Music of Bollywood

Bollywood songs, more formally known as Hindi film songs or filmi songs, are songs featured in Bollywood films. Derived from the song-and-dance routines common in Indian films, Bollywood songs, along with dance, are a characteristic motif of Hindi cinema which gives it enduring popular appeal, cultural value and context.[1] Hindi film songs form a predominant component of Indian pop music, and derive their inspiration from both classical and modern sources.[1] Hindi film songs are now firmly embedded in North India's popular culture and routinely encountered in North India in marketplaces, shops, during bus and train journeys and numerous other situations.[2] Though Hindi films routinely contain many songs and some dance routines, they are not musicals in the Western theatrical sense; the music-song-dance aspect is an integral feature of the genre akin to plot, dialogue and other parameters.[1]:2

Linguistically, Bollywood[3] songs tend to use a colloquial dialect of Hindi-Urdu, or Hindustani, mutually intelligible to both Hindi and Urdu speakers, while modern Bollywood songs also increasingly incorporate elements of Hinglish.[4] Urdu poetry has had a particularly strong impact on Bollywood songs, where the lyrics draw heavily from Urdu poetry and the ghazal tradition.[5] In addition, Punjabi is also occasionally used for Bollywood songs.

The Indian music industry is largely dominated by Bollywood soundtracks, which account for nearly 80% of the country's music revenue. The industry was dominated by cassette tapes in the 1980s and 1990s, before transitioning to online streaming in the 2000s (bypassing CD and digital downloads). The first song recorded in India by Gauhar Jaan in 1902 and the first film made in Bollywood ‘Alaam Ara' in 1931 were under Saregama India Ltd., India’s oldest music label owned by RPSanjiv Goenka Group of companies.[6] As of 2014, the largest Indian music record label is T-Series (which has the world's most-viewed YouTube channel) with up to 35% share of the Indian market, followed by Sony Music India (the largest foreign-owned label) with up to 25% share, and then Zee Music (which has a partnership with Sony).[7] As of 2017, 216 million Indians use music streaming services such as YouTube, Hungama, Gaana and Saavn.[8]


Hindi film songs are present in Hindi cinema right from the first sound film Alam Ara (1931) by Ardeshir Irani which featured seven songs. This was closely followed by Shirheen Farhad (1931) by Jamshedji Framji Madan, also by Madan, which had as many as 42 song sequences strung together in the manner of an opera, and later by Indra Sabha which had as many as 69 song sequences. However, the practice subsided and subsequent films usually featured between six and ten songs in each production.[1]:20

Right from the advent of Indian cinema in 1931, musicals with song numbers have been a regular feature in Indian cinema.[9] In 1934 Hindi film songs began to be recorded on gramophones and later, played on radio channels, giving rise to a new form of mass entertainment in India which was responsive to popular demand.[9] Within the first few years itself, Hindi cinema had produced a variety of films which easily categorised into genres such as "historicals", "mythologicals", "devotional, "fantasy" etc. but each having songs embedded in them such that it is incorrect to classify them as "musicals".[1]

The Hindi song was such an integral features of Hindi mainstream cinema, besides other characteristics, that post-independence alternative cinema, of which the films of Satyajit Ray are an example, discarded the song and dance motif in its effort to stand apart from mainstream cinema.[1]

The Hindi film song now began to make its presence felt as a predominating characteristic in the culture of the nation and began to assume roles beyond the limited purview of cinema. In multi-cultural India, as per film historian Partha Chatterjee, "the Hindi film song cut through all the language barriers in India, to engage in lively communication with the nation where more than twenty languages are spoken and ... scores of dialects exist".[10] Bollywood music has drawn its inspiration from numerous traditional sources such as Ramleela, nautanki, tamasha and Parsi theatre, as well as from the West, Pakistan, and other Indic musical subcultures.[11]

For over five decades, these songs formed the staple of popular music in South Asia and along with Hindi films, was an important cultural export to most countries around Asia and wherever the Indian diaspora had spread. The spread was galvanised by the advent of cheap plastic tape cassettes which were produced in the millions till the industry crashed in 2000.[9] Even today Hindi film songs are available on radio, on television, as live music by performers, and on media, both old and new such as cassette tapes, compact disks and DVDs and are easily available, both legally and illegally, on the internet.[1]

Style and format

The various use of languages in Bollywood songs can be complex. Most use variations of Hindi and Urdu, with some songs also including other languages such as Persian, and it is not uncommon to hear the use of English words in songs from modern Hindi movies. Besides Hindi, several other Indian languages have also been used including Braj, Avadhi, Bhojpuri, Punjabi, Bengali and Rajasthani.

