland, Westchester
39James SkoufisDemocratic2018Orange, Rockland, Ulster
40Peter HarckhamDemocratic2018Dutchess, Putnam, Westchester
41Susan J. SerinoRepublican2014Dutchess, Putnam
42Jen MetzgerDemocratic2018Delaware, Orange, Sullivan, Ulster
43Daphne JordanRepublican2018Columbia, Rensselaer, Saratoga, Washington
44Neil BreslinDemocratic1996Albany, Rensselaer
45Betty LittleRepublican2002Clinton, Essex, Franklin, Saint Lawrence, Warren, Washington
46George A. Amedore, Jr.Republican2014Albany, Greene, Montgomery, Schenectady, Ulster
47Joseph GriffoRepublican2006Lewis, Oneida, St. Lawrence
48Patty RitchieRepublican2010Jefferson, Oswego, St. Lawrence
49Jim TediscoRepublican2016Fulton, Hamilton, Herkimer, Saratoga, Schenectady
50Bob AntonacciRepublican2018Cayuga, Onondaga
51James SewardRepublican1986Cayuga, Chenango, Cortland, Delaware, Herkimer, Otsego, Schoharie, Tompkins, Ulster
52Fred AksharRepublican2015*Broome, Chenango, Delaware, Tioga
53Rachel MayDemocratic2018Madison, Oneida, Onondaga
54Pam HelmingRepublican2016Cayuga, Monroe, Ontario, Seneca, Tompkins, Wayne
55Richard FunkeRepublican2014Monroe, Ontario
56Joseph RobachRepublican2002Monroe
57George BorrelloRepublican2019*Allegany, Cattaraugus, Chautauqua, Livingston
58Tom O'MaraRepublican2010Chemung, Schuyler, Steuben, Tompkins, Yates
59Patrick GallivanRepublican2010Erie, Livingston, Monroe, Wyoming
60Chris JacobsRepublican2016Erie
61Michael H. RanzenhoferRepublican2008Erie, Genesee, Monroe
62Robert G. OrttRepublican2014Monroe, Niagara, Orleans
63Timothy M. KennedyDemocratic2010Erie

* Elected in a special election

Committee leadership

As of January 2019, the State Senate committee chairs (all Democrats) were as follows:[147]

See also


  1. "SDC" stands for "Senate Democratic Conference".
  2. Felder is an enrolled Democrat. From the beginning of his Senate tenure (in 2013) until 2019, he caucused with Senate Republicans. In early 2019, he did not caucus with either party. In July 2019, he joined the Senate Democratic Conference.
  3. Republican Catharine Young (District 57) resigned to take a job in the private sector.
  4. Simcha Felder joined the Senate Democratic Conference.


  1. "Branches of Government in New York State". New York State Senate, A Guide to New York State's Government. New York State Senate. 1988. Archived from the original on September 23, 2008. Retrieved April 23, 2009.
  2. "The Secret Playbook NY State Senate Democrats Used To 'Wipe The Floor' With Republicans". Gothamist. November 28, 2018.
  3. "Everything You Need to Know About New York's Primary Election on Thursday". Vogue. September 10, 2018.
  4. Press, Chris Carola Associated. "New York state lawmakers push term limits for elected state offices". Daily Freeman.
  5. McKinley, Jesse (February 24, 2014). "What Is a Majority Vote in the State Senate? The Answer Goes Beyond Simple Math". The New York Times.
  6. "State's Whirl of Progress". February 1, 2019.
  7. Confessore, Nicholas; Hakim, Danny (November 5, 2008). "Democrats Are Poised to Control Albany" via
  8. "Big LI wins help Democrats take control of NY Senate". Newsday.
  9. "Democrats Win New York Senate Races". Wall Street Journal. April 24, 2018. Retrieved October 23, 2018.
  10. Wang, Vivian (November 7, 2018). "Democrats Take Control of New York Senate for First Time in Decade". The New York Times. Retrieved December 19, 2018.
  11. Campanile, Carl (November 7, 2018). "Democrats take control of NY state Senate for first time in a decade". New York Post. Retrieved December 19, 2018.
  12. McKinley, Jesse; Goldmacher, Shane (November 7, 2018). "Democrats Finally Control the Power in Albany. What Will They Do With It?". The New York Times. Retrieved November 12, 2018.
