Multiple-vehicle collision

A multiple vehicle collision (colloquially known as a multi-car collision, multi-vehicle collision, [1] or simply a multi) is a road traffic collision involving many vehicles. Generally occurring on high-capacity and high-speed routes such as freeways, they are one of the deadliest forms of traffic collisions. The most disastrous pile-ups have involved more than a hundred vehicles.


Pile-ups generally occur in low-visibility conditions as drivers on freeways are sometimes caught out by driving too close to the vehicle in front and not adjusting to the road conditions.

Chain-reaction crashes can also occur in conditions of good visibility, when black ice or other road hazards are encountered unexpectedly as drivers round a curve or crest a hill.[1]

Another possibility is a third vehicle is simply too close to the initial collision to avoid hitting one or both of the vehicles. Due to the high traffic speeds on the road, if one car develops a problem and suddenly halts, those behind it cannot stop in time and may hit it. Considering that these roads often have high traffic volumes, more cars are forced into braking and skidding, darting into other lanes and in front of oncoming traffic and so more vehicles become involved, creating a chain reaction effect.

Determining the cause of such collisions is difficult for investigators and it is often impossible to tell if negligence caused the crash. In spite of their frequency, little formal research has been done in the United States regarding their cause or causes.[2]


Multiple-vehicle collisions are particularly deadly as the mass of crumpled vehicles makes escape for survivors difficult. Even if survivors are able to exit their vehicles, other cars may strike them. Individual vehicles in a multiple-vehicle collision are often hit multiple times at high speed, increasing the risk of injury to passengers who may have survived the first impact with the benefit of now-discharged protective airbags. Collisions after the initial collision may occur from the side of the vehicle, where the passenger compartment is more vulnerable.

A fire in one part of the collision can quickly spread via spilled gasoline and cover the entire crash area. Multiple-vehicle collisions can also overwhelm local firefighting, ambulance, and police services making speedy rescues more difficult. If the collision takes place in a remote area, getting medical help to the scene can be a daunting task.

The destruction and intense heat of fires can also damage roadways, particularly by melting and burning the asphalt or spalling concrete surfaces. The structural steel of bridges and overpasses can also be weakened by the heat. A fiery pileup inside a tunnel is the most serious, as there is little means to escape the poisonous fumes, and the confined heat may damage structural supports.

The large scale of these collisions can close important highway routes for several days, or even longer if highway support structures are damaged.

Major pileups

Date Killed Injured Vehicles Details
31 October 1965 0 28 100+ A fog bank settles over the Santa Ana Freeway and causes a chain reaction collision involving more than 100 cars and both directions of travel. The crash causes 28 injuries. Two more separate chain collisions involving an additional 50 cars (also attributed to fog) occur on the Harbor Freeway the same day.[3]
29 November 1971 7 42 70 On the M1 just north of the A505 junction near Luton, United Kingdom, due to fog. Fog warning lights, switched on on the advice of motorway patrols, were not active at the time of the pileup. 26 miles of the M1 motorway were closed for several hours in both directions.[4]
12 March 199033052Interstate 43 in Green Bay, Wisconsin, United States, on the Tower Drive Bridge over the Fox River, due to very heavy fog; fiery crash involved 52 vehicles; 3 deaths and more than 30 injuries. A fog warning system was immediately installed, and bridge lighting was installed in the mid 2000s, after more fog related issues.
11 December 1990124299Interstate 75 in Calhoun, Tennessee, United States, between Chattanooga and Knoxville near the Hiwassee River, due to very heavy fog; fiery crash involved 99 vehicles; 12 deaths and 42 injuries. The fog was caused by the neighboring Bowater paper mill, that paid out more than $10M in settlements. A fog warning system has since been installed, and the highway patrol enforces speed limits aggressively.[5]
13 March 1991105151M4 in Hungerford, Berkshire, United Kingdom, between Membury and Hungerford due to very heavy fog; fiery crash involved 51 vehicles; 10 deaths. A van driver either fell asleep or swerved to miss a pigeon, in the outside lane. Huge pile-up ensued.