In a film, music, both in itself and accompanied with dance, has been used for many purposes including "heightening a situation, accentuating a mood, commenting on theme and action, providing relief and serving as interior monologue."[11]


Songs in Bollywood movies are deliberately crafted with lyrics often written by distinguished poets or literati (often different from those who write the film script), and these lyrics are often then set to music, carefully choreographed to match the dance routine or script of the film. They are then sung by professional playback singers and lip-synched by the actors. Bollywood cinema is unique in that the majority of songs are seen to be sung by the characters themselves rather than being played in the background. In Western cinema, often a composer who specialises in film music is responsible for the bulk of music on the film's soundtrack, and while in some films songs may play an important part (and have direct relationship to the subject of the film), in Bollywood films, the songs often drive large-scale production numbers featuring elaborate choreography.

The key figure in Bollywood music production and composition is the music director. While in Western films, a "music director" or "music coordinator" is usually responsible for selecting existing recorded music to add to the soundtrack, typically during opening and closing credits, in Bollywood films, the "music director" often has a much broader role encompassing both composing music/songs specifically for the film and (if needed) securing additional (licensed) music. In this sense, a Bollywood music director also plays the role of a composer and music producer.

The lyricist of Bollywood songs is less likely to be the same composer or music director, as Bollywood films often go to great lengths to include lyrics of special significance and applicability to the film's plot and dialogue, and/or the words of highly regarded poets/lyricists set to music written specifically for such words in the film, as noted above.

Bollywood film songs have been described as eclectic both in instrumentation and style.[12] They often employ foreign instruments and rework existing songs, showing remarkable inventiveness in the reinvention of melodies and instrumental techniques.[13]

Bollywood film songs often tend to be accompanied by expensive music videos. Some are among the most expensive music videos of all time.[14] The most expensive Indian music video is "Party All Night" (for the 2013 film Boss), which cost ₹60 million ($1.02 million) to produce.[15] Adjusted for inflation, the most expensive Indian music video was "Pyar Kiya To Darna Kya" (for the 1960 film Mughal-e-Azam), which at the time cost more than ₹1.5 million[16] ($320,000),[17] equivalent to $3 million (₹200 million) adjusted for inflation.



Hindi dance music encompasses a wide range of songs predominantly featured in the Bollywood film industry with a growing worldwide attraction. The music became popular among overseas Indians in countries such as South Africa, the United Kingdom and the United States of America and eventually developed a global fan base.[18]


In the Indian subcontinent of South Asia, disco peaked in popularity in the early 1980s, when a South Asian disco scene arose, popularised by filmi Bollywood music, at a time when disco's popularity had declined in North America. The South Asian disco scene was sparked by the success of Pakistani pop singer Nazia Hassan, working with Indian producer Biddu, with the hit Bollywood song "Aap Jaisa Koi" in 1980.[19][20][21] Biddu himself previously had success in the Western world, where he was considered a pioneer, as one of the first successful disco producers in the early 1970s, with hits such as the hugely popular "Kung Fu Fighting" (1974),[22][23][24] before the genre's Western decline at the end of the 1970s led to him shifting his focus to Asia. The success of "Aap Jaisa Koi" in 1980 was followed by Nazia Hassan's Disco Deewane, a 1981 album produced by Biddu, becoming Asia's best-selling pop album at the time.[25]

