Neal Stephenson

Neal Town Stephenson (born October 31, 1959) is an American writer known for his works of speculative fiction.

Neal Stephenson
Neal Stephenson in 2019
BornNeal Town Stephenson
(1959-10-31) October 31, 1959
Fort Meade, Maryland, United States
Pen nameStephen Bury
(with J. Frederick George)
OccupationNovelist, short story writer, essayist
PeriodSince 1984
GenreSpeculative fiction, historical fiction, essays
Literary movementCyberpunk, postcyberpunk, maximalism
Notable awardsHugo Award, Prometheus Award

His novels have been categorized as science fiction, historical fiction, cyberpunk, postcyberpunk, and baroque.

Stephenson's work explores subjects such as mathematics, cryptography, linguistics, philosophy, currency, and the history of science. He also writes non-fiction articles about technology in publications such as Wired. He has also written novels with his uncle, George Jewsbury ("J. Frederick George"), under the collective pseudonym Stephen Bury.

Stephenson has worked part-time as an advisor for Blue Origin, a company (founded by Jeff Bezos) developing a spacecraft and a space launch system,[1] and is also a cofounder of Subutai Corporation, whose first offering is the interactive fiction project The Mongoliad. He is currently Magic Leap's Chief Futurist.


Born on October 31, 1959 in Fort Meade, Maryland,[2] Stephenson came from a family of engineers and scientists; his father is a professor of electrical engineering while his paternal grandfather was a physics professor. His mother worked in a biochemistry laboratory, and her father was a biochemistry professor. Stephenson's family moved to Champaign-Urbana, Illinois, in 1960 and then in 1966 to Ames, Iowa. He graduated from Ames High School in 1977.[3]

Stephenson studied at Boston University,[3] first specializing in physics, then switching to geography after he found that it would allow him to spend more time on the university mainframe.[4] He graduated in 1981 with a B.A. in geography and a minor in physics.[3] Since 1984, Stephenson has lived mostly in the Pacific Northwest and currently lives in Seattle with his family.[3]


Stephenson's first novel, The Big U, published in 1984, was a satirical take on life at American Megaversity, a vast, bland, and alienating research university beset by chaotic riots.[5][6] His next novel, Zodiac (1988), was a thriller following the exploits of a radical environmentalist protagonist in his struggle against corporate polluters.[5] Neither novel attracted much critical attention on first publication, but showcased concerns that Stephenson would further develop in his later work.[5]

Stephenson's breakthrough came in 1992 with Snow Crash, a comic novel in the late cyberpunk or post-cyberpunk tradition fusing memetics, computer viruses, and other high-tech themes with Sumerian mythology, along with a sociological extrapolation of extreme laissez-faire capitalism and collectivism.[6][7] Snow Crash was the first of Stephenson's epic science fiction novels. Stephenson at this time would later be described by Mike Godwin as "a slight, unassuming grad-student type whose soft-spoken demeanor gave no obvious indication that he had written the manic apotheosis of cyberpunk science fiction."[8] In 1994, Stephenson joined with his uncle, J. Frederick George, to publish a political thriller, Interface, under the pen name "Stephen Bury";[9] they followed this in 1996 with The Cobweb.

Stephenson's next solo novel, published in 1995, was The Diamond Age: or A Young Lady's Illustrated Primer, which introduced many of today's real-world technological discoveries. Seen back then as futuristic, Stephenson's novel includes broad-range universal self-learning nanotechnology, dynabooks, robotics, cybernetics, and cyber cities. In a plot involving weapons implanted in characters' skulls, near-limitless replicators for everything from mattresses to foods, smartpaper, air and blood-sanitizing nanobots, set in a grim future world of limited resources populated by hard-edged survivalists, an amalgamation hero is accidentally conceptualized by a few powerful and wealthy creatives, programmers, and hackers.

This was followed by Cryptonomicon in 1999, a novel concerned with concepts ranging from computing and Alan Turing's research into codebreaking and cryptography during the Second World War at Bletchley Park, to a modern attempt to set up a data haven. It has subsequently been reissued in three separate volumes in some countries, including in French and Spanish translations. In 2013, Cryptonomicon won the Prometheus Hall of Fame Award.