October 1991164150A15 Motorway near Ochten, Netherlands, due to fog, 150 vehicles, 1 death, 64 injuries.[6]
29 November 199117114104Interstate 5 in Coalinga, California, due to a dust storm, 104 vehicles, 17 deaths, 114 injuries.[7][8]
April 19922dozens60Interstate 64 in Virginia near Afton Mountain, due to fog, 60 vehicles, 2 deaths, dozens injured.[9]
2 December 199467127Interstate 35 in San Antonio, Texas, United States, 127 car pile-up caused by blinding glare and rain-slicked roads, 67 injuries.[10]
20 March 1995190200Interstate 10 in Mobile, Alabama, United States, due to fog, 200 vehicles, 1 death, 90 injuries.[11]
27 February 19961080200E17 motorway near Nazareth, Belgium, due to fog.[12]
10 March 1997360160M42 motorway in the United Kingdom, due to fog – 160 vehicles involved, 3 deaths, 60 injuries.[13][14]
31 December 1998139114114 cars crashed during whiteout conditions and [15] a snow-slicked section of N/B Interstate-75 in central Michigan, just north of Grayling, killing one and injuring 39.[16]
3 September 199983387Highway 401 in Essex County, Ontario, Canada, just east of Windsor. Very dense fog and tailgating causes an 87-vehicle pile-up, killing 8, and injuring 33 more.[17][18]
22 November 199922983Interstate 70 in Golden, Colorado, United States, when a car spun out in the westbound lanes in heavy snow and fog, then was hit by other vehicles as it attempted to resume westbound travel.[19]
February 2001131Interstate 95 in Stafford County, Virginia, United States, 131 vehicles plus two others nearby totaling 80 more, due to a snowstorm whiteout.[20]
March 2002125Interstate 75 in Catoosa County, Georgia, United States, due to one-time sudden fog, about 125 vehicles[21]
11 October 2002103650Interstate 43 in Sheboygan County, Wisconsin, United States, just north of the Ozaukee-Sheboygan county line. Involved 50 vehicles due to dense fog. Considered the worst multiple-vehicle collision in Wisconsin history.[22]
3 November 2002041216Interstate 710 in Los Angeles County, California, United States, around 200 vehicles, due to dense fog.[23]
7 February 200314780Interstate 94 in Berrien County, Michigan, United States, 80 vehicles (initially reported as 75), due to lake-effect snow.[24][25]
23 May 200326490Interstate 68 in Garrett County, Maryland, United States, approximately 90 vehicles involved in accident near the I-68 cut on Big Savage Mountain. Heavy fog was blamed for the collision.[26]
6 January 200461750Interstate 80 in Centre County, Pennsylvania, United States, around 50 vehicles, due to poor visibility during a white out snow squall, leaving 6 dead and 17 injured.[27]
12 January 2005235200Interstate 96 in Ingham County, Michigan, United States, around 200 vehicles, due to dense fog leaving 2 dead and 35 injured.[28][29]
17 February 2006 5 15 38 Highway 417 in Embrum, Ontario, approximately 38 vehicles collided due to reduced visibility and snow squall conditions, killing 5 and injuring 15.
5 November 20072dozens108Highway 99 south of Fresno, California, United States, due to the tule fog that occurs frequently in fall and winter; involved 108 vehicles, killed at least 2 and injured dozens of others.[30]
6 January 20082100Two people are killed as 100 cars pile up on Interstate 90 near Madison, Wisconsin.[31]
9 January 200843870Four people were killed and as many as 38 injured in a major pileup on Interstate 4 in north central Florida involving 70 vehicles, as fog mixed with smoke from a controlled fire that reached out-of-control proportions combined to make it almost impossible for motorists to see.[32]
20 January 2008100More than 100 vehicles crashed into each other on Highway 400 near Toronto due to bad weather conditions.[33]
11 March 2008327760Around 6.39 am UAE time a series of vehicle crashes occurred, involving cars, SUVs, buses and trucks, because of heavy fog on the Abu Dhabi-Dubai highway near Ghantoot, Abu Dhabi, in the United Arab Emirates, leading to the worst ever crash and multi-vehicle pileup in the country’s history. According to Dubai-based Gulf News and Reuters, the incident killed 3 people and injured 277, involving 60 vehicles from which 25 caught fire according to Abu Dhabi Police.[34][35][36][37][38][39][40][41]
20 March 2008033231231 vehicles crashed at highway D1 in Vysočina Region of the Czech Republic. About 30 people were injured, 3 of them seriously. Nobody was killed.[42][43][44][45][46][47][48]
25 March 20081660A near 60 vehicle pile-up in heavy snow on Austria's main east-west highway causes one death with six injuries.[49]
11 January 200950+"More than 50 cars..." in Derry, New Hampshire[50]
19 July 2009Dozens259Dozens of people injured, 10 critically, when 259 vehicles were involved in a pile-up due to heavy rain on the German Autobahn A2 near Braunschweig in Lower Saxony.[51]
13 December 2009525656 cars involved in a pile-up on Route 110 in Shelton, Connecticut due to freezing rain and black ice resulting in 46 injuries and six hospitalizations, but no deaths or life-threatening injuries.[52]
23 December 20093643M27 motorway 20 vehicles involved in a pile up westbound at Rownhams services and another 23 eastbound between J7 for Hedge End and Botley and J8 for Bursledon and Netley due to severe black ice, freezing fog and deep snow. 36 people injured.