In parallel to the Euro disco scene at the time, the continued relevance of disco in South Asia and the increasing reliance on synthesizers led to experiments in electronic disco, often combined with elements of Indian music.[19] Biddu had already used electronic equipment such as synthesizers in some of his earlier disco work, including "Bionic Boogie" from Rain Forest (1976),[26] "Soul Coaxing" (1977),[27] Eastern Man and Futuristic Journey[28][29] (recorded from 1976 to 1977),[30] and "Phantasm" (1979),[31] before using synthesizers for his later work with Nazia Hassan, including "Aap Jaisa Koi" (1980), Disco Deewane (1981) and "Boom Boom" (1982).[25] Bollywood disco producers who used electronic equipment such as synthesizers include R.D. Burman, on songs such as "Dhanno Ki Aankhon Mein" (Kitaab, 1977) and "Pyaar Karne Waale" (Shaan, 1980);[25] Laxmikant-Pyarelal, on songs such as "Om Shanti Om" (Karz, 1980);[32] and Bappi Lahari, on songs such as "Ramba Ho" (Armaan, 1981).[25] They also experimented with minimalist, high-tempo, electronic disco, including Burman's "Dil Lena Khel Hai Dildar Ka" (Zamane Ko Dikhana Hai, 1981), which had a "futuristic electro feel", and Lahiri's "Yaad Aa Raha Hai" (Disco Dancer, 1982).[19]

Such experiments eventually culminated in the work of Charanjit Singh, whose 1982 record Synthesizing: Ten Ragas to a Disco Beat anticipated the sound of acid house music, years before the genre arose in the Chicago house scene of the late 1980s. Using the Roland TR-808 drum machine, TB-303 bass synthesizer, and Jupiter-8 synthesizer, Singh increased the disco tempo up to a "techno wavelength" and made the sounds more minimalistic, while pairing them with "mystical, repetitive, instrumental Indian ragas", to produce a new sound, which resembled acid house.[33][19] According to Singh: "There was lots of disco music in films back in 1982. So I thought why not do something different using disco music only. I got an idea to play all the Indian ragas and give the beat a disco beat – and turn off the tabla. And I did it. And it turned out good."[34] The first track "Raga Bhairavi" also had a synthesised voice that says "Om Namah Shivaya" through a vocoder.[35]

Along with experiments in electronic disco, another experimental trend in Indian disco music of the early 1980s was the fusion of disco and psychedelic music. Due to 1960s psychedelic rock, popularised by the Beatles' raga rock, borrowing heavily from Indian music, it began exerting a reverse influence and had blended with Bollywood music by the early 1970s. You can download these songs[36] for free from various sources as well. This led to Bollywood producers exploring a middle-ground between disco and psychedelia in the early 1980s. Producers who experimented with disco-psychedelic fusion included Laxmikant-Pyarelal, on songs such as "Om Shanti Om" (Karz, 1980), and R. D. Burman, on songs such as "Pyaar Karne Waale" (Shaan, 1980),[32] along with the use of synthesizers.[25]


Music directors like Madan Mohan composed notable filmi-ghazals extensively for Muslim socials in the 1960s and the 1970s.[37]

The filmi-ghazal style experienced a revival in the early 1990s, sparked by the success of Nadeem-Shravan's Aashiqui (1990). It had a big impact on Bollywood music at the time, ushering in ghazal-type romantic music that dominated the early 1990s, with soundtracks such as Dil, Saajan, Phool Aur Kaante and Deewana.[38] A popular ghazal song from Aashiqui was "Dheere Dheere", a cover version of which was later recorded by Yo Yo Honey Singh and released by T-Series in 2015.


It represents a distinct subgenre of film music, although it is distinct from traditional qawwali, which is devotional Sufi music. One example of filmi qawwali is the song "Pardah Hai Pardah" sung by Mohammed Rafi, and composed by Laxmikant-Pyarelal, for the Indian film Amar Akbar Anthony (1977).[39]

Within the subgenre of filmi qawwali, there exists a form of qawwali that is infused with modern and Western instruments, usually with techno beats, called techno-qawwali. An example of techno-qawwali is "Kajra Re", a filmi song composed by Shankar Ehsaan Loy. A newer variation of the techno-qawwali based on the more dance oriented tracks is known as the "club qawwali". More tracks of this nature are being recorded and released.

Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan and A.R. Rahman have composed filmi qawwalis in the style of traditional qawwali. Examples include "Tere Bin Nahin Jeena" (Kachche Dhaage), "Arziyan" (Delhi 6), "Khwaja Mere Khwaja" (Jodhaa Akbar)[40] and "Kun Faya Kun" (Rockstar).[41]


Indian musicians began fusing rock with traditional Indian music from the mid-1960s onwards in filmi songs produced for popular Bollywood films. Some of the more well known early rock songs (including styles such as funk rock, pop rock, psychedelic rock, raga rock, and soft rock) from Bollywood films include Mohammed Rafi's "Jaan Pehechan Ho" in Gumnaam (1965), Kishore Kumar's "O Saathi Re" in Muqaddar Ka Sikandar (1978), and Asha Bhosle songs such as "Dum Maro Dum" in Hare Rama Hare Krishna (1971), "Ae Naujawan Hai Sab" in Apradh (1972), and "Yeh Mera Dil Pyar Ka Diwana" in Don (1978).


The Pakistani Qawwali musician Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan had a big impact on Bollywood music, inspiring numerous Indian musicians working in Bollywood, especially during the 1990s. However, there were many instances of Indian music directors plagiarising Khan's music to produce hit filmi songs.[42][43] Several popular examples include Viju Shah's hit song "Tu Cheez Badi Hai Mast Mast" in Mohra (1994) being plagiarised from Khan's popular Qawwali song "Dam Mast Qalandar", "Mera Piya Ghar Aya" used in Yaarana (1995), and "Sanoo Ek Pal Chain Na Aaye" in Judaai (1997).[42] Despite the significant number of hit Bollywood songs plagiarised from his music, Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan was reportedly tolerant towards the plagiarism.[43][44] One of the Bollywood music directors who frequently plagiarised him, Anu Malik, claimed that he loved Khan's music and was actually showing admiration by using his tunes.[44] However, Khan was reportedly aggrieved when Malik turned his spiritual "Allah Hoo, Allah Hoo" into "I Love You, I Love You" in Auzaar (1997).[43] Khan said "he has taken my devotional song Allahu and converted it into I love you. He should at least respect my religious songs."[44]

There have also been allegations that a number of Bollywood songs plagiarised from other Pakistani musicians. Examples include allegations that "Moam Ki Gurrya" in Baaghon Main Bahaar Aayi (1972) copied from Bakhshi Wazir's "Jadon Holi Jayi" in the Pakistani film Utt Khuda Da Wair (1970), Police Public (1990) copied "Main Jis Din Bhula Doon" from Khushboo (1979), Kal Ki Awaz (1992) copied "Kisi Meherban Ne Aa Ke" from Shama (1974), and Laxmikant–Pyarelal's "Choli Ke Peeche Kya Hai" in Khalnayak (1993) copied "Raat De Bara Baje" from the Pakistani films Do Badan (1974) and Zabardast (1989).[45]

A number of Bollywood soundtracks also plagiarised Guinean singer Mory Kanté, particularly his 1987 album Akwaba Beach. For example, his song "Tama" inspired two Bollywood songs, Bappi Lahiri's "Tamma Tamma" in Thanedaar (1990) and "Jumma Chumma" in Laxmikant-Pyarelal's soundtrack for Hum (1991), the latter also featuring another song "Ek Doosre Se" which copied his song "Inch Allah".[46] His song "Yé ké yé ké" was also used as background music in the 1990 Bollywood film Agneepath, inspired the Bollywood song "Tamma Tamma" in Thanedaar, and was also copied by Mani Sharma's song "Pellikala Vachesindhe" in the 1997 Telugu film Preminchukundam Raa.[46]

Cultural impact

Indian cinema, with its characteristic film music, has not only spread all over Indian society, but also been on the forefront of the spread of India's culture around the world.[1]:14 In Britain, Hindi film songs are heard in restaurants and on radio channels dedicated to Asian music. The British dramatist Sudha Bhuchar converted a Hindi film hit Hum Aapke Hain Koun..! into a hit musical "Fourteen Songs" which was well received by the British audience. Film-maker Baz Luhrmann acknowledged the influence of Hindi cinema on his production Moulin Rouge by the inclusion of a number "Hindi Sad Diamonds" based on the filmi song "Chamma Chamma" which was composed by Anu Malik.[47] In Greece the genre of indoprepi sprang from Hindi film music while in Indonesia dangdut singers like Ellya Khadam, Rhoma Irama and Mansyur S., have reworked Hindi songs for Indonesian audiences.[48] In France, the band Les Rita Mitsouko used Bollywood influences in their music video for "Le petit train" and French singer Pascal of Bollywood popularised filmi music by covering songs such as "Zindagi Ek Safar Hai Suhana".[49] In Nigeria bandiri music—a combination of Sufi lyrics and Bollywood-style music—has become popular among Hausa youth.[50] Hindi film music has also been combined with local styles in the Caribbean to form "chutney music".[51]