The Baroque Cycle is a series of historical novels set in the 17th and 18th centuries, and is in some respects a prequel to Cryptonomicon. It was originally published in three volumes of two or three books each – Quicksilver (2003), The Confusion, (2004) and The System of the World (2004) – but was subsequently republished as eight separate books: Quicksilver, King of the Vagabonds, Odalisque, Bonanza, Juncto, Solomon's Gold, Currency, and System of the World. (The titles and exact breakdown vary in different markets.) The System of the World won the Prometheus Award in 2005.

Stephenson worked at Blue OriginJeff Bezos' spaceflight company—for seven years in the early 2000s when its focus was on "novel alternate approaches to space, alternate propulsion systems, and business models", but left after Blue became a more standard aerospace company.[10]

Following this, Stephenson published a novel titled Anathem (2008), a very long and detailed work, perhaps best described as speculative fiction. It is set in an Earthlike world (perhaps in an alternative reality), deals with metaphysics, and refers heavily to Ancient Greek philosophy, while at the same time being a complex commentary on the insubstantiality of today's society.

In May 2010, the Subutai Corporation, of which Stephenson was named chairman, announced the production of an experimental multimedia fiction project called The Mongoliad, which centered upon a narrative written by Stephenson and other speculative fiction authors.[11][12]

Stephenson's novel REAMDE was released on September 20, 2011.[13] The title is a play on the common filename README. This thriller, set in the present, centers around a group of MMORPG developers caught in the middle of Chinese cyber-criminals, Islamic terrorists, and Russian mafia.[14]

On August 7, 2012, Stephenson released a collection of essays and other previously published fiction entitled Some Remarks: Essays and Other Writing.[15] This collection also includes a new essay and a short story created specifically for this volume.

In 2012, Stephenson launched a Kickstarter campaign for CLANG, a realistic sword-fighting fantasy game. The concept of the game was to use motion control to provide an immersive experience. The campaign's funding goal of $500,000 was reached by the target date of July 9, 2012 on Kickstarter, but funding options remained open and the project continued to accept contributions on its official site.[16] The project ran out of money in September 2013.[17] This, and the circumstances around it, has angered some backers.[18] There has even been talk, among the backers, of a potential class-action lawsuit.[19] The project to develop the game ended in September 2014 without the game being completed. Stephenson took part of the responsibility for the project's failure, stating, "I probably focused too much on historical accuracy and not enough on making it sufficiently fun to attract additional investment".[20]

In late 2013, Stephenson stated that he was working on a multi-volume work of historical novels that would "have a lot to do with scientific and technological themes and how those interact with the characters and civilisation during a particular span of history". He expected the first two volumes to be released in mid-to-late 2014.[21] However, at about the same time, he shifted his attention to a science fiction novel, Seveneves, which was completed about a year later and was published in May 2015.[22] On June 8, 2016, plans were announced to adapt Seveneves for the screen.[23]

In 2014, Stephenson was hired as Chief Futurist by the Florida-based company Magic Leap.[24] Magic Leap claims to be developing a revolutionary form of augmented reality, not too different from technologies Stephenson previously has described in his science fiction books.

In May 2016, as part of a video discussion with Bill Gates, Stephenson revealed that he had just submitted the manuscript for a new historical novel—"a time travel book"—co-written with Nicole Galland, one of his Mongoliad coauthors.[25] This was released as The Rise and Fall of D.O.D.O. on June 13, 2017.[26]

In June 2019 his next novel Fall; or, Dodge in Hell was published. It is a near-future novel that explores mind uploading into the cloud, and contains characters from 2011's Reamde, 1999's Cryptonomicon, and other books. [27]


In his earlier novels Stephenson deals heavily in pop culture–laden metaphors and imagery and in quick, hip dialogue, as well as in extended narrative monologues. The tone of his books is generally more irreverent and less serious than that of previous cyberpunk novels such as those of William Gibson.

Stephenson's books tend to have elaborate, inventive plots drawing on numerous technological and sociological ideas at the same time. The discursive nature of his writing, together with significant plot and character complexity and an abundance of detail suggests a baroque writing style, which Stephenson brought fully to bear in the three-volume Baroque Cycle.[28] His book The Diamond Age follows a simpler plot but features "neo-Victorian" characters and employs Victorian-era literary conceits. In keeping with the baroque style, Stephenson's books have become longer as he has gained recognition. For example, the paperback editions of Cryptonomicon are over eleven hundred pages long[29] with the novel containing various digressions, including a lengthy erotic story about antique furniture and stockings.



