Due to marginalisation produced by continuous Resettlement Policy sustained at start of Mindanao and Sulu inclusion to the Philippine Commonwealth territory of 1935, by 1969, political tensions and open hostilities developed between the Government of the Philippines and Moro Muslim rebel groups. The developing Moro Insurgency was ultimately triggered by the Jabidah massacre, which saw the killing of 60 Filipino Muslim commandos on a planned operation to reclaim the eastern part of the Malaysian state of Sabah. In response, the University of the Philippines professor Nur Misuari established the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF), an armed insurgent group that was committed to establishing an independent entity composed of Mindanao, Sulu, and Palawan. Over the successive years, the MNLF has splintered into several different groups including the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF), which wanted to establish an Islamic state within the Philippines. The Moro Insurgency is rooted in a long history of resistance by the Bangsamoro people against foreign rule, dating back to the American annexation of the Philippines in 1898 even as they are not part of Spain's Act of War. Since then, Moro resistance has persisted against the Philippine government.
Casualty statistics vary for the conflict; however, the conservative estimates of the Uppsala Conflict Data Program indicate that at least 6,015 people were killed in armed conflict between the Government of Philippines and ASG, BIFM, MILF, and MNLF factions between 1989 and 2012.
Part of a series on the
|History of the Philippines|
The Moros had a history of resistance against Spanish, American, and Japanese rule for 400 years. During the Spanish–Moro conflict, Spain repeatedly tried to conquer the Moro Sultanate of Sulu, Sultanate of Maguindanao, and the Confederation of sultanates in Lanao. The armed struggle against the Japanese, Spanish, Americans and Christian Filipinos is considered by current Moro Muslim leaders to be part of a four-century-long "national liberation movement" of the Bangsamoro (Moro Nation).
Following the Spanish–American War in 1898, another conflict sparked in southern Philippines between the revolutionary Muslims in the Philippines and the United States military that took place between 1899 and 1913. Filipinos opposed foreign rule from the United States, which claimed the Philippines as its territory. On 14 August 1898, after defeating Spanish forces, the United States had established a military government in the Philippines under General Wesley Merritt as Military Governor. American forces took control from the Spanish government in Jolo on 18 May 1899, and at Zamboanga in December 1899. Brigadier General John C. Bates was sent to negotiate a treaty with the Sultan of Sulu, Jamalul Kiram II. Kiram was disappointed by the American takeover, as he expected to regain sovereignty after the defeat of Spanish forces in the archipelago. Bates' main goal was to guarantee Moro neutrality in the Philippine–American War, and to establish order in the southern Philippines. After some negotiation, the Bates Treaty was signed which was based on an earlier Spanish treaty. The Bates Treaty did ensure the neutrality of the Muslims in the south, but it was actually set up to buy time for the Americans until the war in the north ended. After the war, in 1915, the Americans imposed the Carpenter Treaty on Sulu.
On 20 March 1900, General Bates was replaced by Brigadier General William August Kobbé and the District of Mindanao-Jolo was upgraded to a full department. American forces in Mindanao were reinforced and hostilities with the Moro people lessened, although there are reports of Americans and other civilians being attacked and slain by Moros.
The American invasion began in 1904 and ended at the term of Major General John J. Pershing, the third and final military governor of Moro Province, although major resistance continued in Bud Dajo and Mount Bagsak in Jolo. The United States military killed hundreds of Moro in the Moro Crater massacre.
Repeated rebellions by the Moros against American rule continued to break out even after the main Moro Rebellion ended, right up to the Japanese occupation of the Philippines during World War II. During the Japanese invasion of the Philippines, the Moros waged an insurgency against the Japanese on Mindanao and Sulu until Japan surrendered in 1945. Moro Juramentados attacked the Spanish, Americans, Philippine Constabulary and the Japanese.
The American colonial government and subsequently the Philippine government pursued a policy of intra-ethnic migration by resettling significant numbers of Christian Filipino settlers from the Visayas and Luzon onto tracts of land in Mindanao, beginning in the 1920s. This policy allowed Christian Filipinos to outnumber both the Moro and Lumad populations by the 1970s, which was a contributing factor in aggravating grievances between the Moro and Filipino Christian settlers as disputes over land increased. Another grievance by the Moro people is the extraction of Mindanao's natural resources by the central government whilst many Moros continued to live in poverty.
Moro Muslims and Lumads were supplanted by the Spanish and American colonization programs, with Christian Filipino settlers eventually taking control of key areas along newly-built roads and disrupting traditional Moro administrative structures and control over resources. The Americans preferred Christians to become administrators of newly defined townships instead of Lumad and Moro, with environmental degradation resulting from unsustainable population growth (due to the influx of settler migrants) and timber logging.