10 February 2010750Near Williamsburg, Virginia, whiteout conditions during the morning around 9:00 am EST 10 February led to a fifty-car pileup on a stretch of westbound I-64. The collision took hours to clear, and seven people suffered minor injuries requiring hospitalization.[53]
14 February 201013140In the Kansas City area, several pileups involving 140[54] vehicles, including two Greyhound buses[55] were caused by whiteout conditions. The largest pileup, involving 40 vehicles along I-70 and K-7 near the city of Bonner Springs, Kansas.[54][55][56] No fatalities or critical injuries were reported. The collision closed I-70 for several hours so emergency workers and crews could clean up the area. The same day, also in the Kansas City metro area, a separate pileup caused by whiteout conditions, involving at least 20 vehicles closed parts of I-35 near 87th Street.[55] No fatalities or serious injuries were reported there as well.[55] The collision sent 13 people to area hospitals.[56]
16 November 201021675Interstate 77 in Carroll County, Virginia-Virginia State Police determined that a total of 75 vehicles were involved in crashes in both the northbound and southbound lanes of I-77 between the 4 and 7 mile markers in the area of Fancy Gap, Virginia. Heavy fog resulting in zero visibility was determined to be the cause of the collisions.[57]
8 April 201187480+An 80-car pileup occurs during a sandstorm on Autobahn 19 near Rostock, Germany (both directions). 8 deaths and 74 injured people.[58][59]
15 September 2011149300Rodovia dos Imigrantes at São Paulo, Brazil. around 300 vehicles involved in a collision due to heavy fog. Several injuries and one person dead.[60]
1 December 2011116–18176Tennessee State Route 386 (Vietnam Veterans Boulevard) and Saundersville Road near Hendersonville in Sumner County, Tennessee, United States, north of Nashville, due to "heavy, heavy fog"; three separate chain-reaction crashes involving 176 vehicles; 1 death and 16–18 injuries. A fog advisory was not in effect for the area at the time of the crashes.[61][62][63][64]
3 December 2011114134Istanbul Trans European Motorway 134 cars involved with 1 dead, 14 injured, due to heavy fog and slippery road.
5 December 201101014In the Chugoku expressway in Shimonoseki, Japan. It is believed that this pileup is one of the most expensive pileups, having 8 Ferraris, 3 Mercedes-Benz, a Lamborghini, and 2 Toyota Prius being involved in the crash. The slippery road is blamed as the cause of the pileup, and injured 10 people.[65]
29 December 201125940I-10 in New Orleans, Louisiana; About 40 vehicles involved with at least 50 injuries (22 serious), due to heavy fog and smoke from a nearby ongoing marsh fire in New Orleans East.[66]
3 February 2012040+100+European route E75 Helsinki, Finland more than 100 cars involved with more than 40 injured (1 critically), due to heavy snow and slippery road.[67][68]
5 October 201205247Interstate I-75 Southbound Sarasota/Manatee County line, Florida. On University Blvd. overpass 47 vehicles in 12 separate crashes, due to white-out rain.
