National Premier Soccer League

The National Premier Soccer League (NPSL) is an American soccer league commonly recognized as being a fourth-tier league, although it has been given no official designation by U.S. Soccer.[1] Although the league is officially affiliated to the United States Adult Soccer Association (USASA) and qualifies for the U.S. Open Cup through USASA channels, it is generally considered to be the level of competition behind Major League Soccer (MLS), the USL Championship, USL League One, and roughly equal with USL League Two.[1] It is the successor of the Men's Premier Soccer League, a regional league originally based in the Western United States, which has now expanded nationwide to encompass teams from 29 states. The league's motto is "A National League with a Regional Focus". Some of the clubs are former NASL clubs.

National Premier Soccer League
Founded2003 (2003)
CountryUnited States
U.S. Soccer
Divisions14 conferences in 4 regions
Number of teams96
Level on pyramid4 (US) (unofficial)
Domestic cup(s)U.S. Open Cup
Current championsMiami FC (2nd title)
Most championshipsMiami FC (2 titles)
TV partnersMycujoo
WebsiteNPSL website
2019 NPSL season

Competition format

The National Premier Soccer League's is divided into four separate regions (Northeast, South, Midwest, and West). Each region is divided into conferences with a varying number of teams per conference. The regular season runs from May to July with the exception of the West Region that has historically started in late March or early April.[2]

The NPSL currently has automatic berths in the U.S. Open Cup where they gain eligibility towards the CONCACAF Champions League.


The National Premier Soccer League began in 2003 as the Men's Premier Soccer League (MPSL) initially as an offshoot of the Women's Premier Soccer League, and marked the first instance of a women's soccer league spawning a men's league. The league's first two champions were the Arizona Sahuaros, who had defected to the MPSL from the USL D-3 Pro League, and the Utah Salt Ratz.

The league expanded into the Midwest in 2005 with the addition of several new teams and a new conference, and changed its name to National Premier Soccer League to reflect its new national footprint; a team from the expansion conference – Detroit Arsenal – won the league in its first year after its eastward expansion. The NPSL expanded further in 2007 with the addition of a new Northeast Conference and five new teams from the eastern United States. The first team from the East to win the national NPSL title was the Pennsylvania Stoners in 2008. The league has since continued to expand, adding more teams throughout the entirety of the country.

Since its inception, the league has managed to place at least one team actively playing under its banner into U.S. Open Cup competition. Though the showing of the NPSL in US Open Cup play was typically only one or two teams in its first six years, the 2009 and 2010 cups have seen four and three, respectively, NPSL teams in each tournament. The recent success of the NPSL in USASA qualifying has encouraged a movement by which the league could have automatic berths in the final tournament.[3] The furthest a team from the NPSL has reached in the US Open Cup during the professional era (1997 and onward after the entry of MLS teams) has been the third round. However, the Brooklyn Italians have won the US Open Cup outright before the existence of either MLS or the NPSL.

Although no team has ever won the league twice, the Miami FC camp has won the championship twice as a club. Its reserve team (Miami FC 2) won the 2018 title, and its first team (Miami FC) won the 2019 championship.


Officially the USSF does not recognize formal levels of the soccer pyramid below the professional 3rd tier. The USSF does not officially recognize distinctions between amateur soccer leagues in the United States. However, the USASA sanctions affiliated, but separately run, national leagues that are recognized in practical terms as playing at a higher level than the USASA state association leagues; for example, they receive automatic berths to the US Open Cup.

The Premier Development League takes place during the summer months, and the player pool is drawn mainly from NCAA college soccer players seeking to continue playing high-level soccer during their summer break, while still maintaining their college eligibility. The National Premier Soccer League is similar to the Premier Development League and also attracts top amateur talent from around the United States. NPSL does not have any age limits or restrictions, thus incorporating both college players and former professional players alike.


The NPSL is organized in a mostly decentralized structure and is managed as a team-run league. Each year the member clubs help elect a chairman, treasurer, and secretary and an eight-member board of directors. Each team is individually owned and operated, and is responsible for maintaining league minimum standards. New teams seeking membership into the NPSL are subject to approval from an executive committee of existing team owners. Member clubs have the right to make localized decisions for their respective markets, conferences, and regions based on what they believe is best for their particular region. Each conference is managed by the individual member clubs and elects a conference commission each year.

