Murray hardyhead

The Murray hardyhead (Craterocephalus fluviatilis) is a species of fish in the family Atherinidae endemic to inland parts of southeastern Australia.[1] The fish is an omnivore, feeding on small crustaceans, aquatic insects and algae.[2]

Murray hardyhead
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Atheriniformes
Family: Atherinidae
Genus: Craterocephalus
C. fluviatilis
Binomial name
Craterocephalus fluviatilis
McCulloch, 1912


The fish was once widespread and abundant in the Murray and Murrumbidgee River systems in southern NSW and northern Victoria. However, they have suffered a serious population decline and now seem to be limited to a few sites, mainly in northern Victoria. There are very few recent records of Murray hardyheads from NSW.

The main threat to remaining populations is increasing salinity and lack of water.[2]

Murray hardyheads are now listed as an endangered species in NSW and threatened in Victoria.[2] There are heavy penalties for harming, possessing, buying, or selling them.


  1. Wager, R. 1996. Craterocephalus fluviatilis. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 4 August 2007.
  2. Bray, Dianne; Thompson, Vanessa. "Murray Hardyhead, Craterocephalus fluviatilis". Fishes of Australia. Retrieved 15 October 2014.

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