22 November 20122100100+Interstate I-10 – Both directions – Jefferson County line, Texas. 150-vehicle pileup on foggy Texas highway leaves 2 dead, 100 hurt.[69]
15 January 201314680European route E4 Klippan. On Tranarp bridge. One person died and more than 40 were injured on the E4 motorway near Helsingborg, southwestern Sweden, after up to 80 vehicles crashed into one another due to dense fog and slippery road conditions.[70][71]
21 January 2013127103Interstate 275 – Cincinnati, Ohio. Flash snowburst caused a large pileup with many injuries. A 12-year-old girl was killed.[72][73][74]
21 January 20130952Interstate 75 – Middletown, Ohio. Flash snowburst caused a large pileup. Same storm as Cincinnati 103-vehicle collision that killed a 12-year-old girl.[75]
25 January 20130580Highway 401 east of Oshawa – Ontario, Canada.[76]
31 January 2013320+35+Interstate 75 - Detroit, Michigan. Flash snowburst caused a pile-up along an urbanized section of Interstate 75 in Detroit, killing a 46-year-old Allen Park man, and two children from nearby Windsor, Ontario.[77][78]
31 March 201332595Interstate 77 in Carroll County, Virginia approximately 95 vehicles were involved in a collision on the southbound lane of I-77 near the base of Fancy Gap Mountain near Fancy Gap, Virginia. Virginia State Police say that excessive fog could be to blame for the collision. Three people were killed.[79]
5 September 2013060130+60 people were injured as more than 130 vehicles were involved in a series of crashes in thick fog on the A249 Sheppey crossing in Kent, UK.[80]
3 December 2013267132One person was killed and 67 injured as 132 vehicles were involved in a triple chain collision in thick fog on the A19 in Zonnebeke, Belgium.[81] A second person died four days later.[82]
23 January 2014320+~46Interstate 94 in LaPorte County, Indiana, United States, more than 40 vehicles, due to lake-effect snow.[83]
14 February 2014030100Up to 105 vehicles were involved in multiple collisions on the eastbound lanes of the Pennsylvania Turnpike between Willow Grove and Bensalem. One collision involved about 75 vehicles while another incident further east involved about 30 vehicles. There were a total of 30 injuries. The collisions were a result of icy conditions from a winter storm.[84]
27 February 2014096Ontario Highway 400 south of Barrie, 96 vehicles were involved in collisions at about 9am during a snow squall, reducing visibility to "a few feet". The incident resulted in the closure of Highway 400 between Highway 89 and Mapleview Drive. Both lanes on that stretch of highway were closed for most of the day until early evening.[85]
1 March 2014130104Interstate 25 in Denver, Colorado, United States, 104 vehicles, due to heavy snow.[86]
12 March 20143"numerous"90Ninety vehicles between two crashes on the Ohio Turnpike (Interstate 80/90) in Sandusky County, Ohio, United States, due to heavy snow.[87][88]
14 October 201445447A 47 vehicle pileup occurs during morning traffic N12 Freeway near Alberton, South Africa (heading east). 4 people confirmed dead and 9 people critically injured.[89]
9 January 2015123193Nearly 200 vehicles, including 76 semi trucks, were involved in a pileup on Interstate 94 near Galesburg, Michigan, [90]amidst a heavy snowstorm that brought nearly a foot of snow to the area. One of the trucks was carrying a load of fireworks, which caught fire and exploded, injuring two firefighters. The only fatality was a 57-year-old truck driver from Quebec, Canada.[91]
18 January 20151306060-car pileup on Interstate 76 in Upper Merion, Pennsylvania due to icy roads. 1 man was killed when he got out of his car after the collision and was hit by another car. 30 more people were injured.[92][93]
26 January 2015218100+Motorway pile-up involving more than 100 vehicles on the M40 in Lewknor, Oxfordshire, United Kingdom]]. 2 men died and 18 people were injured, including several seriously injured.[94]
11 February 2015265106106-car pileup on Yeongjong Bridge in Incheon, South Korea. 2 men died and more than 65 people were injured. The event was caught on tape from a vehicle's dashcam.[95]
25 February 20150177575-car pileup on Interstate 95 in Penobscot County, Maine, United States. This was noted as possibly Maine's largest single traffic collision.[96]
30 January 2016 4 30 70+ 55-car pileup on A1 motorway near the Senožeče, Slovenia. 5 men died and more than 30 people were injured.[97][98]
22 February 2016056060 cars in pileup on E39 near Bergen, Norway. Unforeseen extremely slippery roads in the morning rush hours took motorists by surprise.[99]
13 March 2016020130At least 130 cars piled up on Interstate 85/Interstate 40 in Alamance County, North Carolina, United States. The crash is thought to be a result of slippery roads caused by thunderstorms in the area at the time.[100]