  13. Campbell, Jon (January 9, 2019). "History made: Andrea Stewart-Cousins sworn in as NY Senate leader".
  14. "Turncoat turns back: Simcha Felder joins Democratic state Senate majority". CSNY. July 1, 2019.
  15. Reisman, Nick (July 1, 2019). "Felder Joins Senate Dem Fold". Retrieved July 1, 2019.
  16. "New York State Senate Election Results, 2006" (PDF).
  17. "New York - Election Results 2008 - The New York Times".
  18. "2012 Election Results - New York State Legislature" via
  19. "New York State Senate Election Results, 2014" (PDF).
  20. "New York Election Results 2016". August 1, 2017 via
  21. Goldmacher, Shane (April 4, 2018). "Democrats in New York State Senate Reconcile After Years of Infighting" via
  22. "New York Election Results". November 6, 2018. Retrieved June 23, 2019 via
  23. Lombardo, David (December 31, 2018). "Wayward state senator not welcomed by Democrats fold". Times Union. Retrieved June 23, 2019.
  24. "State Senator Catharine Young resigning for private-sector job". WKBW. February 28, 2019.
  25. "Felder Joins Senate Dem Fold".
  26. Dicker, Fredric U. (December 27, 2006). "ELIOT'S GOP SURPRISE COULD RATTLE SENATE".
  27. bureau, IRENE JAY LIU Capitol (July 16, 2008). "Bruno will retire, end 32-year career". Times Union.
  28. Blain, Kenneth Lovett, Glenn. "GOP coup in Albany: Senators Hiram Monserrate and Pedro Espada Jr. vote against fellow Democrats".
  29. "State Sen. Thomas Morahan dies at Age 78". New City, NY Patch. July 12, 2010.
  30. Kaplan, Thomas (January 30, 2011). "Issues of Race in New York Senate" via
  31. Kaplan, Thomas; Confessore, Nicholas (January 5, 2011). "4 Democrats in State Senate Break With Leaders".
  32. "FINALLY! 14-vote win for Storobin". Brooklyn Eagle. June 1, 2012.
  33. Vielkind, Jimmy (January 18, 2013). "It's Tkaczyk by just 18 votes". Times Union.
  34. Kaplan, Thomas; Hakim, Danny (December 4, 2012). "Dissident Democrats and G.O.P. to Jointly Run N.Y. Senate" via
  35. Feuer, Alan (January 18, 2017). "John Sampson, Once a State Senate Powerhouse, Sentenced to Prison" via
  36. "Queens State Senator Becomes Latest Democrat to Join Breakaway GOP-Aligned Faction". January 25, 2017.
  37. Seiler, Casey (February 27, 2014). "Avella's defection strengthens Senate coalition". Times Union.
  38. Vielkind, Jimmy. "Cuomo's special-election option". Politico PRO.
  39. "GOP wins N.Y. Senate, puts Women's Equality Act in flux". The Poughkeepsie Journal.
  40. McKinley, Jesse (November 5, 2014). "In Rebuke to Democrats, Voters Return Control of New York Senate to G.O.P." via
  41. lovett, ken. "And then there were none: Defeated Mark Grisanti last of NY Senate GOP lawmakers who backed legal gay marriage".
  42. Clifford, Stephanie (July 24, 2015). "John Sampson, New York State Senator, Is Guilty on Some Federal Charges" via
  43. "5 Democrats vie for Mount Vernon-Bronx senate seat".
  44. "New York 9th District State Senate Results: Todd Kaminsky Wins". August 1, 2017 via
  45. "Ballot count gives win to Sen. Carl Marcellino". Newsday.
  46. Niedzwiadek, Nick. "Democrat Brooks to be certified winner in SD-8". Politico PRO.
  47. McKinley, Jesse (May 9, 2017). "For Group of Breakaway Democrats in New York, It Pays to Be No. 2" via
  48. 2008 Election Results, New York State Board of Elections.
  49. 2008–09 (Post-Election) Partisan Composition of State Legislatures National Conference of State Legislatures
  50. New York Times. "Democrats Take State Senate." November 5, 2008.
  51. Peters, Jeremy (November 6, 2008). "Democrats Likely to Keep Control of State Senate". The New York Times.
  52. Benjamin, Elizabeth. Monserrate Makes A Democratic Deal Archived June 16, 2012, at the Wayback Machine The Daily Politics. The Daily News November 8, 2008
  53. Lanza, Michael. Smith Balks After ‘Gang of Three’ Talks Archived December 22, 2008, at the Wayback Machine The Queens Tribune December 11, 2008.