The current chairman is Joe Barone of the Brooklyn Italians who was elected in late 2013 after previously serving as treasurer. Michael Hitchcock of Playbook Management Inc. was hired as commissioner of the NPSL in 2013. With Hitchcock leading the league, plans to expand the reach of the league and discussion of introducing promotion and relegation in the future were made public. Near the conclusion of the 2014 season, the NPSL terminated the contract of Hitchcock and PMI.

The costs to join the league as of 2016 are reported to be a one-time $15,000 franchise fee and a $5,250 annual league fee.[4] The low entry fee compared to the PDL's of $75,000 has made the league an attractive alternative to teams looking to compete at the highest level of amateur play.

The league requires that all teams play in stadiums with at least 500 seats, a scoreboard, and locker rooms with showers for both teams and officials. The home team is also responsible for providing water and food for the visiting team, ensuring there is a trainer or doctor on-site for the match, and paying the referees fees at the end of each game.

Sponsorship and partnerships

Mitre Sports International provided the official ball for the NPSL starting in 2014, the sponsorship agreement lasted through the 2016 season. The league also announced several partnerships for the 2014 season, Global Scarves, Wecando, and Pabian Law. Global Scarves and the NPSL planned strategically partnering to not only outfit every NPSL team with soccer scarves branded to the specific team, but planned on working together to increase and elevate the status of both entities to a higher level. Global Scarves began providing custom soccer scarves throughout the league, and worked with the NPSL on various events and contests to increase awareness and fervor throughout the 2014 NPSL season. Wecando Print is a full-service branding company that specializes in printing, promotional products, embroidery, screen printing, banners, fulfillment services, and company stores. Pabian Law specific in law and immigration services and has experience with signing international soccer players.


Team City Stadium Founded First NPSL Season Head coach
Northeast Region
North Atlantic Conference
Boston City FC Revere, Massachusetts Harry Della Russo Stadium 2015 2016 Cesar Deossa