Under President Ferdinand Marcos, it was alleged that at least 11 Muslim military trainees were killed in Corregidor, by soldiers of the Armed Forces of the Philippines. The trainees were believed to be a part of an upcoming rebellion. By then, University of the Philippines professor Nur Misuari had formed the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF) to condemn the alleged killings of 11 Filipino Muslims and to seek the establishment of a Bangsamoro nation through the force of arms.
In 1969, the MNLF was established and commenced an armed struggle against the Philippine government. During one of the fierce battles of the insurgency in 1974, Jolo, Sulu was extensively damaged and news of the tragedy galvanized other Muslims around the world to pay greater attention to the conflict. Many civilians were supposedly killed when the Armed Forces razed much of Jolo municipality to the ground in a scorched-earth tactic. Two years later, the Philippine government and the MNLF signed the Tripoli Agreement, declaring a ceasefire on both sides. The agreement provided that Mindanao would remain a part of the Philippines, but 13 of its provinces would be under the autonomous government for the Bangsamoro people. President Marcos later reneged on the agreement, and violence ensued.
The Philippine government allegedly encouraged Christian settlers in Mindanao to form a militia called the Ilaga to fight the Moros. The Ilaga engaged in killings and human rights abuses and were responsible for the Manili massacre of 65 Moro Muslim civilians in a mosque in June 1971, including women and children. The Ilaga allegedly also engaged in cannibalism, cutting off the body parts of their victims to eat in rituals.
In 1978, Sheikh Salamat Hashim established the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF), a splinter group of the MNLF seeking to establish an Islamic state. Conflicts between these rebel groups and the Armed Forces of the Philippines would continue until the end of President Marcos' regime.
C. Aquino and Ramos (1986–98)
Earlier in her term, President Corazon Aquino arranged a meeting with MNLF chairman Nur Misuari and several MNLF rebel groups in Sulu, which paved the way for a series of negotiations. In 1989, the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM) was created under Republic Act No. 6734 or the ARMM Organic Act, pursuant to the 1987 Constitution.
In 1991, Abdurajak Janjalani, a former teacher who studied Islam in the Middle East, formed the Abu Sayyaf Group after reportedly meeting Osama bin Laden in Afghanistan in the 1980s. Janjalani recruited former members of the MNLF for the more radical and theocratic Abu Sayyaf.
During his term, President Joseph Ejercito Estrada declared an "all-out war" against the MILF on 21 March 2000, although a series of negotiations for cessation of hostilities were held. Apparently, several conflicts in and around Mindanao erupted and clashes between the Philippine Military and the rebel groups resulted in substantial loss of life.
During Estrada's term, these rebel groups kidnapped three Italian priests, two of whom were later released and one was shot dead; seized the municipal hall of Talayan, Maguindanao and Kauswagan, Lanao del Norte; bombed the RORO ferry M/V Our Lady of Mediatrix at Ozamiz; and took over Narciso Ramos Highway. All these incidents resulted in massive loss of investments abroad, especially in the area of Mindanao.
As a result, the Armed Forces of the Philippines launched a successful campaign against these rebel groups and 43 minor camps, 13 major camps including the MILF headquarters, and Camp Abubakar fell. The MILF suffered heavy losses and the head of the MILF, Sheikh Salamat Hashim, fled the country and sought refuge in Malaysia. On 5 October 2000, 609 rebels surrendered in Cagayan de Oro, along with renegade town mayor Mulapandi Cosain Sarip. This was followed by another surrender of 855 rebels on 29 December 2000. President Estrada then ordered that the Philippine flag be raised in Mindanao, which symbolized victory. It was raised on 9 July 2000 near a Madh'hab and again the next day for President Estrada, who held a feast inside a classroom just meters away from a mosque.
As a result, several Islamic rebel groups retaliated, bombing several key locations within the National Capital Region on 30 December 2000, resulting in 22 deaths and hundreds of people injured. Saifullah Yunos, one of the perpetrators, was arrested in Cagayan de Oro as he was about to board a plane bound for Manila in May 2003. In 2004, two members of the Jemaah Islamiyah were arrested, namely Mamasao Naga and Abdul Pata as they were identified by Fathur Rahman al-Ghozi as responsible for the train bombing. Al-Ghozi was also arrested, but was later killed in a firefight when he tried to escape the prison on 13 October 2003.
Macapagal Arroyo (2001–10)
On 27 May 2001, the Abu Sayyaf seized twenty hostages from an upscale resort in Palawan. Four of the hostages managed to escape. The kidnapping group composed of 40 gunmen then seized the Dr. Jose Torres Memorial Hospital and St. Peter's Church compound in the town of Lamitan in Basilan and claimed to have taken captive 200 people, although 20 people were confirmed to be taken captive inside the hospital, including the staff and the patients.