22 November 2016 17 37 56 The crash happened on an icy road in North China's province of Shanxi.
8 December 2016 0 20 50 A 50-Vehicle pileup on Interstate 90 in Concord Township, Ohio on the east side of Cleveland, Ohio at mile marker 202.3 (between OH-44 and Vrooman Road) happened as a result of overnight heavy lake-effect snow. It seems to have had 15 semi trucks and 35 cars involved. [101]
5 February 2018 1 5 50–70 Icy conditions lead to a pileup on Interstate 35 near Ames, Iowa, of which at least 15 semi trucks and 35 cars were involved. One fatality and five critically injured people were reported.[102]
15 February 2019 1 0 47 A 47-vehicle pileup occurred on Interstate 70 near Oak Grove, Missouri, due to icy roads and white-out conditions. One fatality was reported.[103]
24 February 2019 1 144 131 White-out conditions and winds in excess of 50 mph contributed to a 131 vehicle pileup on Interstate 41 near Neenah, Wisconsin. The crash results in 1 dead and 71 injured. [104][105]
5 March 2019 0 25 ~100 White-out conditions and icy roads caused a 90 to 100 car pileup on Route 8 northbound in Hudson, Ohio.[106]
23 March 2019 1 12 50 Fog visibility of 100 feet, Southbound side of Interstate 5 South of the Grapevine at Gorman School Road. A toddler passed away days later.[107]
25 April 2019 4 7 28 A semi driver slammed into rush hour traffic, starting a pile up and massive fire that killed 4 people and injured 7 others, in Lakewood, Colorado. [108]


Multiple vehicle collisions can occur in the restricted courses used in motorsports as well, most commonly after a green flag (on road courses) being waved following a warm-up lap during the start of the race. Reporters and fans apply subjective guidelines as to what threshold needs to be crossed before a simple on-track incident can be described as such. NASCAR fans, for example, talk about the "Big One", where many cars can be or are involved in a wreck while running close together.


  1. Abel, David (2 December 2013). "On busy travel day, black ice led to massive pileup in Worcester". Boston Globe. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
  2. Copeland, Larry; Overberg, Paul (18 February 2015). "Special cops work to unravel confusing highway pileups". USA Today. Retrieved 19 February 2015. There is little research on why these crashes occur. Neither the Federal Highway Administration, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, the National Transportation Safety Board, the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety nor auto club AAA has researched the phenomena.
  3. "More Than 100 Cars Smashed on Freeway". The Post-Crescent. 1 November 1965. p. 1. Retrieved 19 March 2017 via
  4. "Seven Killed as M1 Drivers Hit Sudden Fog". The Guardian. 30 November 1971. p. 1. Retrieved 19 March 2017 via
  5. "HAR-92/02". Retrieved 12 December 2013.
  6. (in Dutch)
  7. "I-5 Is Reopened After Pileup That Killed 17 : Traffic: Workers battle winds and sand clouds to clear highway of 104 vehicles that crashed in dust storm". Los Angeles Times. 1 December 1991. Retrieved 19 January 2015.
  8. "14 Killed, 114 Hurt in I-5 Pileups : Traffic: More than 100 vehicles collide in dust storm north of Coalinga. Victims describe 'all kinds of terrible scenes--trucks on fire, cars on fire, bodies in the road.'". Los Angeles Times. 30 November 1991. Retrieved 19 January 2015.
  9. "VDOT looks to boost 1-64 safety over Afton - Richmond News, Crime & Politics". 24 September 2013. Retrieved 17 February 2014.
  10. Newsbank Missing or empty |title= (help)
  11. "Performance of Satellite Fog Detection Techniques" (PDF). National Weather Association. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 November 2008. Retrieved 28 December 2007.
  12. (in Dutch)
  13. "M42 death crash driver wins back his licence". 10 November 2001. Archived from the original on 1 July 2012. Retrieved 6 November 2010.
