Mondo film

A mondo film (from the Italian word for "world") is an exploitation documentary film, sometimes resembling a pseudo-documentary and usually depicting sensational topics, scenes, or situations. Common traits of mondo films include portrayals of foreign cultures (which have drawn accusations of ethnocentrism or racism[1]), an emphasis on taboo subjects (such as death and sex), and staged sequences presented as genuine documentary footage. Over time, the films placed increasing emphasis on footage of the dead and dying (both real and fake). The term shockumentary is also used to describe the genre.[2]

History

Although earlier films such as Alessandro Blasetti's Europa di notte (Europe By Night, 1959) and Luigi Vanzi's Il mondo di notte (World By Night, 1961) may be considered examples of the genre,[3] the origins of the mondo documentary are generally traced to the 1962 Italian film Mondo Cane (A Dog's World—a mild Italian profanity) by Paolo Cavara, Gualtiero Jacopetti and Franco Prosperi which was a commercial success.[4][5][6]

Documentary films imitating Mondo Cane in the 1960s often included the term "mondo" in their titles, even if they were in English; examples include Mondo Bizarro, Mondo Daytona, Mondo Mod, Mondo Infame and Mondo Hollywood.[7] Films outside the genre followed suit: Mondo Trasho, Mondo Weirdo: A Trip to Paranoia Paradise, Mondo Keyhole[8] and Mondo Brutale (a German release of Wes Craven's The Last House on the Left[9]) title themselves mondo, although none are mondo documentaries. Later in the decade, this naming convention began to fall out of favour and fewer mondo films identified themselves as such in their titles.[7]

Filmmakers wanted to top each other in shock value to attract audiences. Cruelty to animals, accidents, tribal-initiation rites and surgeries are features of a typical mondo. Much of the action is staged, although the filmmakers may claim their goal is to document "reality". Subjects of mondo films include sex (Mondo Sex and Mondo Sexualis USA); celebrities (Mondo Elvis and Mondo Lugosi); youth culture (Mondo Teeno) and the gay subculture (Mondo Rocco).

Russ Meyer's film Mondo Topless was one of the few "documentaries" restricted to the old midnight movie circuit in the pre-VCR era; it explored strip clubs in 1960s San Francisco at a time when strip clubs were a novelty in the United States, restricted to centers of port-city decadence (such as San Francisco). Other examples of this genre include Mondo New York by Harvey Keith, Mondo di Notte by Gianni Proia and Mondo Balordo by Roberto Bianchi Montero.

The 1980s saw a resurgence of mondo movies focusing almost exclusively on (onscreen) death, instead of world cultures. The Faces of Death series is a notable example of this type of mondo (or "death") movie. The producers used fake footage (passed off as real), but some of the footage was legitimate (including scenes of autopsies, suicides and accidents).

The rare 1985 film Mondo Senza Veli (World Without Veils or Mondo Fresh) was purported by viewers to feature at its end the brutal execution of a young Arab rapist by public rectal impalement. This episode was, however, believed to have been a staged execution by some viewers.

Mondo films in the 21st century feature gore, exemplified by the Faces of Gore and Traces of Death series. There is less fake footage, and many use news footage of accidents from East Asia.

A number of films have parodied the genre. Examples include Ricardo Fratelli's Mondo Ford; Mr. Mike's Mondo Video by Saturday Night Live's Michael O'Donoghue and Is There Sex After Death? by Jeanne and Alan Abel. Mondo Beyondo spoofed the films' approach to titling, but was a parody of satellite television.[10] The Italian cannibal film is arguably an offshoot of the mondo film.[8]

Films

The original mondo film series was the Mondo Cane series by Gualtiero Jacopetti, Paolo Cavara, and Franco Prosperi. When this type of film proved successful, many imitators followed.

Jacopetti and Prosperi
TitleYearCountryDirector and screenplayMusicUncut run timeNotes
Mondo Cane 1962 Italy Gualtiero Jacopetti
Paolo Cavara
Franco E. Prosperi
Riz Ortolani 108 minutes R-rated run time 85 minutes
La donna nel mondo 1963 Riz Ortolani
Nino Oliviero
107 minutes a.k.a. Women of the World
Mondo Cane 2 1963 Gualtiero Jacopetti
Franco Prosperi
Nino Oliviero 95 minutes R-rated run time 76 minutes; a.k.a.Mondo Pazzo
Africa Addio 1966 Riz Ortolani 139 minutes Unrated English version 128 minutes; R-rated version 80 minutes
Addio Zio Tom 1971 136 minutes Unrated English version 123 minutes; a.k.a.Goodbye Uncle Tom

The pair's Mondo candido (1975) is not a "Mondo" film; the title was imposed on them by the studio, who wished to cash in on their earlier successes. The film is a retelling of Voltaire's novel, Candide.

In the late 1980s Stelvio Massi (a.k.a. Max Steele) made two spinoffs of the original Mondo Cane series, known as Mondo Cane 3 and Mondo Cane 4 on video.