There was a crossfire between the Army and the Abu Sayyaf rebels in Lamitan following the hospital takeover which resulted in the deaths of 12 soldiers, including the army captain. Up to 22 soldiers were reportedly killed in an effort to rescue the hostages.
Five more captives escaped during the battle at Lamitan. Two of the captives were killed prior to the siege in Lamitan, including one beheading. The Abu Sayyaf then conducted a series of raids, including one at a coconut plantation where the rebel groups hacked the heads of two men using bolo knives. The owners and a security guard were also held captive and the rebel groups burned down two buildings, including a chapel, a week after the battle in Lamitan. Another raid was conducted on 2 August 2001 on Barangay Balobo in Lamitan, Basilan. After three days, the Philippine Army rescued numerous hostages after they overtook the hideout of the militants, where 11 bodies were found beheaded. Other hostages were either released or had escaped.
On 13 June 2001, the number of hostages was calculated at around 28, as three more people were found beheaded in Basilan, including Guillermo Sobero. They were beheaded since the Philippine Army would not halt the rescue operation.
The Burnhams were still in the group of 14 still held captive, according to three hostages who escaped in October 2001. On 7 June 2002, after a year of the hostages being held captive, a rescue mission was conducted resulting in the deaths of Martin Burnham and a nurse named Ediborah Yap after they were caught in the crossfire. Martin was killed by three gunshots to the chest while Gracia Burnham was wounded in her right leg. By this time Nur Misuari ordered his supporters to attack government targets to prevent the holding of elections on ARMM in November 2001, ushering his exit as the governor of the region. Misuari would be later arrested in 2007 in Malaysia and was deported back to the Philippines for trial.
In July 2004, Gracia Burnham testified at a trial of eight Abu Sayyaf members, identifying six of the suspects as being her former captors, including Alhamzer Limbong, Abdul Azan Diamla, Abu Khari Moctar, Bas Ishmael, Alzen Jandul and Dazid Baize. Fourteen Abu Sayyaf members were sentenced to life imprisonment while four were acquitted. Alhamzer Limbong was later killed in a prison uprising.
These rebel groups, especially the Abu Sayyaf, conducted several terror attacks, namely the bombings at Zamboanga in October 2002; the bombing of SuperFerry 14 in February 2004; the simultaneous bombings in Central Mindanao in October 2006; the beheadings of several Philippine Marines in July 2007; the Batasang Pambansa bombing in November 2007; and the 2009 bombings in Mindanao.
One thousand MILF rebels under the command of Umbra Kato have seized control of thirty-five villages in the North Cotabato province. Two thousand Philippine troops with helicopters and artillery were sent into the seized area on 9 August to liberate it from the rebels. The MILF had wanted North Cotabato to be included in the Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao. The government and MILF had been negotiating for the inclusion of the province in the Muslim Autonomous Region but the Supreme Court had struck down the proposal after hearing concerns from local Christian leaders in the region.
The rebel troops were ordered to leave the area by their commanders, but the contingents under Kato refused to leave the villages they had occupied and instead dug in. The Philippine Army responded on 9 August by bombarding them. The next day, the government forces moved to retake the villages, recapturing two of them from the rebels.
Numerous clashes erupted between the Philippine Army and the rebel groups, such as the clash on 14 June 2009 that killed 10 rebels.
Between 2002 and 2015, the Philippines and the United States were part of a joint military campaign against Islamist terrorism known as Operation Enduring Freedom – Philippines. This was part of the War on Terror.
Benigno Aquino (2010–2016)
In 2013, two main camps of the Abu Sayyaf group were overrun by forces of the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF) in its latest offensive in Patikul. According to MNLF leader Nur Misuari, the MNLF offensive against the Abu Sayyaf is because of the MNLF opposition to the Abu Sayyaf's human rights abuses, which go against Islam.
During the term of President Benigno Aquino III, a series of peace talks for the cessation of hostilities was held, including the meeting of MILF Chair Al Haj Murad Ibrahim in Tokyo, Japan which was lauded on both sides. Norway also joined the International Monitoring Team (IMT) in January 2011, overseeing the ceasefire agreement between the government and MILF on Mindanao. Despite the peace talks, a series of conflicts erupted. On 10 September 2011, Jal Idris, a hardcore member of Abu Sayyaf, was arrested by government forces after a crossfire between the Philippine Army and the rebel group The Armed Forces of the Philippines also killed three Abu Sayyaf militants in a stand-off the day after the arrest of Jal Idris.
