Nepenthes attenboroughii (/ , - /), or Attenborough's pitcher plant, is a montane species of carnivorous pitcher plant of the genus Nepenthes. It is named after the celebrated broadcaster and naturalist Sir David Attenborough, who is a keen enthusiast of the genus. The species is characterised by its large and distinctive bell-shaped lower and upper pitchers and narrow, upright lid. The type specimen of N. attenboroughii was collected on the summit of Mount Victoria, an ultramafic mountain in central Palawan, the Philippines.
|A lower pitcher of N. attenboroughii showing the characteristic bell-shaped pitchers and upright lid of this species|
|Scientific classification |
In May 2010, the International Institute for Species Exploration at Arizona State University selected N. attenboroughii as one of the "top 10 new species described in 2009". The species appeared on the 2012 list of the world's 100 most threatened species compiled by the IUCN Species Survival Commission in collaboration with the Zoological Society of London.
Nepenthes attenboroughii was discovered by Alastair S. Robinson, Stewart R. McPherson and Volker B. Heinrich in June 2007, during a 2 month research expedition to catalogue the different species of pitcher plant found across the Philippine Archipelago. The expedition was initiated after missionaries reported seeing giant Nepenthes on the mountain in 2000.
The formal description of N. attenboroughii was published in February 2009 in the Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. The herbarium specimen A. Robinson AR001 is the designated holotype, and is deposited at the herbarium of Palawan State University (PPC), Puerto Princesa City.
Leaves and pitchers
The leaves are coriaceous and sessile or sub-petiolate. The leaves of rosettes are up to 30 cm long and 10 cm wide, whereas those of the scrambling stem are up to 40 cm long and 15 cm wide. The leaves are oblong to elliptic, obtuse at the apex and shortly attenuate at the base, clasping the stem by approximately two-thirds of its circumference and becoming decurrent for 2–3 cm.
Nepenthes attenboroughii produces some of the largest pitchers in the genus, sometimes exceeding those of typical N. rajah in size, but is not known to have exceeded the size and volume records set by that species. The largest recorded pitcher of N. attenboroughii measured more than 1.5 litres in volume, and traps exceeding 2 litres are likely to be produced on occasion. The lower pitchers are brittle and campanulate (bell-shaped), up to 30 cm tall and 16 cm wide and emerge from tendrils that are 30–40 cm long and 4–9 mm in diameter. The tendrils are flattened towards the leaf, making them almost semi-circular in cross section.
The upper pitchers are similar to the lower pitchers, but generally infundibular, to 25 cm tall and 12 cm wide.
Nepenthes attenboroughii has a racemose inflorescence up to 80 cm long. The male flower spike bears approximately 100 pedicellate flowers on a rachis up to 45 cm long and is recorded to bifurcate on occasion. The flowers lack bracts and produce red tepals that are broadly ovate with an obtuse apex.
The female inflorescence is shorter, to 65 cm long, never bifurcates, and bears up to 70 densely arranged flowers on a compact rachis up to 20 cm long. The tepals are brown to purple, ovate, and have an acute apex.
Distribution and habitat
This species is endemic to the Victoria Massif in Palawan. There, it grows from 1450 m above sea level to the summit of Mount Victoria at 1726 m. Originally known only from Mount Victoria itself, it has since been found on the largest peak of the Victoria Massif, Mount Sagpaw, and along the connecting ridges from the site of first collection. The species is found among shrubs 0.8–1.8 m tall in relatively scattered populations of plants on rocky, ultramafic soil. It is not sympatric with other Nepenthes species and no natural hybrids have been recorded.
The summit flora of Mount Victoria includes Leptospermum sp., Medinilla spp., Pleomele sp., Vaccinium sp., various grasses, as well as the sundew Drosera ultramafica, which grows at similar elevations to N. attenboroughii.