  14. Option or Necessity?
  15. "The Spokesman-Review". Retrieved 7 February 2013.
  16. CNN Archived from the original on 27 January 2007. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  17. "401 Pileup Disaster". CBC News. 3 September 1999.
  18. "Top Ten Weather Stories of 1999 – Top Ten Weather Stories – [Meteorological Service of Canada – The Green Lane]". 23 April 2010. Archived from the original on 6 May 2006. Retrieved 6 November 2010.
  19. "2 Killed, 29 Injured in Pileup on I-70 in Colorado". Los Angeles Times. 23 November 1999. Retrieved 23 November 2013.
  20. "Wrecks close interstates during snowstorm". USA Today. 23 February 2001. Retrieved 13 May 2010.
  21. "Massive pileup near Ga.-Tenn. line kills 4". CNN. 14 March 2002. Retrieved 13 May 2010.
  22. "At least 10 killed in multi-car crash in Wisconsin". USA Today. 11 October 2002. Retrieved 30 January 2012.
  23. Gottlieb, Jeff; Hernandez, Daniel (4 November 2002). "41 Hurt in 198-Vehicle Smashup". Los Angeles Times.
  24. "Intense Lake Effect Snow Band Causes 75-Vehicle Chain Reaction Pile-Up". Northern Indiana Weather Forecast Office, National Weather Service.
  25. Aiken, Scott (7 February 2004). "I-94 Pileup Memories Are Vivid a Year Later". The Herald-Palladium. Retrieved 3 January 2014.
  26. "I-68 Fog Detection System Planning Report" (PDF). Sabra, Wang & Associates. 7 November 2003. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 February 2014.
  27. "The Story of the Keystone Shortway". They Keystone Shortway Association. n.d.
  28. Macomb Daily : More than 100 vehicles pile up on I-96 01/13/05 Archived 10 January 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  29. "Chain-Reaction Crashes In 2 States". CBS News. 13 January 2005.
  30. Retrieved 20 December 2007. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  31. "2 Killed, Dozens Hurt After 100-Vehicle Pileup On Interstate 90 – Madison News Story – WISC Madison". Archived from the original on 6 November 2008. Retrieved 13 August 2010.
  32. Fog Causes 70-Car Pileup in Fla.; 4 Dead
  33. "Whiteout causes 100-vehicle pile-up near Toronto". Reuters. 20 January 2008.
  34. "Horrific accident on Abu Dhabi-Dubai highway near Ghantoot". Archived from the original on 24 July 2009. Retrieved 6 November 2010.
  35. "Five killed, 277 injured in Ghantoot accident". Xpress4me. Archived from the original on 13 March 2008. Retrieved 6 November 2010.
  36. "Photo Gallery – Five killed, 277 injured in Ghantoot accident". Xpress4me. Archived from the original on 11 June 2009. Retrieved 6 November 2010.
  37. "Reuters Video report – Hundreds hurt in UAE horror crash". 9 February 2009. Retrieved 6 November 2010.
  38. "REFILE-UAE's biggest traffic accident kills 3, injures 277". Reuters. 11 March 2008. Retrieved 6 November 2010.
  39. Yahoo! News India – Eight killed in horrific 200-car pileup on Dubai-Abu Dhabi highway Archived 16 March 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  40. "Traffic pileup leaves 3 dead, 300 hurt – Some of the 60 cars burst into flames on Dubai-Abu Dhabi highway". NBC News. Reuters. 3 November 2008. Retrieved 6 November 2010.
  41. "YouTube Video – Dubai – Abu Dhabi Crash – the Aftermath". 11 March 2008. Retrieved 6 November 2010.
  42. Na Vysočině je D1 po hromadné nehodě průjezdná oběma směry, web ČT24, 21 March 2008
  43. Největší hromadná nehoda zablokovala dálnici D1 na 11 hodin Archived 23 September 2008 at the Wayback Machine,, 20 March 2008
  44. D1: Největší nehoda všech dob, Z Jihlavy, nezávislý infoserver, 21 March 2008
  45. Nehodu na D1 zavinili řidiči, jeli rychle Archived 24 April 2008 at the Wayback Machine, Lidové noviny, 22 April 2008
  46. Tomáš Blažek: Sníh umrtvil D1 za 4 minuty, MF Dnes, 22 March 2008, supplement Vysočina, p. 1
  47. Jan Vaca: Policie pozná, kdo jel rychle, MF Dnes, 22 March 2008. str. 2
  48. Michal Pavec: Škoda za havárii desetiletí na D1 činí 28 milionů, Aktuálně.cz, 21 April 2008
  49. "Whiteout One dead in 60-vehicle pile-up on Austrian motorway | Reuters". 25 March 2008. Retrieved 6 November 2010.