Terrorism continued throughout President Aquino's term. Notable cases include when four merchants and a guide were killed by Abu Sayyaf bandits in January 2011. Later a soldier was killed in a clash against the rebels. In August 2011, rebel factions attacked a village in Sulu, killing seven Marines and taking seven civilians captive. They later freed two of the hostages after a ransom was paid. Also, several areas of Mindanao were bombed in August by the government, and a Filipino businesswoman was abducted in September 2011, who was later freed after the three gunmen were gunned down by the Armed Forces of the Philippines.
On 20 October 2011, the MILF was blamed for an attack on 40 government soldiers in the province of Basilan, which led to the deaths of 19 soldiers and six MILF fighters. This violated the ceasefire agreement between the government and MILF, which caused outrage in the government and led to the continuation of the war against terrorism in the country.
The Zamboanga City crisis erupted on 9 September 2013, when a MNLF faction known by other groups as the Rogue MNLF Elements (RME), under the Sulu State Revolutionary Command (SSRC), led by Ustadz Habier Malik and Khaid Ajibon attempted to raise the flag of the self-proclaimed Bangsamoro Republik at Zamboanga City Hall (which had earlier declared its independence on 12 August 2013 in Talipao, Sulu), and took civilians hostage. This armed incursion was met by the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) and the Philippine National Police (PNP), which sought to free the hostages and expel the MNLF from the city. The standoff degenerated into urban warfare, and had brought parts of the city under a standstill for days. On 28 September, the government declared the end of military operations in Zamboanga City after successfully defeating the MNLF and rescuing all the hostages.
On 24 January 2014, the Philippines government chief negotiator Miriam Coronel Ferer and MILF chief negotiator Murad Ebrahim signed a peace agreement in Kuala Lumpur. The agreement would pave the way for the creation of the new Muslim autonomous entity called "Bangsamoro" under a law to be approved by the Philippine Congress. The government aims to set up the region by 2016. The agreement calls for Muslim self-rule in parts of the southern Philippines in exchange for a deactivation of rebel forces by the MILF. MILF forces would turn over their firearms to a third party to be selected by the MILF and the Philippine government. A regional police force would be established, and the Philippine military would reduce the presence of troops and help disband private armies in the area. On March 27, 2014, the peace process concluded with the signing of the Comprehensive Agreement on the Bangsamoro between the Government of the Philippines and the Moro Islamic Liberation Front.
The New York Times claimed that the peace deal between the Philippines and MILF "seeks to bring prosperity to the restive south and weaken the appeal of the extremist groups", and linked the winding down of an American military counterterrorism operation to increased American military cooperation with the Philippines against China. The New York Times hailed Mr Aquino's peace agreement as an "accomplishment" as it reported on Aquino raising the alarm on China in the South China Sea. The New York Times editorial board published an article siding with the Philippines against China in the South China Sea dispute and supporting the Philippines' actions against China. The New York Times editorial board endorsed aggressive American military action against China in the South China Sea.
On 23 July 2014, Abu Sayyaf leader Isnilon Hapilon swore loyalty to Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi in a video, along with the rest of the organization, giving ISIL a presence in the Philippines. In September 2014, the group began kidnapping people to ransom, in the name of ISIL.
On 25 January 2015, the Philippine National Police's SAF conducted an operation to capture Abdul Basit Usman and Marwan in Mamasapano, Maguindanao. They were trapped between the MILF's 105th Base Command, the BIFF, and several armed groups. Forty four SAF members were killed on what is known as the Mamasapano clash, but they were able to eliminate Marwan. Alleged US involvement in the botched operation would likely be a setback for a so-called Asian "pivot" by the United States military.
In February 2015, the BIFF unsuccessfully fought for territory in the boundary of Maguindanao and North Cotabato provinces. Subsequently, the Philippine Army, along with the Philippine Marines, declared a state of all-out-war against the BIFF. MILF forces were pulled out to prevent them from falling victim to the fighting.
The MILF and MNLF have expressed their commitment to peace and to finally ending the 47-year-old insurgency. Meanwhile, the offensive against Abu Sayyaf and other splinter groups has continued, with skirmishes in Jolo, Basilan and other parts of Mindanao. A bombing at Davao City in September 2016 killed 15 people. Meanwhile, on May 23, 2017, the Maute group attacked Marawi. President Rodrigo Duterte declared Proclamation No. 216, putting the whole of Mindanao under the state of martial law, and suspension of the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus. The clashes continued until October 2017 and a battle for Marawi City pitted Islamic militants against the Philippine government forces. The violence was severe, with extrajudicial killings of Christians by militant groups, while the government resorted to artillery and air strikes against Abu Sayyaf and Maute positions. In 2018, two bombing incidents involving the Abu Sayyaf and the BIFF occurred, one in Lamitan, Basilan and two separate incidents in Isulan, Sultan Kudarat.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on March 2, 2019. Retrieved March 2, 2019.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Defense.gov News Article: Trainers, Advisors Help Philippines Fight Terrorism". Archived from the original on July 14, 2015. Retrieved June 29, 2015.
