The term neo-romanticism is used to cover a variety of movements in philosophy, literature, music, painting, and architecture, as well as social movements, that exist after and incorporate elements from the era of Romanticism. It has been used with reference to late-19th-century composers such as Richard Wagner particularly by Carl Dahlhaus who describes his music as "a late flowering of romanticism in a positivist age". He regards it as synonymous with "the age of Wagner", from about 1850 until 1890—the start of the era of modernism, whose leading early representatives were Richard Strauss and Gustav Mahler (Dahlhaus 1979, 98–99, 102, 105). It has been applied to writers, painters, and composers who rejected, abandoned, or opposed realism, naturalism, or avant-garde modernism at various points in time from about 1840 down to the present.
Late 19th century and early 20th century
Neo-romanticism as well as Romanticism is considered in opposition to naturalism—indeed, so far as music is concerned, naturalism is regarded as alien and even hostile (Dahlhaus 1979, 100). In the period following German unification in 1871, naturalism rejected Romantic literature as a misleading, idealistic distortion of reality. Naturalism in turn came to be regarded as incapable of filling the "void" of modern existence. Critics such as Hermann Bahr, Heinrich Mann, and Eugen Diederichs came to oppose naturalism and materialism under the banner of "neo-romanticism", demanding a cultural reorientation responding to "the soul’s longing for a meaning and content in life" that might replace the fragmentations of modern knowledge with a holistic world view (Kohlenbach 2009, 261).
Late 20th century
"Neo-romanticism" was proposed as an alternative label for the group of German composers identified with the short-lived Neue Einfachheit movement in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Along with other phrases such as "new tonality", this term has been criticised for lack of precision because of the diversity among these composers, whose leading member is Wolfgang Rihm (Hentschel 2006, 111).
In British art history, the term "neo-romanticism" is applied to a loosely affiliated school of landscape painting that emerged around 1930 and continued until the early 1950s. It was first labeled in March 1942 by the critic Raymond Mortimer in the New Statesman. These painters looked back to 19th-century artists such as William Blake and Samuel Palmer, but were also influenced by French cubist and post-cubist artists such as Pablo Picasso, André Masson, and Pavel Tchelitchew (Clark and Clarke 2001; Hopkins 2001). This movement was motivated in part as a response to the threat of invasion during World War II. Artists particularly associated with the initiation of this movement included Paul Nash, John Piper, Henry Moore, Ivon Hitchens, and especially Graham Sutherland. A younger generation included John Minton, Michael Ayrton, John Craxton, Keith Vaughan, Robert Colquhoun, and Robert MacBryde (Button 1996).
- Alexander Kazbegi (Georgia)
- Uladzimir Karatkevich (Belarus)
- Johannes Semper (Estonia)
- Marie Under (Estonia)
- Odysseus Elytis (Greece)
- Young Poland Movement (Poland)
- Antoni Lange (Poland)
- Stanisław Przybyszewski (Poland/Germany)
- Tadeusz Miciński (Poland)
- Karol Szymanowski (Poland)
- Eugene Berman (Russia)
- Pavel Tchelitchew (Russia)
- Dragotin Kette (Slovenia)
- The Chhayavaad movement in Indian literature
Beginning in the mid-1930s and continuing through World War II, a Japanese neo-romantic literary movement was led by the writer Yasuda Yojūrō (Torrance 2010, 66).
In popular culture
- Button, Virginia. 1996. "Neo-Romanticism". Dictionary of Art, 34 volumes, edited by Jane Turner. New York: Grove’s Dictionaries. ISBN 9781884446009.
- Clarke, Michael, and Deborah Clarke. 2001. "Neo-Romanticism". The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Art Terms. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press.
- Dahlhaus, Carl. 1979. "Neo-Romanticism". 19th-Century Music 3, no. 2 (November): 97–105.
- Hentschel, Frank. 2006. "Wie neu war die 'Neue Einfachheit'?" Acta Musicologica 78, no. 1:111–31.
- Hopkins, Justine. 2001. "Neo-Romanticism". The Oxford Companion to Western Art, edited by Hugh Brigstocke. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-866203-7.
- Kohlenbach, Margarete. 2009. “Transformations of German Romanticism 1830–2000”. In The Cambridge Companion to German Romanticism, edited by Nicholas Saul, 257–80. Cambridge Companions to Literature. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521848916.
- Torrance, Richard. 2010. "The People’s Library: The Spirit of Prose Literature Versus Fascism". In The Culture of Japanese Fascism, edited by Alan Tansman, 56–79. Asia-Pacific: Culture, Politics, and Society. Duke University Press. ISBN 9780822390701.
- Ackroyd, Peter. 2002. The Origins of the English Imagination.
- Arnold, Graham. 2003. The Ruralists: A Celebration.
- Michael Bracewell. 1997. England Is Mine.
- Cannon-Brookes, P. 1983. The British Neo-Romantics.
- Corbett, Holt, and Russell (eds.). 2002. The Geographies of Englishness: Landscape and the National Past, 1880-1940.
- Martin, Christopher. 1992. The Ruralists (An Art & Design Profile, No. 23).
- Martin, Simon. 2008. Poets in the Landscape: The Romantic Spirit in British Art.
- Johnson and Landow (Eds). 1980. Fantastic Illustration and Design in Great Britain, 1850–1930. Cambridge: The MIT Press.
- Mellor, David. 1987. Paradise Lost: The Neo-Romantic Imagination in Britain, 1935–1955.
- Picot, Edward. 1997. Outcasts from Eden: Ideas of Landscape in British Poetry Since 1945.
- Sillars, S. 1991. British Romantic Art and The Second World War.
- Trentmann, F. 1994. Civilisation and its Discontents: English Neo-Romanticism and the Transformation of Anti-Modernism in Twentieth-Century Western Culture. London: Birkbeck College.
- Woodcock, Peter. 2000. This Enchanted Isle: The Neo-Romantic Vision from William Blake to the New Visionaries.
- Yorke, Malcolm. 1988. The Spirit of the Place: Nine Neo-Romantic Artists and Their Times. London: Constable & Company Limited. Paperback reprint, London and New York: Tauris Parke Paperbacks, 2001. ISBN 1-86064-604-2.
- Brajendranath Seal. 1903. "The Neo-Romantic Movement in Literature". In New Essays in Criticism.