  50. "More than 50 vehicles involved in I-93 crash". 12 January 2009. Archived from the original on 17 June 2011. Retrieved 13 August 2010.
  51. "Dozens injured in 259-car autobahn pileup – The Local". Retrieved 13 August 2010.
  52. "50 car pile-up in Shelton closes Rt 110". Archived from the original on 24 March 2010. Retrieved 13 August 2010.
  53. "Winter weather causes 50 car pile-up". WAVY. LIN Television Corporation. Archived from the original on 12 February 2010. Retrieved 11 February 2010.
  54. Archived 18 February 2010 at the Wayback Machine
  55. "Weather Causes Massive Crashes in Midwest". CBS News. 14 February 2010. Retrieved 13 August 2010.
  56. Archived 18 February 2010 at the Wayback Machine
  57. "Two die in 75-car pileup on I-77". 16 November 2010. Archived from the original on 3 April 2013.
  58. "Germany: Freak sandstorm causes deadly motorway pile-up". BBC News. 9 April 2011.
  59. "Deadly Sandstorm: Video of 80 car pile-up in Germany, 10 dead, dozens injured". YouTube. 9 April 2011.
  60. " – Cotidiano – Engavetamento mata 1 e envolve 300 carros, diz PM; pista da Imigrantes é liberada – 15/09/2011". 15 September 2011. Retrieved 5 November 2011.
  61. Dave Alsup (1 December 2011). "1 dead, 16 injured in Tennessee crashes involving 176 cars". Retrieved 1 December 2011.
  62. "One Killed, 18 Injured In 55-Car Pileup On Vietnam Vets Blvd". 1 December 2011. Archived from the original on 3 December 2011. Retrieved 1 December 2011.
  63. Scott Sutton (1 December 2011). "1 killed, 16 injured after 50-car pileup on Vietnam Vets Blvd". Retrieved 1 December 2011.
  64. "100-plus vehicles involved in pileup, 1 dead, several injured". 1 December 2011. Archived from the original on 3 December 2011. Retrieved 1 December 2011.
  65. "AfFerraris destroyed in costly Japan motorway pile-up".
  66. "After massive I-10 pileup, New Orleans East residents point to poor lighting". Archived from the original on 11 July 2012. Retrieved 26 November 2012.
  67. "The Day Helsinki Stood Still – Snow Chaos With Video". Retrieved 18 February 2012.
  68. "More than 40 injured in multiple accidents and massive delays to Helsinki public transport as snow and ice compound the chilly conditions". Retrieved 18 February 2012.
  69. Pearce, Matt (22 November 2012). "150-vehicle pileup on foggy Texas highway leaves 2 dead, 100 hurt". Retrieved 22 November 2012.
  70. "100-car pile-up kills one, leaves dozens injured - The Local". Retrieved 7 February 2013.
  71. civil contingencies agency fact sheet (in Swedish)
  72. "Scores of vehicles snared in Ohio highway pileups". 21 January 2013. Retrieved 7 February 2013.
  73. "I-275 accident grows to 96 cars". Retrieved 7 February 2013.
  74. "IN-DEPTH: I-275 pile-up leads to piles of paperwork". Retrieved 7 February 2013.
  75. "'White-out' conditions lead to 52-vehicle pileup on I-75". Retrieved 7 February 2013.
  76. 25 Jan 2013 4:11 PM ET (26 January 2013). "Hwy. 401 reopens after 80-vehicle pileup - Ottawa - CBC News". Retrieved 7 February 2013.
  77. "3 die in United States road accident". Russia Today. 31 January 2013. Archived from the original on 2 February 2013.
  78. "Cell phone video shows moments after deadly I-75 pileup". Fox News. 1 February 2013. Archived from the original on 19 January 2015. Retrieved 19 January 2015.