- Philippines to be a key recipient of Australia's New Regional Counter-Terrorism Package – Australian Embassy (archived from the original Archived March 20, 2012, at the Wayback Machine on 1 September 2007)
- Wroe, David (June 22, 2017). "RAAF spy planes to join fight against Islamic State in the Philippines". The Sydney Morning Herald. Archived from the original on June 23, 2017. Retrieved June 23, 2017.
- Malcolm Cook (March 17, 2014). "Peace's Best Chance in Muslim Mindanao" (PDF). Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. p. 7. ISSN 2335-6677. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 18, 2015. Retrieved September 15, 2014.
- Anak Agung Banyu Perwita (2007). Indonesia and the Muslim World: Islam and Secularism in the Foreign Policy of Soeharto and Beyond. NIAS Press. pp. 116–117. ISBN 978-87-91114-92-2. Archived from the original on May 7, 2016. Retrieved December 16, 2015.
- "Nur Misuari to be repatriated to stand trial". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. December 20, 2001. Archived from the original on July 5, 2014. Retrieved July 8, 2014.
- Soliman M. Santos (2003). Malaysia's Role in the Peace Negotiations Between the Philippine Government and the Moro Islamic Liberation Front. Southeast Asian Conflict Studies Network. ISBN 978-983-2514-38-1. Archived from the original on January 15, 2016. Retrieved December 16, 2015.
- "Malaysia asks PHL for help in tracking militants with Abu Sayyaf ties". GMA-News. July 6, 2014. Archived from the original on July 14, 2014. Retrieved July 8, 2014.
- Ivan Molloy (1985). "Revolution in the Philippines – The Question of an Alliance Between Islam and Communism". Asian Survey. University of California. 25 (8): 822–833. doi:10.2307/2644112. JSTOR 2644112.
- "Khadafy admits aiding Muslim seccesionists". Philippine Daily Inquirer. August 5, 1986. p. 2.
- Paul J. Smith (September 21, 2004). Terrorism and Violence in Southeast Asia: Transnational Challenges to States and Regional Stability. M.E. Sharpe. pp. 194–. ISBN 978-0-7656-3626-3. Archived from the original on January 15, 2016. Retrieved December 16, 2015.
- William Larousse (January 1, 2001). A Local Church Living for Dialogue: Muslim-Christian Relations in Mindanao-Sulu, Philippines : 1965-2000. Gregorian Biblical BookShop. pp. 151 & 162. ISBN 978-88-7652-879-8. Archived from the original on January 15, 2016. Retrieved December 16, 2015.
- Michelle Ann Miller (2012). Autonomy and Armed Separatism in South and Southeast Asia. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. pp. 291–. ISBN 978-981-4379-97-7. Archived from the original on January 16, 2016. Retrieved December 16, 2015.
- Moshe Yegar (2002). Between Integration and Secession: The Muslim Communities of the Southern Philippines, Southern Thailand, and Western Burma/Myanmar. Lexington Books. pp. 256–. ISBN 978-0-7391-0356-2. Archived from the original on December 26, 2018. Retrieved September 16, 2016.
- Tan, Andrew T/H. (2009). A Handbook of Terrorism and Insurgency in Southeast Asia. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing. pp. 230, 238. ISBN 978-1847207180.
- Isak Svensson (November 27, 2014). International Mediation Bias and Peacemaking: Taking Sides in Civil Wars. Routledge. pp. 69–. ISBN 978-1-135-10544-0. Archived from the original on January 15, 2016. Retrieved December 16, 2015.
- "Philippines rebel leader arrested". BBC News. November 25, 2001. Archived from the original on September 26, 2015. Retrieved September 26, 2015.
Malaysia's Inspector-General of Police Norian Mai said Mr Misuari and six of his followers were arrested at 3.30 am on Saturday (1930 GMT Friday) on Jampiras island off Sabah state. Manila had ordered his arrest on charges of instigating a rebellion after the government suspended his governorship of an autonomous Muslim region in Mindanao, the ARMM. Although the Philippines has no extradition treaty with Malaysia, the authorities have already made clear that they intend to hand Mr Misuari over to the authorities in Manila as soon as possible. Malaysian Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad had said before the arrest that, although his country had provided support to the rebel group in the past in its bid for autonomy, Mr Misuari had not used his powers correctly. "Therefore, we no longer feel responsible to provide him with any assistance," he said.