Short fiction

Other fiction projects

  • Project Hieroglyph, founded in 2011, administered by Arizona State University's Center for Science and the Imagination since 2012. Hieroglyph: Stories and Visions for a Better Future, ed. Ed Finn and Kathryn Cramer, which includes contributions by Stephenson (preface and chapter "Atmosphæra Incognita"), was published by William Morrow in September, 2014.


  • "Smiley's people". 1993.
  • "In the Kingdom of Mao Bell". Wired. 1994. "A billion Chinese are using new technology to create the fastest growing economy on the planet. But while the information wants to be free, do they?"
  • "Mother Earth Mother Board". Wired. 1996. "In which the Hacker Tourist ventures forth across three continents, telling the story of the business and technology of undersea fiber-optic cables, as well as an account of the laying of the longest wire on Earth."
  • "Global Neighborhood Watch". Wired. 1998. Stopping street crime in the global village.
  • In the Beginning... Was the Command Line. HarperPerennial. 1999. ISBN 0-380-81593-1.
  • "Communication Prosthetics: Threat, or Menace?". Whole Earth Review, Summer 2001.
  • "Turn On, Tune In, Veg Out". Op-Ed piece on Star Wars, in The New York Times, June 17, 2005.
  • "It's All Geek To Me". Op-Ed piece on the film 300 and geek culture, The New York Times, March 18, 2007.
  • "Atoms of Cognition: Metaphysics in the Royal Society 1715–2010," chapter in Seeing Further: The Story of Science and the Royal Society, edited by Bill Bryson. Stephenson discusses the legacy of the rivalry between Sir Isaac Newton and Gottfried Leibniz, November 2, 2010.
  • "Space Stasis". Slate. February 2, 2011. "What the strange persistence of rockets can teach us about innovation."
  • "Innovation Starvation". World Policy Journal, 2011.
  • Some Remarks: Essays and Other Writing. William Morrow. 2012. ISBN 0062024434.