Best-selling music directors

Rank Music director(s) Name(s) Sales Years Ref
1 A. R. Rahman Allah-Rakka Rahman 200,000,000 19922008 [52]
2 Nadeem–Shravan Nadeem Akhtar Saifi & Shravan Kumar 113,100,000 19902005 [lower-alpha 1]
3 Anu Malik Anwar Malik 103,100,000 19932006 [lower-alpha 2]
4 Jatin–Lalit Jatin Pandit & Lalit Pandit 62,800,000 1992–2006 [lower-alpha 3]
5 Uttam Singh Uttam Singh 42,500,000 1989–2003 [lower-alpha 4]
6 Raamlaxman Vijay Patil 28,100,000 1989–1999 [lower-alpha 5]
7 Rajesh Roshan Rajesh Roshan Lal Nagrath 27,500,000 1990–2006 [lower-alpha 6]
8 Laxmikant–Pyarelal Laxmikant Kudalkar & Pyarelal Sharma 21,100,000 1973–1995 [lower-alpha 7]
9 Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan 19,650,000 1996–2007 [lower-alpha 8]
10 Nikhil-Vinay Nikhil Kamath & Vinay Tiwar 13,600,000 1995–2002 [lower-alpha 9]

Best-selling soundtrack albums

Top ten

Rank Year Soundtrack Music director(s) Sales Ref
1 1990AashiquiNadeem–Shravan20,000,000[53][54]
1995Dilwale Dulhania Le JayengeJatin–Lalit20,000,000[55][56]
31995BombayA. R. Rahman15,000,000[57]
41997Dil Toh Pagal HaiUttam Singh12,500,000[58]
51994Hum Aapke Hain KaunRaamlaxman12,000,000[59]
61996Raja HindustaniNadeem–Shravan11,000,000[58]
7 1989ChandniShiv-Hari10,000,000[60]
1993 BaazigarAnu Malik10,000,000 [54]
1995 Bewafa SanamNikhil-Vinay10,000,000[62]
RangeelaA. R. Rahman10,000,000[62]
1999Kaho Naa Pyaar HaiRajesh Roshan10,000,000[63]

By decade

Decade Soundtrack Sales Ref
1950sAwaara (1951)N/A[64]
1960sSangam (1964)N/A[65]
1970s Bobby (1973)1,000,000[66][67][68]
Sholay (1975)1,000,000[67][68]
1980sChandni (1989)10,000,000[60][69]
1990s Aashiqui (1990)20,000,000[53]
Dilwale Dulhania Le Jayenge (1995)20,000,000[55]
2000sMohabbatein (2000)5,500,000[70]
2010sKomaram Puli (2010)760,000[71]

By year

Year Soundtrack Sales Ref
1960Mughal-e-Azam N/A [65]
1962Bees Saal Baad
1963Mere Mehboob
1965Jab Jab Phool Khile
1966Teesri Manzil
1970Johny Mera Naam N/A [66]
1971Haathi Mere Saathi
1976Laila Majnu N/A [66]
1977Hum Kisise Kum Nahin
1978Muqaddar Ka Sikander
1981Ek Duje Ke LiyeN/A[69]
1982Disco Dancer 1,000,000 [72][68]
1983Hero N/A [69]
1984Pyar Jhukta Nahin
1985Ram Teri Ganga Maili1,000,000[73]
1986Bhagwaan Dada1,000,000[74]
1988 Qayamat Se Qayamat Tak8,000,000[69][76]
1993 Baazigar10,000,000 [54]
1994Hum Aapke Hain Kaun12,000,000[59]
1995Dilwale Dulhania Le Jayenge20,000,000[55][56]
1996Raja Hindustani11,000,000 [58]
1997Dil Toh Pagal Hai12,500,000
1998Kuch Kuch Hota Hai8,000,000
1999Kaho Naa Pyaar Hai10,000,000[63]
2001Kabhi Khushi Kabhie Gham4,800,000[77]
2002Humraaz2,200,000 [78]
2003Tere Naam3,000,000
2005Aashiq Banaya Aapne2,000,000
2006Kabhi Alvida Naa Kehna2,000,000
2007Om Shanti Om1,900,000
2013Aashiqui 21,000,000
2014Ek Villain1,000,000
2015Bajirao Mastani1,000,000
2016Ae Dil Hai Mushkil1,000,000
2017Jab Harry Met Sejal1,000,000