- Maria A. Ressa. "Senior Abu Sayyaf leader swears oath to ISIS". Rappler. Archived from the original on February 15, 2015. Retrieved March 8, 2015.
- "ISIS Now Has Military Allies in 11 Countries". Daily Intelligencer. New York. Archived from the original on June 26, 2015. Retrieved November 25, 2014.
- "Maute recruitment continues around Marawi - AFP". ABS-CBN Corporation. December 15, 2017. Archived from the original on January 1, 2018. Retrieved January 10, 2018.
- "Islamic freedom fighters, Abu Sayyaf next after Maute 'wipeout' — defense chief". The Manila Times. October 24, 2017. Archived from the original on October 24, 2017. Retrieved October 22, 2017.
- "3 soldiers killed, 11 hurt in Lanao del Sur clash". philstar.com. Archived from the original on February 2, 2017. Retrieved February 27, 2016.
- Umel, Richel. "Army reports killing 20 'terrorists' in clashes with Lanao Sur armed group". globalnation.inquirer.net. Archived from the original on May 29, 2016. Retrieved February 27, 2016.
- Kristine Angeli Sabillo. "New al-Qaeda-inspired group eyed in Mindanao blasts—terror expert". Archived from the original on July 1, 2015. Retrieved June 29, 2015.
- Philippines arrests key militants Archived June 20, 2017, at the Wayback Machine - BBC.com
- Cochrane, Joe (May 2006). "Ticking Time Bombs". Newsweek International. MSN. Archived from the original on September 20, 2006.
- Moshe Yegar (January 1, 2002). Between Integration and Secession: The Muslim Communities of the Southern Philippines, Southern Thailand, and Western Burma/Myanmar. Lexington Books. pp. 258–. ISBN 978-0-7391-0356-2. Archived from the original on January 15, 2016. Retrieved December 16, 2015.
- Andrew Tian Huat Tan (January 1, 2004). Security Perspectives of the Malay Archipelago: Security Linkages in the Second Front in the War on Terrorism. Edward Elgar. ISBN 978-1-84376-997-2. Archived from the original on January 15, 2016. Retrieved December 16, 2015.
- Shanti Nair (January 11, 2013). Islam in Malaysian Foreign Policy. Routledge. pp. 67–. ISBN 978-1-134-96099-6. Archived from the original on January 15, 2016. Retrieved December 16, 2015.
Mustapha was directly implicated in the provision of training facilities for separatist Moro guerrillas as well harbouring Moro Muslim refugees in Sabah due to his ethnic connection.
- David Von Drehle (February 26, 2015). "What Comes After the War on ISIS". TIME.com. Archived from the original on June 25, 2015. Retrieved June 29, 2015.
- Lisa Huang; Victor Musembi; Ljiljana Petronic (June 21, 2012). "The State-Moro Conflict in the Philippines" (PDF). Carleton. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 29, 2015. Retrieved September 29, 2015.
- Gutierrez, Eric; Borras, Saturnino Jr (July 20, 2004). Moro Conflict: Landlessness and Misdirected State Policies. East-West Center Washington. ISBN 978-1932728149.
- "The CenSEI Report (Vol. 2, No. 13, April 2-8, 2012)". Archived from the original on January 24, 2016. Retrieved January 26, 2015.
- "Database - Uppsala Conflict Data Program (UCDP) – Philippines". Uppsala Conflict Data Program. Archived from the original on June 3, 2013. Retrieved March 8, 2015.
- Banlaoi 2012 Archived April 27, 2016, at the Wayback Machine, p. 24.
- Bale, Jeffrey M. "The Abu Sayyaf Group in its Philippine and International Contexts". pp. 4–8. Archived from the original on March 5, 2016.
- Halstead, Murat (1898), "XI. The Administration of General Merrit", The Story of the Philippines and Our New Possessions, Including the Ladrones, Hawaii, Cuba and Porto Rico, pp. 110–112
- Hurley, Victor (1936). "Mindanao and Sulu in 1898". Swish of the Kris. New York: E.P. Dutton & Co. Archived from the original on July 12, 2008. Retrieved December 2, 2007.
- Tucker, Spencer (2009). The Encyclopedia of the Spanish-American and Philippine-American Wars: A Political, Social, and Military History. ABC-CLIO. pp. 48–49. ISBN 978-1-85109-951-1. Archived from the original on January 4, 2016. Retrieved December 16, 2015.
- Kho, Madge. "The Bates Treaty". Philippine Update. Archived from the original on April 17, 2016. Retrieved June 26, 2015.
- Luga p. 22. Archived April 13, 2013, at the Wayback Machine
- "A Brief History of America and the Moros 1899-1920". Archived from the original on March 9, 2016. Retrieved April 9, 2016.