Roberto Mazzinghy

Brooklyn Italians Brooklyn, New York John Dewey High School 1949 2010 Lucio Russo
Greater Lowell Rough Diamonds[5] Tyngsborough, Massachusetts 2016[6] 2017 Kobi Okoye
Hartford City FC Hartford, Connecticut Al-Marzook Field 2015 2017 Nick Balistierri
Kingston Stockade FC Kingston, New York Dietz Stadium 2015 2016 Jamal Lis-Simmons
New York Athletic Club S.C. Pelham, New York New York Athletic Club 2008 2008 Barclay MacKinnon
New York Cosmos B Manhattan, New York Mitchel Athletic Complex 2015 2015 Carlos Mendes
Rhode Island Reds FC Johnston, Rhode Island Mayor Joseph Polsinea Stadium 2012 2012 Mario Pereira
Valeo FC Newton, Massachusetts 2008 2020
Keystone Conference
Atlantic City FC Egg Harbor Township, New Jersey Egg Harbor Township High School 2017 2018 Kristian O'Leary
Electric City Shock SC Scranton, Pennsylvania Fitzpatrick Field 2013 2014 James Bell
First State FC Wilmington, Delaware 2019 2020 Chibsah Faisal
Hershey FC Hershey, Pennsylvania Hershey High School Stadium 2013 2013 Ian Carter
FC Monmouth Red Bank, New Jersey Count Basie Park 2017 2018 Brian Woods
FC Motown Madison, New Jersey Ranger Stadium 2012 2013 Šaćir Hot
New Jersey Copa FC Metuchen, New Jersey Mercer County Community College 2016 2016 Roberto Aguas
Torch FC Perkasie, Pennsylvania Pennridge High School Stadium 2010 2011 Daniel Byrd
Mid-Atlantic Conference
FC Baltimore Christos Baltimore, Maryland CCBC Essex Stadium[7] 2017 2018 Larry Sancomb
Charlottesville Alliance FC Charlottesville, Virginia Charlottesville High School 2016 2018 Jon Atkinson
FC Frederick Frederick, Maryland Thomas Athletic Field 1986 2015 Chris Spinks
Maryland Bobcats FC Rockville, Maryland Montgomery College 2016 2020
Northern Virginia United FC Leesburg, Virginia Cropp Metcalfe Park at Evergreen Sportsplex 2018 2018 Brian Welsh
Virginia Beach City FC Norfolk, Virginia Powhatan Field 2013 2014 Brian Hinkey
South Region
Gulf Coast Conference
AFC Mobile Mobile, Alabama Archbishop Lipscomb Athletic Complex 2015 2020 Steve Wieczorek
Jacksonville Armada U-23 Jacksonville, Florida Patton Park 2010 2016 Aaron Pitchkolan
New Orleans Jesters New Orleans, Louisiana Pan American Stadium 2003 2013 Kenny Farrell
Pensacola FC Pensacola, Florida Ashton Brosnaham Stadium 2013 2020 Dean Logan
Port City FC Gulfport, Mississippi Herbert Wilson Stadium 2016 2020 vacant
Tallahassee SC Tallahassee, Florida Gene Cox Stadium 2018 2020 Josh Bruno
Heartland Conference
Demize NPSL Springfield, Missouri Cooper Stadium 2014 2014 Chris Hanlon
Little Rock Rangers Little Rock, Arkansas War Memorial Stadium 2015 2016 Will Montgomery
Ozark FC[8] Springdale, Arkansas Har-Ber High School 2017 2017
Club Atletico Saint Louis Eureka, Missouri United Sports Legacy Training Center 2016 2018 Ricardo Garza
Tulsa Athletic[9] Tulsa, Oklahoma LaFortune Stadium 2013 2013 Joey Ryan
FC Wichita Wichita, Kansas Stryker Complex 2014 2015 Steve Ralos[10]
Lone Star Conference
Austin United FC Del Valle, Texas Veterans Stadium 2017 2020
Dallas City FC McKinney, Texas McKinney Soccer Complex 2013 2014
Denton Diablos FC Denton, Texas Mean Green Soccer Complex 2018 2019 Chad Rakestraw
Fort Worth Vaqueros Fort Worth, Texas Farrington Field 2014 2014 Nick Stavrou
Katy 1895 FC Katy, Texas Saint John XXIII High School 2017 2018 James Krueger
Laredo Heat SC Laredo, Texas Texas A&M International University Soccer Complex 2004 2018
Midland-Odessa Sockers FC Midland, Texas Grande Communications Stadium 2009 2017 Matt Barnes[11]
Tyler FC Tyler, Texas Herrington Stadium[12] 2016 2017
Southeast Conference
Georgia Revolution FC McDonough, Georgia Warhawk Stadium 2010 2011 Scott Redding
Greenville FC Greenville, South Carolina Sirrine Stadium 2017 2018 Lee Squires
Inter Nashville FC Antioch, Tennessee International Indoor Soccer Complex 2016 2017 Alan O'Connor
Sunshine Conference
Central Florida Panthers SC[13] Winter Park, Florida Showalter Field 2019 2019 Anton Faith
Miami Dutch Lions FC Olympia Heights, Florida Tropical Park Stadium 2019 2020
Miami United FC North Miami Beach, Florida North Miami Athletic Stadium 2012 2013 Ferdinando De Matthaeis
Naples United FC Naples, Florida Fleischmann Park 2017 2017 Vicente Sandoval
Storm FC Lauderhill, Florida Central Broward Stadium 2013 2014
Midwest Region
East Conference
FC Buffalo Buffalo, New York All-High Stadium 2009 2010 Frank Butcher[14]
Cleveland SC Cleveland, Ohio George Finnie Stadium 2018 2018 Ryan Osborne
Erie Commodores FC Erie, Pennsylvania McConnell Family Stadium 2009 2009 Dale White
Pittsburgh Hotspurs Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania The Ellis School 2019 2019 Tom Campbell
Rochester Lancers Rochester, New York Marina Auto Stadium 2015 2016 Doug Miller
Syracuse FC[15] Syracuse, New York David W. Murphy Field 2017 2017 Matt Tantalo
Great Lakes Conference
Carpathia FC Sterling Heights, Michigan Avondale High School 1952 2020
FC Columbus Grandview Heights, Ohio Anderson Field 2018 2018 Maziya Chete
Fort Wayne FC Fort Wayne, Indiana 2019 2020
F.C. Indiana Lafayette, Indiana Legacy Sports Club 2000 2015 Erik Castro
Kalamazoo FC Kalamazoo, Michigan Soisson-Rapacz-Clason Field 2015 2016 Brian Clements
Muskegon Risers SC Muskegon, Michigan 2014 2020
Toledo Villa FC[16] Toledo, Ohio Lyden Field 2017 2019 Colin Armstrong
North Conference
Dakota Fusion FC Fargo, North Dakota Jim Gotta Stadium 2015 2017 Nick Becker
Duluth FC Duluth, Minnesota Public Schools Stadium 2015 2017 Joel Person
La Crosse Aris FC La Crosse, Wisconsin Viterbo Athletic Complex 2009 2009 Greg Saliaras
Med City FC Rochester, Minnesota Rochester Regional Sports Center 2016 2017 Neil Cassidy
Minneapolis City SC Minneapolis, Minnesota Edor Nelson Field 2015 2017 Matt vanBenschoten
Minnesota TwinStars FC Maple Grove, Minnesota Minnetonka H.S. 1997 2005
Sioux Falls Thunder FC[17] Sioux Falls, South Dakota Bob Young Field 2017 2017 Mekonnen Afa
West Region
Golden Gate Conference
Academica SC[18] Turlock, California Academica Field 1972 2018 Sergio Sousa
FC Davis[19] Davis, California Playfields Sports Park 2017 2018 Andrew Bailey
East Bay FC Stompers Oakland, California Raimondi Park 2009 2012 Martin Sierra Sr.
El Farolito SC[20] San Francisco, California Boxer Stadium 1985 2018 Santiago Lopez
Napa Valley 1839 FC[21] Napa, California Dodd Stadium 2016 2017 Rogelio Ochoa[22]
Project 510[23] Oakland, California 2019 2020
Sacramento Gold FC Sacramento, California Capital Christian Stadium 2009 2010 Ruben Mora Jr.
San Ramon FC[24] San Ramon, California Dougherty Valley High School/Rancho San Ramon Soccer Park 2018 2019
Sonoma County Sol Petaluma, California Casa Grande High School 2004 2005 Vinny Cortezzo
Northwest Conference
Crossfire Redmond[25] Bellevue, Washington Courter Field 2018 2019 Bernie James
FCM Portland Vancouver, Washington Kiggins Bowl 2012 2014 Sergio Medel
OSA Seattle FC Burien, Washington Highline High School 2015 2015 Giuseppe Pezzano
PDX FC[26] Portland, Oregon Hilken Community Stadium 2017 2017 Luke Babson
Spokane SC Shadow[27] Spokane, Washington Spokane Falls Community College 1996 2017 Chad Brown[28]
Southwest Conference
FC Arizona Mesa, Arizona Mesa High School 2016 2017 Dave Rogers
ASC San Diego San Diego, California Mission Bay High School 2015 2018 Ziggy Korytoski
A.S. Los Angeles[29][30] Downey, California St. Matthias Stadium 2018 2019
City of Angels FC Los Angeles, California Chaminade High School 2017 2017
Club Xolos USA U-23 Riverside, California John W. North High School 1969 2015 Shane Shelton
FC Golden State Whittier, California Rio Hondo Stadium 2018 2018 Robert Friedland
High Desert Elite FC[31] Adelanto, California Adelanto Stadium 2018 2019 Claudio Rivas
Las Vegas Legends Las Vegas, Nevada TBA 2012 2020
Orange County FC Irvine, California Portola High School 2009 2017 Paul Caligiuri
Oxnard Guerreros FC Oxnard, California Del Sol Stadium 2016 2017 Juan Florez
Temecula FC Temecula, California Chaparral High School 2013 2014 Austin Levins