  54. Hakim, Danny (February 8, 2018). "Democrats Reach Pact to Lead New York State Senate". Retrieved February 8, 2018 via
  55. Peters, Jeremy W. (February 8, 2018). "Democrats Take Control of New York State Senate". Retrieved February 8, 2018 via
  56. "GOP, 2 Dems flip power balance in NY Senate", The Washington Post, June 8, 2009
  57. "Two Democrats join Republicans to topple Smith as Senate leader". Albany Times Union. June 8, 2009.Archived June 11, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  58. "Two Democrats join Republicans to topple Smith as Senate leader". Albany Times Union. June 8, 2009. Archived from the original on June 11, 2009. Retrieved June 8, 2009.
  59. Lovett, Kenneth (June 15, 2009) State Senate standoff means even bigger mess with Sen. Hiram Monserrate's change of heart. New York Daily News Retrieved June 15, 2009
  60. "Dems regain control of Senate, Espada named majority leader". Albany Business Review. July 9, 2009.
  61. Hakim, Danny (July 9, 2009). "Albany Impasse Ends as Defector Rejoins Caucus". The New York Times. Retrieved November 12, 2018.
  62. BAUMAN, VALERIE. "NY judge tosses Senate case back to lawmakers". Press-Republican. Retrieved January 10, 2019.
  63. Deadlock-Ending Deal Near? Espada To Return To The Democrats Archived July 12, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. New York Daily News Retrieved July 9, 2009
  64. "NY Senate votes to expel Hiram Monserrate". Retrieved January 10, 2019.
  65. Dolnick, Sam (September 15, 2010). "In N.Y. Legislature Races, Espada and Monserrate Lose". Retrieved January 10, 2019 via
  66. Vielkind, Jimmy. "Democrats Take Control of New York State Senate for First Time Since 2010". WSJ.
  67. "Court backs Martins win, GOP takes NY Senate". Newsday.
  69. "Padavan Concedes To Avella In Contested Queens Race". Retrieved January 7, 2012.
  70. "State Senate: Carluccci defeats Vanderhoef for Morahan's seat". Archived from the original on November 6, 2010. Retrieved December 3, 2010.
  71. "State Sen. Thomas Morahan dies of cancer". July 13, 2010.
  72. Bolger, Timothy (November 3, 2010). "LI State Senate Races: Zeldin Ousts Foley, Johnson-Martins a Close Call". Long Island Press. Retrieved January 7, 2012.
  73. "Democratic NY Sen. Thompson concedes in recount". Archived from the original on December 6, 2010.
  74. David Lassman / The Post-Standard (November 18, 2010). "Williams giving up Republican chair in Oswego County". Retrieved January 7, 2012.
  75. Judy Rattner (December 2, 2010). "Skelos to lead GOP in Senate". Retrieved January 7, 2012.
  76. Thomas Kaplan; Nicholas Confessore (January 4, 2011). "4 Democrats in State Senate Break With Leaders". The New York Times.
  77. Weiser, Benjamin (April 26, 2012). "Carl Kruger Sentenced to Seven Years in Corruption Case". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved May 11, 2018.
  78. "Court Drama Heats Up in Fidler-Storobin Race". April 27, 2012.
  79. "New York State Senate Election Results, 2012" (PDF).
  80. "2012 Election Results - New York State Legislature". Retrieved January 10, 2019 via
  81. Vielkind, Jimmy "It's Tkaczyk by just 18 votes," Times Union, January 18, 2013, Retrieved January 19, 2013
  82. United Press International (UPI), " Dem. squeaks into N.Y. Senate by 18 votes," January 18, 2013, Retrieved January 18, 2013
  83. Ariel Zangla (November 5, 2014). "46th NY Senate District: George Amedore ousts Cecilia Tkaczyk". Retrieved January 8, 2018.
  84. Kaplan, Thomas (September 24, 2012). "G.O.P. State Senator Who Backed Same-Sex Marriage Is Apparently Defeated" via
  85. Kaplan, Thomas (December 13, 2012). "In Final Tally, Vote for Gay Marriage Costs 3 Republicans". The New York Times.
  87. Eckholm, Erik; Seelye, Katharine Q. (July 2, 2011). "Same-Sex Marriage Victory in New York Spurs Opponents to Work Elsewhere" via
  88. "James Alesi, Gay Marriage Supporting Republican Senator, Not Running For Re-Election".
