- Where graphs are defined so as to allow multiple edges and loops, a graph without loops is often called a multigraph.
- Where graphs are defined so as to disallow multiple edges and loops, a multigraph or a pseudograph is often defined to mean a "graph" which can have loops and multiple edges.
Multiple edges are, for example, useful in the consideration of electrical networks, from a graph theoretical point of view. Additionally, they constitute the core differentiating feature of multidimensional networks.
A planar graph remains planar if an edge is added between two vertices already joined by an edge; thus, adding multiple edges preserves planarity.
A dipole graph is a graph with two vertices, in which all edges are parallel to each other.
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