Future clubs

Team City Stadium Founded Joining NPSL
North Alabama SC[32] Huntsville, Alabama John Hunt Park 2008 2020

NPSL Members Cup

Six teams will participate in the inaugural NPSL Members Cup, a competition that will run from August to October 2019. It is intended to lead to a new professional league beginning play in the spring of 2020.[33]


Year No. of
2003 6
2004 10 5 1
2005 14 7 4
2006 18 4 0
2007 22 12 8
2008 24 11 9
2009 27 12 9
2010 31 12 8
2011 37 13 7
2012 45 13 5
2013 57 20 8
2014 77 31 11
2015 68 12 21
2016 84 23 7
2017 97 30 17
2018 98 18 16
2019 94 11 19


Many NPSL teams have rivalries given the close geography of the teams throughout the league. The most notable rivalry is the Rust Belt Derby contested between Detroit City FC, AFC Cleveland, and FC Buffalo. The name refers to the teams' shared region, the Rust Belt.[34]

Another intense rivalry existed between the San Diego Flash and San Diego Boca/Force FC, which were crosstown rivals in San Diego. Until the 2013 sale and rebranding of Force FC from Boca FC, the ownership groups of the two clubs were previously partners in the original San Diego Flash club of the A-League that competed from 1998 to 2001.[35]