  89. DeWitt, Karen. "Sen. Roy McDonald to leave race after losing GOP Primary". NCPR.
  91. Gross, Hank. "DiCarlo plays spoiler in NY 41st Senate Race".
  92. Roy, Yancey (December 5, 2012). "Skelos praises his Senate deal with Dems". Newsday. Retrieved October 22, 2018.
  93. Kaplan, Thomas (November 13, 2012). "Newly Elected State Senator, Simcha Felder, Defects to G.O.P". Retrieved February 8, 2018 via
  94. Kaplan, Thomas Coalition Is to Control State Senate as Dissident Democrats Join With the G.O.P., The New York Times, December 4, 2012.
  95. "Moving on from Sampson, State Senate Democrats elect Andrea Stewart-Cousins". December 17, 2012. Retrieved January 4, 2019.
  96. "Democratic Senators Embrace Andrea Stewart-Cousins as Their New Leader". Observer. December 18, 2012.
  97. Lovett, Kenneth (April 15, 2013). NYS Senate Independent Democratic Conference To Busted Malcolm Smith: Stay Away. New York Daily News. Retrieved April 16, 2013.
  98. "Stewart-Cousins Boots Sampson From Conference". May 6, 2013.
  99. Vielkind, Jimmy (May 6, 2013). "FBI: Senator embezzled, lied". Times Union.
  100. "John Sampson, Once a State Senate Powerhouse, Sentenced to Prison". The New York Times. January 18, 2017. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved May 11, 2018.
  101. "Avella's defection strengthens Senate coalition". Albany Times-Union. February 26, 2018. Retrieved March 27, 2018.
  102. Bain, Glenn. "Senate's Independent Democratic Conference announces end to alliance with Republicans – UPDATED". New York Daily News. Retrieved February 11, 2015.
  103. "GOP wins N.Y. Senate, puts Women's Equality Act in flux". Poughkeepsie Journal. Retrieved February 8, 2018.
  104. "Klein, diminished but still desired, sides with power". Capital New York. Retrieved February 8, 2017.
  105. admin (March 21, 2016). "Jeff Klein's wild ride". Retrieved October 22, 2018.
  106. "GOP takes full control of NY Senate, but retains 'coalition' with Valesky, IDC". The Post-Standard. Syracuse, New York. Retrieved February 8, 2017.
  107. Craig, Susanne (May 4, 2015). "New York Senate Leader and Son Are Arrested on Corruption Charges". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved January 2, 2017.
  108. Kaplan, Thomas; Craig, Susanne (May 11, 2015). "Dean Skelos, New York Senate Leader, Vacates Post". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved January 2, 2017.
  109. Rashbaum, William K.; Craig, Susanne (December 11, 2015). "Dean Skelos, Ex-New York Senate Leader, and His Son Are Convicted of Corruption". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved January 2, 2017.
  110. Rojas, Rick (January 30, 2016). "Special Election Is Set for April to Fill Seats Left Vacant in Albany". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved January 2, 2017.
  111. "Democrats Take Over NY Senate as Skelos' Successor Certified". NBC New York. May 2, 2016. Retrieved May 7, 2016.
  112. "Kaminsky sworn-in, replaces convicted Skelos". Newsday. May 3, 2016. Retrieved May 7, 2016.
  113. Campanile, Carl (April 21, 2016). "Kaminsky clinches win to take Skelos' seat".
  114. "Brooklyn senator joins breakaway Democrats". Retrieved February 8, 2018.
  115. "Jesse Hamilton promises to join Senate's IDC". Politico PRO. Retrieved January 2, 2017.
  116. "Republic state Sen. Venditto concedes race to Democratic challenger". News 12 Long Island. Archived from the original on January 3, 2017. Retrieved January 2, 2017.
  117. Yee, Vivian (November 21, 2016). "Simcha Felder, Rogue Democratic Senator, Will Remain Loyal to G.O.P." The New York Times. p. A25. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved January 2, 2017.
  118. "Alcantara's primary win a major victory for Senate IDC – NY Daily News". Retrieved January 3, 2017.
