Although Irving Mills—Jack Mills's brother and publishing partner—took credit for the lyrics, Mitchell Parish claimed in a 1987 interview that he had written the lyrics.
The tune was composed for a radio broadcast in October 1930 and was originally titled "Dreamy Blues". It was "the first tune I ever wrote specially for microphone transmission", Ellington recalled. "The next day wads of mail came in raving about the new tune, so Irving Mills put a lyric to it." Renamed "Mood Indigo", it became a jazz standard.
The main theme was provided by Bigard, who learned it in New Orleans, Louisiana from his clarinet teacher Lorenzo Tio, who called it a "Mexican Blues". Ellington's arrangement was first recorded by his band for Brunswick on October 17, 1930. It was recorded twice more in 1930. These recordings included Arthur Whetsol (trumpet), Joe Nanton (trombone), Barney Bigard (clarinet), Duke Ellington (piano), Fred Guy (banjo), Wellman Braud (bass), Sonny Greer (drums). Ellington blended muted trumpet, muted trombone, and clarinet.
Ellington took the traditional front-line—trumpet, trombone, and clarinet—and inverted them. At the time of these first three recordings in 1930, the usual voicing of the horns would be clarinet at the top (highest pitch), trumpet in the middle, and the trombone at the bottom (lowest pitch). In "Mood Indigo" Ellington voices the trombone right at the top of the instrument's register, and the clarinet at the very lowest. This was unheard of at the time, and also created (in the studio) a so-called "mike-tone"—an effect generated by the overtones of the clarinet and trombone (which was tightly muted as well). The "mike-tone" gives the audio-illusion of the presence of a fourth "voice" or instrument. Ellington used this effect in "(In My) Solitude" (1932), "Dusk" (1940), and many other pieces throughout his career. The Ellington band performed and recorded the song continuously throughout its 50 years, both in its original form and as a vehicle for individual soloists.
- Duke Ellington – 1930
- Jimmie Lunceford – 1934
- Duke Ellington – Masterpieces by Ellington (1950)
- In 1954, the Norman Petty Trio had a hit with the song, which reached No. 14 on the pop charts.
- The Four Freshmen– 1954
- Frank Sinatra - In The Wee Small Hours (1955)
- Thelonious Monk – Thelonious Monk Plays Duke Ellington (1955)
- Nina Simone – Little Girl Blue (1958)
- Linda Lawson - Introducing Linda Lawson (1960)
- Duke Ellington and Coleman Hawkins – Duke Ellington Meets Coleman Hawkins (1962)
- Clark Terry and Bob Brookmeyer with Hank Jones – Gingerbread Men (1966)
- Marcus Roberts – Alone with Three Giants (1990)
- Mulgrew Miller and Niels-Henning Ørsted Pedersen – The Duets (1999)
"Mood Indigo" is featured in the films All Night Long (1962), Bait (1954), The Continental Twist (1961), The Cotton Club (1984), Curtain Call (1999), Divine Secrets of the Ya-Ya Sisterhood (2002), Frances (1982), Harlem Nights (1989), Hart's War (2002), Julia (1977), Keep On Keepin' On (2014), The Legend of Bagger Vance (2000), Paris Blues (1961), Pitch People (1999), Renacer (1981), Rough Cut (1980), The Untouchables (1987), Up In the Air (2009), The White Countess (2005) and White Men Can't Jump (1992). It can also be heard in the TV movie Relentless: Mind of a Killer (1993) and in the miniseries Come In Spinner (1990) and Mildred Pierce (2011), as well as in episodes from two HBO series created by David Chase: "Walk Like a Man" from The Sopranos (1999–2007) and "El Dorado," the series finale of Boardwalk Empire (2011–2014).
- ASCAP Title Search on author credits
- Holden, Stephen (1 February 1987). "Theater; Mitchell Parish: A Way With Words". The New York Times. Retrieved 8 November 2018.
- Hasse, John Edward (22 March 1995), Beyond Category: The Life And Genius Of Duke Ellington, Da Capo Press, pp. 134–, ISBN 978-0-306-80614-8, retrieved 8 November 2018
- Gioia, Ted (2012). The Jazz Standards: A Guide to the Repertoire. New York City: Oxford University Press. p. 158. ISBN 978-0-19-993739-4.
- Lonergan, David F. (2005), Hit Records, 1950-1975, Scarecrow Press, pp. 151–, ISBN 978-0-8108-5129-0, retrieved 8 November 2018
- "45cat.com". Retrieved 2019-01-02.
- Adinolfi, Francesco (2008). Mondo Exotica: Sounds, Visions, Obsessions of the Cocktail Generation. Duke University Press. p. 118. ISBN 9780822341567. Retrieved 3 January 2019.
- "Mulgrew Miller Discography". jazzdisco.org. Retrieved 7 March 2017.
- Meeker, David. "Jazz on the Screen". Library of Congress. Retrieved 28 December 2015.