- Ibrahim Alfian (Teuku.) (1987). Perang di Jalan Allah: Perang Aceh, 1873-1912. Pustaka Sinar Harapan. p. 130.
- "WOMEN AND CHILDREN KILLED IN MORO BATTLE" (PDF). The New York Times. March 11, 1906. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 4, 2018. Retrieved September 24, 2013.
- Mark Twain, Weapons of Satire, pp. 168-178, Syracuse University Press, Syracuse, NY 1992
- Dphrepaulezz, Omar H. (August 5, 2013). "The Right Sort of White Men": General Leonard Wood and the U.S. Army in the Southern Philippines, 1898-1906 (Doctoral Dissertations). p. 8. Archived from the original on September 4, 2015. Retrieved August 11, 2015.
- "BusinessWorld - Should there be a Moro nation?". Archived from the original on September 23, 2015. Retrieved June 29, 2015.
- Hiromitsu Umehara; Germelino M. Bautista (2004). Communities at the Margins: Reflections on Social, Economic, and Environmental Change in the Philippines. Ateneo University Press. pp. 22–. ISBN 978-971-550-464-5. Archived from the original on September 4, 2015. Retrieved August 25, 2015.
- "Lone survivor recalls Jabidah Massacre". Philippine Daily Inquirer. March 18, 2008. Archived from the original on September 13, 2015. Retrieved May 5, 2012.
- "Fighting and talking: A Mindanao conflict timeline". GMA News and Public Affairs. October 27, 2011. Archived from the original on March 13, 2012. Retrieved May 5, 2012.
- "MNLF Official Website". Archived from the original on March 8, 2013.
- “The evolution of Philippine Muslim insurgency” by Marco Garrido, Asia Times Online March 6, 2003, retrieved September 14, 2008
- "TAD TAD". YouTube. Archived from the original on February 2, 2017. Retrieved January 26, 2015.
- "1,500 Moro massacre victims during Martial Law honored". MindaNews. Archived from the original on September 30, 2015. Retrieved September 29, 2015.
- "Speech of Former President Estrada on the GRP-MORO Conflict". Human Development Network. September 18, 2008. Archived from the original on October 7, 2011. Retrieved May 2, 2012.
- "ARMM history and organization". GMA News and Public Affairs. August 11, 2008. Archived from the original on July 16, 2014. Retrieved May 5, 2012.
- "WHAT WENT BEFORE: Third Italian priest killed". Philippine Daily Inquirer. October 18, 2011. Archived from the original on December 21, 2011. Retrieved May 3, 2012.
- "Italian priest shot dead in Mindanao". The Philippine Star. October 18, 2011. Archived from the original on February 1, 2013. Retrieved May 3, 2012.
- "The fall of MILF's Camp Abubakar in Maguindanao 10 years ago". July 10, 2010. Archived from the original on April 2, 2015. Retrieved May 5, 2012.
- "Over 600 Muslim Rebels Surrender, Philippine Leader Says more to Follow". October 5, 2000. Retrieved May 5, 2012.
- Joel M. Sy Egco (May 26, 2003). "Rizal Day suspect caught". Manila Standard Today. Archived from the original on October 12, 2007. Retrieved February 15, 2007.
- Benjamin Pulta; Miko Santos (December 30, 2003). "Gov't seeks re-raffling of LRT bombing case". Sun.Star. Archived from the original on May 7, 2005. Retrieved February 8, 2007.
- "Philippines hostage search begins". BBC News. May 27, 2001. Archived from the original on July 23, 2012. Retrieved March 23, 2010.
- "Abu Sayyaf kidnappings, bombings and other attacks". GMA News. August 23, 2007. Archived from the original on April 22, 2010. Retrieved March 22, 2010.
- "Philippines hostage crisis deepens". BBC News. June 2, 2001. Archived from the original on October 7, 2012. Retrieved March 23, 2010.
- "Abu Sayyaf bandits kill two hostages, escape military siege". CDNN. June 4, 2001. Archived from the original on May 16, 2008. Retrieved March 23, 2010.
- "Philippines offer averts beheading". BBC News. June 11, 2001. Archived from the original on January 15, 2016. Retrieved March 23, 2010.
- "Hostages rescued in the Philippines". BBC News. August 5, 2002. Archived from the original on January 15, 2016. Retrieved March 23, 2010.
- "Balobo Killings in Basilan Province, August 2, 2001". Human Rights Watch. July 2007. Archived from the original on February 14, 2017. Retrieved March 23, 2010.
- "Philippines bodies identified". BBC News. June 13, 2001. Archived from the original on January 15, 2016. Retrieved March 23, 2010.