The pitchers of N. attenboroughii are open to the elements and thus often completely filled with fluid. This fluid is viscous in the lower part of the pitcher and watery above, forming two fractions that do not mix. The upper fraction supports populations of pitcher infauna, particularly mosquito larvae, and the pitchers of this species may benefit from both the usual capture of prey as well as the detritus produced by organisms living within the pitcher fluid.
In the latter half of 2009, this taxon received a great deal of publicity in the national press of various countries as a sensational new plant that catches and kills rats. Whilst certainly large enough to trap rodents, no rodents of any kind had, at that time, been observed within the pitchers of this species, as indicated in the type description and through subsequent clarification by the author, Alastair Robinson, who suggested that were rodents to be captured by the plant, it was likely to be through misadventure rather than by design, large bugs and flying insects appearing to be the usual prey.
In October 2012, however, a dead shrew was found in a pitcher of Nepenthes attenboroughii during a return expedition to Mount Victoria by Robinson and a group of naturalists. Yet another visit almost two months later, in December 2012, allowed the botanist to assess and document the rate of digestion on video. It was found that the corpse of the shrew had, in the intervening weeks, progressed from a wholly intact state to mere skeletal remains, with only scant viscera and a matte of hair at the bottom of the pitcher still apparent.
Nepenthes attenboroughii is closely related to the Palawan species, N. deaniana, N. leonardoi, N. mantalingajanensis, N. mira, and N. palawanensis (which produces even larger pitchers), to N. peltata from Mindanao, and to N. rajah from Borneo.
The stated relationship of this taxon with species from Borneo and Mindanao agrees with observations made in the description of N. mira, and is further supported in the type description of N. attenboroughii by previously overlooked paleogeographical evidence. Based on this evidence, the authors reason that these species, predominantly found growing on ultramafic soils on Palawan and Mindanao, are likely to have arisen as a result of the radiative speciation of a common ancestor in Borneo.
- Robinson, A.S.; Madulid, D.A. (2012). "Nepenthes attenboroughii". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2012: e.T159126A790335. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012-1.RLTS.T159126A790335.en.
- Robinson, A.S., A.S. Fleischmann, S.R. McPherson, V.B. Heinrich, E.P. Gironella & C.Q. Peña 2009. A spectacular new species of Nepenthes L. (Nepenthaceae) pitcher plant from central Palawan, Philippines. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 159(2): 195–202. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2008.00942.x
- Baillie, J.E.M. & E.R. Butcher 2012. Priceless or Worthless? The world's most threatened species. Archived 2012-10-21 at the Wayback Machine Zoological Society of London, United Kingdom.
- George, A. & K. Austen 2009. #AskAttenborough: Your questions answered. New Scientist, May 15, 2009.
- Smyth, C. 2009. Giant rat-eating nepenthes plant named after David Attenborough. Times Online, August 18, 2009.
- Scientists select new species for top 10 list; issue SOS. ASU News, May 20, 2010.
- Top 10 - 2010: Attenborough's Pitcher Archived 2010-05-25 at the Wayback Machine. International Institute for Species Exploration.
- European botanists find new Palawan plant. Manila Bulletin, October 16, 2007.
- Walker, M. 2009. Giant 'meat-eating' plant found. BBC Earth News, August 11, 2009.
- McPherson, S.R. 2009. The Discovery of Nepenthes attenboroughii. In: Pitcher Plants of the Old World. Volume 2. Redfern Natural History Productions, Poole. pp. 1320–1333.
- McPherson, S.R. 2011. The Discovery of Nepenthes attenboroughii. In: New Nepenthes: Volume One. Redfern Natural History Productions, Poole. pp. 174–202.
- McPherson, S.R. 2009. Pitcher Plants of the Old World. 2 volumes. Redfern Natural History Productions, Poole.
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- Mey, F.S. 2014. Highlighting Nepenthes variation within a species. Strange Fruits: A Garden's Chronicle, July 3, 2014.
- McPherson, S.R. & V.B. Amoroso 2011. Field Guide to the Pitcher Plants of the Philippines. Redfern Natural History Productions, Poole.