  79. "UPDATED: 95 cars involved in I-77 crash in Carroll County". WDBJ7 Web Staff. 31 March 2013. Archived from the original on 12 April 2013.
  80. "Sheppey crossing crash: Dozens hurt as 130 vehicles crash". BBC News. 5 September 2013.
  81. "Drievoudige kettingbotsing op A19 bij Zonnebeke". VRT News. 3 December 2013.
  82. "Kettingbotsing A19 eist tweede mensenleven". VRT News. 7 December 2013.
  83. Keagle, Lauri Harvey (24 January 2014). "Westbound I-94 Reopens after Fatal Michigan City Pileup". The Times of Northwest Indiana. Retrieved 24 January 2014.
  84. "UPDATE: Pa. Turnpike Reopened After Massive Crash, All-Day Closure". Philadelphia, PA: KYW-TV. 14 February 2014. Retrieved 19 February 2014.
  85. "Highway 400 south of Barrie reopens after 96-vehicle pileup". CBC News. Retrieved 28 February 2014.
  86. Mitchell, Kirk; Alison Noon (1 March 2014). "I-25 Pileup: 104 Vehicles Involved, 1 Killed, 30 Hospitalized after Snowy Disaster". The Denver Post. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
  87. McCray, Vanessa (15 March 2014). "Debris Cleared from Turnpike Fatal Crash Site". The Blade. Retrieved 15 March 2014.
  88. Astolfi, Courtney (14 March 2014). "Turnpike Open, But Slow Going". Sandusky Register. Retrieved 15 March 2014.
  89. "South Africa: Truck brake failure leads to multiple car pile up". News 24. 14 October 2014.
  90. "170 Vehicle Pile-Up Triggers Fireworks and Evacuation". ABC News. 9 January 2015. Retrieved 12 January 2017.
  91. "One dead, 23 hurt in fiery 193-vehicle I-94 pileup". WZZM. 9 January 2015. Archived from the original on 17 January 2015. Retrieved 9 January 2015.
  92. "1 Dead, 30 Hurt in Massive I-76 Pileup in Montgomery County". NBC. 18 January 2015. Retrieved 19 January 2015.
  93. "At Least Three Dead and Dozens Injured in Northeast Pileups". Gawker. 18 January 2015. Archived from the original on 19 January 2015. Retrieved 19 January 2015.
  94. "Two die in 100-car pile-up". DailyMail. 26 January 2015. Retrieved 26 January 2015.
  95. "Two dead in 100-car South Korea pile-up". BBC. 11 February 2015. Retrieved 11 February 2015.
  96. Ricker, Nok-Noi (26 February 2015). "Police, witnesses piece together details of 75-car crash on I-95". Bangor Daily News. Retrieved 27 February 2015.
  97. "Motorway pile-up death toll rising". Retrieved 31 January 2016.
  98. France-Presse, Agence (30 January 2016). "Four die in Slovenian 50-car pile-up". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 31 January 2016.
  99. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  100. "130-plus vehicles involved in series of wrecks on I-40 in Alamance County". The News & Observer. 13 March 2016. Retrieved 23 October 2016.
  101. "50-vehicle pileup shuts down Ohio freeway".
  102. "Ames, Iowa, Interstate Reopens After Deadly 70-Car Pileup".
  103. Hopkins, Anna (16 February 2019). "Dramatic 47-car pile up in Missouri leaves at least one dead". Fox News. Retrieved 17 February 2019.
  104. "Sheriff: 1 dead after 131-vehicle pileup in Winnebago Co". Fox News. 24 February 2019. Retrieved 25 February 2019.
  105. "131-vehicle pileup on I-41 in Neenah kills one person and injures 71 others". Milwaukee Journal Sentinel. 24 February 2019. Retrieved 25 February 2019.
  106. "Dozens of cars totaled in Route 8 pile-up". WEWS. 6 March 2019. Retrieved 7 March 2019.
  107. "Toddler dies days after fog causes Grapevine pileup". ABC7 Los Angeles. 1 April 2019. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  108. "4 killed in fiery I-70 crash in west Lakewood". The Colorado Sun. 26 April 2019. Retrieved 7 August 2019.
This article is issued from Wikipedia. The text is licensed under Creative Commons - Attribution - Sharealike. Additional terms may apply for the media files.