Derby name Most wins Titles Other club(s) Recent winner
Alameda County Derby[36]CD Aguiluchos USA2 (2016, 2017)East Bay FC Stomperssplit
Wine Country Derby[37]Sonoma County Sol1 (2017)Napa Valley 1839 FCSonoma County Sol
Erie County DerbyErie Commodores FC5 (2009–2014)FC BuffaloFC Buffalo
Everglades CupMiami United1 (2014)Cape Coral HurricanesMiami United
Gulf Coast CupTampa Marauders1 (2014)Cape Coral HurricanesTampa Marauders
I-40 CupLittle Rock Rangers1 (2016)Memphis City FCLittle Rock Rangers
Louisiana CupNew Orleans Jesters1 (2016)Shreveport Rafters FCNew Orleans Jesters
Red River CupTulsa Athletic1 (2014)Fort Worth Vaqueros, Liverpool Warriors, Oklahoma City FCTulsa Athletic
Rust Belt Derby[38]Detroit City FC4 (2013–2016)AFC Cleveland, FC BuffaloDetroit City FC
San Diego DerbySan Diego Flash4 (2011–13)Albion SC Pros, North County Battalion, San Diego Boca FCSan Diego Flash
Trinity River CupDallas City FC1 (2014)Fort Worth VaquerosDallas City FC[39]
Volunteer ShieldChattanooga FC3 (2014–16)Knoxville Force, Inter Nashville FC, Memphis City FCKnoxville Force
Green Line Derby Minneapolis City SC 2 (2017–18) Viejos son los Trapos FC (St Paul) Minneapolis City SC
The Wooden Shoe[40] Kingston Stockade FC 1 (2019) Hartford City FC Kingston Stockade FC

Records and champions

Season Winner Score Runner-up
2003 Arizona Sahuaros 2–1 (a.e.t.) Utah Salt Ratz
2004 Utah Salt Ratz 4–2 Arizona Sahuaros
2005 Detroit Arsenal 1–0 Sonoma County Sol
2006 Sacramento Knights 2–1 Princeton 56ers
2007 Southern California Fusion 1–0 Queen City FC
2008 Pennsylvania Stoners 3–0 Minnesota Twin Stars
2009 Sonoma County Sol 2–1 Erie Admirals SC
2010 Sacramento Gold 3–1 Chattanooga FC
2011 Jacksonville United 3–2 Hollywood United Hitmen
2012 FC Sonic 1–0 Chattanooga FC
2013 RVA Football Club 2–0 Sonoma County Sol
2014 New York Red Bulls U-23 3–1 Chattanooga FC
2015 New York Cosmos B 3–2 (a.e.t.) Chattanooga FC
2016 AFC Cleveland 4–2 Sonoma County Sol
2017 Elm City Express 5–0 Midland-Odessa FC
2018 Miami FC 2 3–1 FC Motown
2019 Miami FC 3–1 New York Cosmos B

Directors, officers and management team


  • Joe Barone – Brooklyn Italians – chairman (2013–current)
  • Cindy Spera – chairman of soccer programs for New York Athletic Club – managing director (2018–current) formerly treasurer (2013–2016) and director of operations (2016–2018)[41]
  • Barry Dixon – founder, Jacksonville United – secretary (2013–present)

Current regional board members

Management team

  • Cindy Spera – managing director
  • Gary Moody – media relations
  • Paul Scott – director of officials
  • Dina Case – director of membership development[42]

Conference commissioners

  • Kabba Joof – head coach, Rhode Island Reds FCNortheast Region – North Atlantic Conference (2013–present)
  • Cristian Brei – Madison 56ersMidwest Region – Central Conference (2013–present)
  • William Forte – East Bay FC StompersWest Region – Golden Gate Conference (2013–present)