- McPherson, S.R. 2011. Expanding the Range of Nepenthes attenboroughii. In: New Nepenthes: Volume One. Redfern Natural History Productions, Poole. pp. 346–363.
- Cullen, D. & B. Quinn 2012. Exploring Mount Victoria, Central Palawan – revisiting the habitat of N. attenboroughii. Part 1: Mt Victoria – Peak 1 & 2. Victorian Carnivorous Plant Society Inc. 105: 6–13.
- Cullen, D. & B. Quinn 2012. Exploring Mount Victoria, Central Palawan – revisiting the habitat of N. attenboroughii. Part 2: Mt Sagpaw. Victorian Carnivorous Plant Society Inc. 106: 6–12.
- Fleischmann, A., A.S. Robinson, S. McPherson, V. Heinrich, E. Gironella & D.A. Madulid 2011. Drosera ultramafica (Droseraceae), a new sundew species of the ultramafic flora of the Malesian highlands. Blumea 56(1): 10–15.
- Google 2009. Rodent-eating plant discovered in Palawan. Google News aggregator, August 18, 2009.
- Robinson, A.S. 2009. Nepenthes attenboroughii in the press. CPUK Forum, August 19, 2009.
- Giant Nepenthes Trip: Mt. Victoria Philippines. Leilani Nepenthes - Photo Archives.
- Mey, F.S. 2013. Terrestrial shrew remains in Nepenthes attenboroughii [VIDEO]. Strange Fruits: A Garden's Chronicle, August 22, 2013.
- Rediscovery of Nepenthes paniculata. [video] Redfern Natural History Productions.
- McPherson, S., G. Bourke, J. Cervancia, M. Jaunzems, E. Gironella, A. Robinson & A. Fleischmann 2011. Nepenthes leonardoi (Nepenthaceae), a new pitcher plant species from Palawan, Philippines. Carniflora Australis 8(1): 4–19.
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- McPherson, S. 2010. Nepenthes palawanensis: another new species of giant pitcher plant from the Philippines. Carnivorous Plant Newsletter 39(3): 89–90.
- Cheek, M.R. & M.H.P. Jebb 1999. Nepenthes (Nepenthaceae) in Palawan, Philippines. Kew Bulletin 54(4): 887–895. doi:10.2307/4111166
- Clarke, C. 2013. What Can Tree Shrews Tell Us about the Effects of Climate Change on Pitcher Plants? [video] TESS seminars, 25 September 2013.
- Clarke, C. & J.A. Moran 2011. Incorporating ecological context: a revised protocol for the preservation of Nepenthes pitcher plant specimens (Nepenthaceae). Blumea 56(3): 225–228. doi:10.3767/000651911X605781
- Co, L. & W. Suarez 2012. Nepenthaceae. Co's Digital Flora of the Philippines.
- McPherson, S. 2011. N. attenboroughii – a new species of giant pitcher plant from the Philippines. Victorian Carnivorous Plant Society Inc. 99: 12–18.
- McPherson, S. 2012. Nepenthes attenboroughii: a new giant species of pitcher plant from the Philippines. Planta Carnivora 34(1): 16–25.
- McPherson, S.R. 2011. Comparison of the highland Palaweño Nepenthes. In: New Nepenthes: Volume One. Redfern Natural History Productions, Poole. pp. 364–381.
- (in German) McPherson, S. & T. Gronemeyer 2008. Die Nepenthesarten der Philippinen: eine Fotodokumentation. Das Taublatt 60: 34–78.
- Miles, J. 2012. Discovering a lost world of rat-eating plants in the Philippines. Friday, October 9, 2012.
- Exploration of Mount Anipahan and Mount Kiamo. [video] Redfern Natural History Productions.
- Lecture on Plant Hunting – Royal Horticultural Society 6th May 2014. [video] Redfern Natural History Productions.
- (in Indonesian) Dua Malam Demi Attenboroughii. Trubus, November 3, 2008.
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- Photographs of N. attenboroughii at the Carnivorous Plant Photofinder