Album streams

Year Soundtrack Composer(s) Lyricist(s) YouTube streams (billions) Ref
2017 Tiger Zinda Hai Vishal–Shekhar Irshad Kamil 1.6 [79]
2018 Satyameva Jayate Nadeem–Shravan, Sajid–Wajid, Tanishk Bagchi, Arko, Rochak Kohli Shabbir Ahmed, Ikka, Kumaar, Arko, Danish Sabri 1.5 [80]
Sonu Ke Titu Ki Sweety Zack Knight, Yo Yo Honey Singh, Amaal Mallik, Guru Randhawa Zack Knight, Kumaar, Yo Yo Honey Singh, Guru Randhawa 1.5 [81]
2017 Badrinath Ki Dulhania Amaal Mallik, Tanishk Bagchi, Bappi Lahiri, Akhil Sachdeva Shabbir Ahmed, Kumaar, Akhil Sachdeva, Badshah 1.4 [82]
2018 Simmba Tanishk Bagchi, Viju Shah, Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan, Kumaar Shabbir Ahmed, Rashmi Virag, Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan 1.4 [83]

See also



  1. Gopal, Sangita; Moorti, Sujata (16 June 2008). Global Bollywood: travels of Hindi song and dance. U of Minnesota Press. pp. 1–6. ISBN 978-0-8166-4579-4. Retrieved 22 January 2012.
  2. Gokulsing, K. Moti (4 February 2009). Popular culture in a globalised India. Taylor & Francis. p. 130. ISBN 978-0-415-47666-9. Retrieved 22 January 2012.
  3. "free hindi songs download".
  4. "Decoding the Bollywood poster". National Science and Media Museum. 28 February 2013.
  5. Dwyer, Rachel (2006). Filming the Gods: Religion and Indian Cinema. Routledge. p. 106. ISBN 9781134380701.
  6. "Evergreen Hindi Songs, Ghazals & Devotional music from Saregama". Saregama. Retrieved 26 October 2019.
  7. Malvania, Urvi (21 April 2014). "Sony Music eyes numero uno position in India". Business Standard.
  8. "Spotify's plan to beat Apple: sign the rest of the world". Financial Times. 3 January 2019.
  9. Morcom, Anna (30 November 2007). "The cinematic study of Hindi film songs". Hindi film songs and the cinema. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. pp. 1–24. ISBN 978-0-7546-5198-7. Retrieved 22 January 2012.
  10. As quoted in Gopal & Moorti (2008), pg 14.
  11. Mehta, Rini Bhattacharya; Pandharipande, Rajeshwari (15 January 2010). Bollywood and Globalization: Indian Popular Cinema, Nation, and Diaspora. Anthem Press. p. 36. ISBN 978-1-84331-833-0. Retrieved 22 January 2012.
  12. Morcom, Anna (2007) Hindi Film Songs and the Cinema. Aldershot: Ashgate.
  13. Carlo Nardi (July 2011). "The Cultural Economy of Sound: Reinventing Technology in Indian Popular Cinema". Journal on the Art of Record Production, Issue 5 ISSN 1754-9892.
  14. "Here Are The 12 Most Expensive Songs Ever Made In Bollywood". UC News. 19 May 2018.
  15. "Get ready to party all night with Akshay Kumar & Sonakshi Sinha". India Today. Retrieved 7 September 2013.
  16. Warsi, Shakil (2009). Mughal-E-Azam. Rupa & Company. p. 57. ISBN 978-81-291-1321-4.
  17. "Official exchange rate (LCU per US$, period average)". World Bank. 1960. Retrieved 13 December 2018.
  18. "Planet Bollywood". Toronto Star. 14 October 2012.
  19. Geeta Dayal (6 April 2010). "Further thoughts on '10 Ragas to a Disco Beat'". The Original Soundtrack. Retrieved 3 June 2011.
  20. Geeta Dayal (29 August 2010). "'Studio 84′: Digging into the History of Disco in India". The Original Soundtrack. Retrieved 3 June 2011.
  21. "12 x 12: The 12 best Bollywood disco records". The Vinyl Factory. 28 February 2014.