- "US hostage confirmed dead". BBC News. October 12, 2001. Archived from the original on September 24, 2010. Retrieved March 23, 2010.
- "Hostages die in Philippine rescue bid". BBC News. June 7, 2002. Archived from the original on January 4, 2014. Retrieved March 23, 2010.
- "Philippines Brace for Retaliation". Associated Press. June 7, 2002. Archived from the original on May 9, 2010. Retrieved March 23, 2010.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on September 15, 2012. Retrieved March 27, 2014.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Huma Yusuf (August 11, 2008). "Clashes with Muslim rebels in Philippines displace thousands". The Christian Science Monitor. Archived from the original on December 24, 2008. Retrieved March 8, 2015.
- "10 MILF rebels killed in Freedom Day clashes". Zambotimes. June 14, 2009. Archived from the original on September 15, 2014. Retrieved May 8, 2012.
- "Philippines-Mindanao conflict – At a Glance". AlertNet. Archived from the original on May 28, 2009. Retrieved May 6, 2012.
- Pareño, Roel. "MNLF overruns 2 Abu Sayyaf camps". The Philippine Star. Archived from the original on February 12, 2013. Retrieved March 26, 2013.
- "Government Forces Arrest Suspected Abu Sayyaf Hardcore Man". Sun.Star. September 10, 2011. Archived from the original on November 12, 2011. Retrieved September 10, 2011.
- "Filipino Troops kill 3 Gunmen Allied to Abu Sayyaf". Associated Press. September 11, 2011.
- "Five killed by suspected Abu Sayyaf bandits in Basilan". Manila Bulletin. January 12, 2011. Archived from the original on September 15, 2012. Retrieved May 8, 2012.
- "One Soldier killed in Basilan clash". Philippine Star. Archived from the original on May 7, 2014. Retrieved May 7, 2014.
- "2 kidnapped traders freed in Philippines". The Mindanao Examiner. August 28, 2011. Archived from the original on November 12, 2011. Retrieved September 1, 2011.
- "Gunmen Abduct Filipino Businesswoman in Southern Philippines, Officials Say". Star Tribune. September 4, 2011. Archived from the original on October 4, 2018. Retrieved May 5, 2019.
- "Philippine Troops Kill 3 Militants, Rescue Trader". newsrt.us. Associated Press. September 19, 2011. Archived from the original on January 8, 2014. Retrieved January 8, 2014.
- "19 Soldiers slain in Basilan". Inquirer.net. October 20, 2011. Archived from the original on January 2, 2015. Retrieved January 2, 2015.
- "Philippines' Aquino asks Congress to enact Muslim autonomy law". The Rakyat Post. Kuala Lumpur. Reuters. September 10, 2014. Archived from the original on September 15, 2014.
- "Philippine peace breakthrough". Bangkok Post. January 25, 2014.
- WHALEY, FLOYD; SCHMITT, ERIC (June 26, 2014). "U.S. Phasing Out Its Counterterrorism Unit in Philippines". The New York Times. Archived from the original on October 23, 2014.
- Bradsher, KEITH (February 5, 2014). "Philippine Leader Sounds Alarm on China". The New York Times. Archived from the original on November 2, 2015.
- THE EDITORIAL BOARD (July 17, 2015). "The South China Sea, in Court". The New York Times. Archived from the original on July 9, 2017.
- THE EDITORIAL BOARD (April 2, 2014). "Risky Games in the South China Sea". The New York Times. Archived from the original on July 9, 2017.
- THE EDITORIAL BOARD (May 29, 2015). "Pushback in the South China Sea". The New York Times. Archived from the original on July 9, 2017.
- THE EDITORIAL BOARD (July 12, 2014). "Still at Odds With China". The New York Times. Archived from the original on July 9, 2017.
- Philip Oltermann (September 24, 2014). "Islamists in Philippines threaten to kill German hostages". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on February 27, 2017. Retrieved March 8, 2015.
- Cloud, David S.; Leon, Sunshine de (September 10, 2015). "A heavy price paid for botched terrorist raid by Philippines and U.S." Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on September 12, 2015.
- "'The Battle of Marawi': Death and Destruction in the Philippines" (PDF). Amnesty International: 13–26. November 2017.
- Salah Jubair (1999). Bangsamoro, a Nation Under Endless Tyranny. IQ Marin.
- Kadir Che Man (W.) (1990). Muslim Separatism: The Moros of Southern Philippines and the Malays of Southern Thailand. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-588924-6.
- Bobby M. Tuazon (2008). The Moro reader: history and contemporary struggles of the Bangsamoro people. Policy Study Publication and Advocacy, Center for People Empowerment in Governance in partnership with Light a Candle Movement for Social Change. ISBN 978-971-93651-6-7.