Critical studies, reviews and biography


  1. Wenz, John (June 19, 2018). "How Neal Stephenson Got Book Ideas by Moonlighting at Blue Origin". Popular Mechanics.
  2. Fisher, Lawrence M. (April 17, 1994). "SOUND BYTES; Orwell – Class of 1994". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. Archived from the original on December 6, 2012. Retrieved December 13, 2010.
  3. Stephenson, Neal. "Biography". Neal Stephenson's Site (MobileMe). Archived from the original on June 28, 2012. Retrieved August 7, 2010.
  4. "Neal Stephenson – Biography". Archived from the original on February 20, 2010. Retrieved August 7, 2010. He began his higher education as a physics major, then switched to geography when it appeared that this would enable him to scam more free time on his university's mainframe computer.
  5. Booker, M Keith; Thomas, Anne-Marie, eds. (2009). "Neal Stephenson (1959–)". The Science Fiction Handbook. Chichester, UK ; Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell. p. 173. ISBN 978-1-4051-6205-0. OCLC 263498124.
  6. Grassian, Daniel (2003). "From modernists to Gen Xers". Hybrid fictions: American fiction and Generation X. Jefferson: McFarland & Co. pp. 29–30. ISBN 978-0-7864-1632-5. OCLC 52565833.
  7. Westfahl, Gary (2005). The Greenwood Encyclopedia of Science Fiction and Fantasy: Themes, Works, and Wonders, Vol. 3. Greenwood Publishing. p. 1235. ISBN 0-313-32953-2. Retrieved December 5, 2009.
  8. Godwin, Mike (February 2005). "Neal Stephenson's Past, Present, and Future". Reason. Reason Foundation. Archived from the original on May 3, 2011. Retrieved December 13, 2010.
  9. "Neal Stephenson: Cryptomancer". Locus Online. August 1, 1999. Archived from the original on August 16, 2011. Retrieved August 7, 2010. ...a thriller written in collaboration with his uncle, George Jewsbury, under pseudonym Stephen Bury...
  10. Foust, Jeff (March 19, 2018). "A changing shade of Blue". The Space Review. Retrieved May 31, 2018. “For the first seven years or so, I worked there when it was in more of an exploratory stage of trying to figure out what the landscape looked like and what are some possibly novel alternate approaches to space, alternate propulsion systems and business models and so on,” [Stephenson] recalled. That lasted, he said, until the company became more focused on specific technologies (which feature propulsion systems not very alternate from what’s been, and is being, done elsewhere.) “Once it became a more kind of directed aerospace engineering entity, that’s when I amicably peeled off,” he said.
  11. Eaton, Kit (May 26, 2010). "The Mongoliad App: Neal Stephenson's Novel of the Future?". Fast Company. Archived from the original on June 11, 2010. Retrieved July 4, 2010.
  12. "Subutai Corporation – Team". (Subutai Corporation). Archived from the original on October 7, 2010. Retrieved August 7, 2010. Neal Stephenson, Chairman
  13. Anders, Charlie Jane (July 14, 2009). "Neal Stephenson Gets Half A Million Dollars, But Did He Have To Switch Genres To Get It?". io9. Gawker Media. Archived from the original on March 29, 2010. Retrieved August 7, 2010.
  14. "reamdeDescription". Archived from the original on August 5, 2011.
  15. "New Neal Stephenson book Some Remarks announced!". Archived from the original on June 29, 2012. Retrieved June 26, 2012.
  16. Twitter / subutaicorp: @LordBronco We're still taking Archived September 21, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on 2014-01-14.
  17. Famous Kickstarter Turns Into Complete Disaster Archived September 21, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on 2014-01-14.
  18. THUD: Development Of Neal Stephenson’s CLANG Halted Archived September 25, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. Rock, Paper, Shotgun. Retrieved on 2014-01-14.
  19. Narcisse, Evan (September 28, 2013). [Neal Stephenson Says His Dream Of Making A Video Game Isn't Dead "Neal Stephenson Says His Dream Of Making A Video Game Isn't Dead"] Check |url= value (help). Kotaku. Archived from the original on September 29, 2013. A vocal contingent of Clang backers have seethed with anger after the Pause Button update, with some demanding their money back and others making threats of legal action. When I spoke with him earlier this week, he told me he understands where they're coming from, but wants everyone to know that the journey to making Clang a reality isn't over.
  20. Stephenson, Neal (September 19, 2014). "Final Update". CLANG by Subutai Corporation. Kickstarter. Archived from the original on October 18, 2014. Retrieved October 18, 2014.
  21. Kelion, Leo. (2013-09-17) BBC News - Neal Stephenson on tall towers and NSA cyber-spies Archived January 26, 2014, at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on 2014-01-14.
  22. Neal Stephenson. "Seveneves". Archived from the original on April 2, 2015. Retrieved April 5, 2015.
  23. Fleming, Mike. "Skydance Reunites 'Apollo 13' Team For Neal Stephenson Sci-Fi Novel 'Seveneves'". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on June 10, 2016. Retrieved June 10, 2016.
  24. Davey Alba (December 16, 2014). "Sci-Fi Author Neal Stephenson Joins Mystery Startup Magic Leap as 'Chief Futurist'". Wired. Archived from the original on May 18, 2015. Retrieved May 20, 2015.
  25. Gates, Bill. "The Day the Moon Blew Up". gatesnotes. Starting at 1:19. Archived from the original on May 19, 2016. Retrieved June 10, 2016.
  27. "Sometimes Fascinating, Sometimes Excruciating, 'Fall' Hums With Energy". NPR. Retrieved July 28, 2019.
  28. Giuffo, John (October 1, 2004). "Book Capsule Review: The System of the World". Entertainment Weekly. Time Warner. Archived from the original on October 10, 2008. Retrieved September 22, 2008.
  29. ex: Stephenson, Neal (1999). Cryptonomicon. Avon Books. pp. 1152 p. ISBN 978-0-06-051280-4.
  30. Kelly, Mark R. "The Locus Index to SF Awards: Index of Literary Nominees". (Locus Publications). Archived from the original on December 20, 2010. Retrieved January 18, 2011.
  31. "Reamde". HarperCollins. Retrieved December 24, 2018.
  32. "The Rise and Fall of D.O.D.O." HarperCollins. Retrieved December 24, 2018.
  33. "Fall; or, Dodge in Hell". HarperCollins. Retrieved December 24, 2018.
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