  22. James Ellis. "Biddu". Metro. Retrieved 17 April 2011.
  23. The Listener, Volumes 100–101. The Listener. BBC. 1978. p. 216. Retrieved 21 June 2011. Tony Palmer knocked off a film account of someone called Biddu (LWT), who appears to have been mad enough to invent disco music.
  24. Shapiro, Peter (2006). Turn the Beat Around: The Secret History of Disco. Macmillan Publishers. p. 55. ISBN 0-86547-952-6. Retrieved 7 June 2011.
  25. Kenneth Lobo, EDM Nation: How India Stopped Worrying About the Riff and Fell in Love With the Beat, Rolling Stone
  26. Biddu Orchestra – Bionic Boogie at Discogs
  27. Biddu Orchestra – Soul Coaxing at Discogs
  28. "Futuristic Journey And Eastern Man CD". CD Universe. Retrieved 7 July 2011.
  29. Biddu Orchestra – Futuristic Journey at Discogs (list of releases)
  30. Futuristic Journey and Eastern Man at AllMusic
  31. Captain Zorro – Phantasm Theme at Discogs
  32. Disco Goes to Bollywood: A Rough Guide, Pitchfork
  33. William Rauscher (12 May 2010). "Charanjit Singh – Synthesizing: Ten Ragas to a Disco Beat". Resident Advisor. Retrieved 3 June 2011.
  34. Stuart Aitken (10 May 2011). "Charanjit Singh on how he invented acid house ... by mistake". The Guardian.
  35. Geeta Dayal (5 April 2010). "Thoughts on '10 Ragas to a Disco Beat'". The Original Soundtrack. Retrieved 3 June 2011.
  36. saavn. "free hindi songs download". Saavn.
  37. Anantharaman, Ganesh (January 2008). Bollywood Melodies: A History of the Hindi Film Song. Penguin Books India. p. 9. ISBN 978-0-14-306340-7.
  38. "India Today". India Today. Living Media: 342. 1994. In 1990, the super-success of Nadeem-Shravan's Aashiqui ushered in the era of ghazal-type romantic music as in Saajan, Dil, Phool aur Kaante, Deewana.
  39. Filmi qawwali song on website Retrieved 19 May 2018
  40. Filmi qawwali from film Jodha Akbar (2008) on website Retrieved 19 May 2018
  41. Filmi qawwali in Rockstar (2011 film) on website Retrieved 19 May 2018
  42. Amit Baruah, R. Padmanabhan (6 September 1997). "The stilled voice". The Hindu, Frontline.
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  47. Conrich, Ian; Tincknell, Estella (1 July 2007). Film's musical moments. Edinburgh University Press. p. 206. ISBN 978-0-7486-2345-7. Retrieved 22 January 2012.
  48. David, Bettina (2008). "Intimate Neighbors: Bollywood, Dangdut Music, and Globalizing Modernities in Indonesia". In Sangita Gopal and Sujata Moorti (ed.). Global Bollywood: Travels of Hindi Song and Dance. University of Minnesota Press. pp. 179–220. ISBN 9780816645794.
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  • The Indian Diaspora: Dynamics of Migration edited by Narayana Jayaram, p. 164 (Trinidad)
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  • Hindi film songs and the cinema by Anna Morcom
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  • Dhunon ki Yatra-Hindi Filmon ke Sangeetkar 1931–2005 by Pankaj Rag
Music of India
A Lady Playing the Tanpura, c. 1735 (Rajasthan)


Media and performance
Music awards
Music festivals
Music media
Nationalistic and patriotic songs
National anthemJana Gana Mana
Regional music
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