  119. "Alcantara wins race to replace Espaillat, bolsters IDC". Retrieved January 3, 2017.
  120. Lovett, Kenneth (January 2, 2017). "LOVETT: Breakaway Senate Dems will side with GOP". Daily News. New York. Retrieved March 16, 2017.
  121. "NY Senate Legislative Session 1-4-17". Retrieved January 13, 2018.
  122. "Sen. Jose Peralta blasts 'failed' state Democratic leadership". Retrieved February 8, 2018.
  123. Goldmacher, Shane (April 4, 2018). "Democrats in New York State Senate Reconcile After Years of Infighting". The New York Times. Retrieved April 4, 2018.
  124. Wang, Vivian (April 16, 2018). "As Session Resumes, a Democratic Truce in Albany Seems Uneasy". The New York Times. Retrieved April 16, 2018.
  125. "IDC agrees to dissolve". State of Politics. April 4, 2018.
  126. Campbell, John; Spector, Joseph (April 24, 2018). "Simcha Felder to stick with Senate Republicans, denying potential Democratic control". Rochester Democrat & Chronicle. Retrieved April 24, 2018.
  127. Precious, Tom (May 3, 2018). "Fifth GOP state senator in a week announces retirement plans". Retrieved January 10, 2019.
  128. West, Melanie Grayce (September 10, 2018). "New York State's Breakaway Democrats Face Primary Challengers" via
  129. Bayside-Douglaston. "NY Election Results: John Liu Ousts Tony Avella In Senate Primary | Bayside, NY Patch". Retrieved September 14, 2018.
  130. , September 13, 2018, by Associated Press. "Former NYC councilman Robert Jackson beats state Sen. Marisol Alcantara | WPIX 11 New York". Retrieved September 14, 2018.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  131. , September 13, 2018, by Associated Press. "Alessandra Biaggi defeats Bronx Sen. Jeff Klein in NY primary | WPIX 11 New York". Retrieved September 14, 2018.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  132. Hallum, Mark. "Ramos upsets Peralta in Democratic primary". TimesLedger. Retrieved September 14, 2018.
  133. Prospect Heights-Crown Heights. "Zellnor Myrie Wins Crown Heights State Senate Race | Prospect Heights, NY Patch". Retrieved September 14, 2018.
  134. Parsnow, Luke (September 13, 2018). "In stunning upset, Rachel May defeats Dave Valesky in state Senate Democratic primary". WSTM. Sinclair Broadcast Group. Retrieved September 14, 2018.
  135. Lieberman, Steve (September 13, 2018). "Carlucci defeats Goldberg in Democratic primary for 38th Senate district". The Journal News. Gannett Company. Retrieved September 14, 2018.
  136. Wang, Vivian (September 13, 2018). "Democratic Insurgents Topple 6 New York Senate Incumbents". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. Retrieved September 14, 2018.
  137. "Julia Salazar overcomes controversy to notch another victory for democratic socialists". Vox. Retrieved September 14, 2018.
  138. "New York Election Results". November 6, 2018. Retrieved January 10, 2019 via
  139. Lombardo, David (December 31, 2018). "Wayward state senator not welcomed by Democrats fold". Times Union. Retrieved January 10, 2019.
  140. Precious, Tom (January 9, 2018). "After 242 years, a woman is in charge of the State Senate". Buffalo News. Retrieved January 10, 2018.
  141. Silberstein, Rachel (December 21, 2018). "Flanagan rewards upstate loyalists with leadership posts". Capitol Confidential.
  142. Miller, Rick. "Sen. Catharine Young, with farming roots, excited over opportunity in new Cornell position". Olean Times Herald. Retrieved June 23, 2019.
  143. Williams, Frank (November 6, 2019). "Borello Wins Seat Vacated by Young".
  144. Olean Times Herald Staff. "Borrello assumes office as senator for 57th District". Olean Times Herald. Retrieved November 26, 2019.
  145. Lovett, Kenneth. "Heading into NYS Senate majority, Stewart-Cousins puts diverse team together".
  146. "Senate Leadership". October 4, 2015. Retrieved February 8, 2018.
  147. Coltin, Jeff (December 11, 2018). "Some surprises as Senate Democrats announce committee chairs". City & State.
This article is issued from Wikipedia. The text is licensed under Creative Commons - Attribution - Sharealike. Additional terms may apply for the media files.