See also



    1. "The Unruly Soccer Pyramids of America by Mike Firpo". February 10, 2012. Retrieved October 1, 2013.
    2. "National Premier Soccer League". Retrieved March 2, 2015.
    3. "New League Structure Announced at AGM". Rocket City United. February 3, 2011. Archived from the original on March 11, 2012.
    4. "How to start a franchise in the NPSL". Retrieved March 2, 2015.
    5. "Greater Lowell Rough Diamonds – Training and Character, Est. 2016".
    6. "Greater Lowell NPSL FC Launches Rebranding Initiative". NPSL. December 15, 2016. Archived from the original on February 2, 2017. Retrieved February 9, 2017.
    7. "FC Baltimore Announces CCBC Essex as Stadium for 2018 Home Games – FC Baltimore 1729 – Member of National Premier Soccer League". February 4, 2018. Retrieved February 8, 2018.
    8. "Ozark FC Joins the NPSL". NPSL. January 23, 2017. Retrieved January 24, 2017.
    9. "tulsaathletic". Retrieved January 24, 2017.
    10. FC WICHITA (April 20, 2017). "FC Wichita Introduces New Head Coach – Steve Ralos 4.20.17". Retrieved November 22, 2017 via YouTube.
    11. " Coaches". Retrieved January 24, 2017.
    12. "Tyler FC Kings Seals The Deal With Brook Hill Guards!". Retrieved February 16, 2017.
    13. "Central Florida Soccer Club Joins The NPSL". NPSL. Retrieved January 4, 2019.
    14. Tsujimoto, Ben (February 13, 2017). "FC Buffalo hires new manager, two assistants". Retrieved February 16, 2017.
    15. "Syracuse FC Joins the NPSL". NPSL. February 8, 2017. Retrieved February 9, 2017.
    16. "Toledo Villa FC Joins the NPSL". NPSL. January 30, 2019. Retrieved February 13, 2019.
    17. "Sioux Falls Thunder FC Joins the NPSL". NPSL. December 20, 2016. Retrieved January 24, 2017.
    18. "Academica Soccer Club Joins The NPSL". NPSL. November 14, 2017. Retrieved November 14, 2017.
    19. "Football Club Davis Joins The NPSL". NPSL. November 13, 2017. Retrieved November 13, 2017.
    20. "El Farolito Joins The NPSL". NPSL. November 20, 2017. Retrieved November 20, 2017.
    21. "Napa Valley 1839 FC Brand Unveiled". NPSL. January 18, 2017. Retrieved January 24, 2017.
    24. "San Ramon Futbol Club Joins The NPSL". NPSL. Retrieved December 12, 2018.
    25. "CROSSFIRE REDMOND JOINS THE NPSL". NPSL. Retrieved December 19, 2018.
    26. "PDX FC Joins the NPSL". NSPL. February 13, 2017. Retrieved February 16, 2017.
    27. "Spokane Soccer Club Shadow Joins the NPSL". NPSL. January 19, 2017. Retrieved January 24, 2017.
    28. "Spokane native Chad Brown named head coach of Shadow EPLWA team – Spokane Shadow Youth SC". Retrieved February 16, 2017.
    29. "Los Angeles United Football Club Joins the NPSL". NPSL. Retrieved July 10, 2018.
    31. "HIGH DESERT ELITE FC JOINS THE NPSL". NPSL. Retrieved December 12, 2018.
    32. "North Alabama SC Joins the NPSL for the 2020 Season". October 29, 2019.
    33. "NPSL Founders Cup Relaunched as NPSL Members Cup". National Premier Soccer League. July 24, 2019. Retrieved July 24, 2019.
    34. Casey, Daniel. "The Rust Belt Derby". Soccer News Day. Retrieved May 14, 2014.
    35. "NPSL Soccer Weekend Recap, SD Flash Wins SD Derby, FC Hasental, OC Pateadores, Sacramento Gold and Real San Jose Gets Wins too". Soccer Nation. Retrieved May 14, 2014.
    36. Thomas Hodul. "Alameda County Derby: NPSL's Newest Intra-County Rivalry". Midfield Press. Retrieved April 12, 2016.
    37. "Rivalry Week in the NPSL Golden Gate Conference". Midfield Press. April 20, 2017. Retrieved May 12, 2017.
    38. "The Rust Belt Derby by Daniel Casey". Retrieved November 22, 2017.
    39. "Vaqueros Surrender Trinity Cup to Dallas City FC". Retrieved June 8, 2014.
    40. "The Wooden Shoe". Dutch Guard SG. April 22, 2019. Retrieved August 26, 2019.
    41. "Cindy Spera Named Managing Director of the NPSL". National Premier Soccer League. April 14, 2018. Retrieved August 29, 2018.
    42. "Los Angeles United Football Club Joins the NPSL". National Premier Soccer League. July 10, 2018. Retrieved August 29, 2018.
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