Max Steele
TitleYearCountryDirector and cinematographyScreenplayUncut run timeNotes
Mondo Cane Oggi 1986 Italy Stelvio Massi Stelvio Massi 78 minutes aka Mondo Cane 3
Mondo Cane 2000, l'Incredibile 1988 G. Crisanti 73 minutes aka Mondo Cane 4

In 1969, brothers Angelo and Alfredo Castiglioni began to make a series of their own mondo films until the early 1980s. They made five films in all, tying Jacopetti and Prosperi as the most prolific mondo film producers. Each film examines brutal and bizarre behavior on the African continent. Their films are considered some of the most graphic Mondo films ever made.

Castiglioni Brothers
TitleYearCountryDirectorsMusicNotes
Africa Segreta 1969 Italy Angelo Castiglioni
Alfredo Castiglioni
Angelo Francesco Lavagnino aka Secret Africa; uncut run time 103 min
Africa Ama 1971 aka Africa Uncensored
Magia Nuda 1975 Ciro Dammicco (credited as Zacar)aka Mondo Magic
Addio Ultimo Uomo1978 Franco Godi aka The Last Savage
Africa Dolce e Selvaggia 1982 aka Shocking Africa

Antonio Climati, cinematographer to Prosperi and Jacopetti in many mondo films, joined Mario Morra in 1974 to produce their own string of mondo films, known as the Savage Trilogy. Prosperi also produced the films. Climati and Morra were known for staging scenes.

Savage Trilogy
TitleYearCountryDirector and ScreenplayMusicNotes
Ultime grida dalla savana 1975 Italy Antonio Climati
Mario Morra
Carlo Savina aka Savage Man Savage Beast; uncut run time 94 min
Savana violenta 1976 Guido De Angelis
Maurizio De Angelis
aka This Violent World
Dolce e selvaggio 1983 Daniele Patucchi aka Sweet and Savage

The 1978 Faces of Death popularized a Mondo style known as "death films", which depicted humans or animals dying in graphic ways.

John Alan Schwartz
TitleYearDirectorScreenplayNotes
The Faces of Death Series 1978–1996 John Alan Schwartz John Alan Schwartz Six parts
The Worst of Faces of Death 1987 Compilation of first three Faces of Death films
Faces of Death: Fact or Fiction? 1999 John Alan Schwartz
James B. Schwartz
Documentary about Faces of Death

Uwe Schier bought the rights to the Mondo Cane and Faces of Death films and released his own entries in both series, consisting largely of footage lifted from other mondo films. Faces of Death 5 draws heavily on Death Scenes; Faces of Death 6 consists almost entirely of Days of Fury and Mondo Cane IV (not to be confused with Mondo Cane 2000, l'Incredibile, Schier's Mondo Cane IV is in fact the fifth film in the series) lifts from other films (including Death Scenes and Death Faces IV).[11] In 1993, Hurricane Pictures edited a mix of scenes featured in Addio ultimo uomo and Shocking Africa, labeling it the "fifth chapter" of the saga (Teil V in German).

Uwe Schier
TitleYearCountryNotes
Mondo Cane IV 1992 Germany
Mondo Cane teil V 1993 aka Mondo Cane 5; producers Uwe Schier and Gian Carlo Rossi
Faces of Death 5 1995
Faces of Death 6 1996

Several imitators followed the Faces of Death series; many used (or were composed entirely of) footage from other mondo films.

Faces of Death imitators
TitleYearDirectorScreenplayMusicNotes
Banned from Television 1998 Joe Francis APM Music Three parts; released in the US by Mantra Films. Banned in the UK by the BBFC
Banned! In America 1998–2003 Nomo Ichi Delta 9 Six parts; released in the US by Brain Damage Films.
The Traces of Death Series 1993–2000 Damon Fox J. R. Bookwalter Five parts
The Faces of Gore Series 1999–2000 Todd Tjersland Three parts
The Best of Faces of Gore 2000 Compilation video
Other films
TitleYearCountryDirectorScreenplayMusicNotes
Mondo Nudo1963ItalyFrancesco De FeoGian Carlo Fusco
Giuseppe Marotta
Teo Usuelliaka Naked World
I Tabu1963ItalyRomolo MarcelliniUgo Guerraaka Taboos of the World
Il Pelo nel Mondo1964ItalyAntonio Margheriti
Marco Vicario
Antonio Margheriti
Marco Vicario
Bruno Nicolai
Nino Oliviero
aka Go Go Go World and Weird, Wicked World
Kwaheri: Vanishing Africa1964USThor L. Brooks
Byron Chudnow
Michael VittesByron Ross
I Malamondo1964ItalyPaolo CavaraGuido Castaldo
Paolo Cavara
Ugo Gregoretti
Francesco Torti
Ennio Morricone
Le Schiave Esistono Ancora1964ItalyMaleno Malenotti
Roberto Malenotti
Folco Quilici
Baccio Bandini
Gianfranco Calderoni
Roberto Malenotti
Teo Usuelliaka Slave Trade in the World Today
Ecco1964ItalyGianni ProiaR.W CresseRiz Ortolaniaka This Shocking World
Mondo Balordo1964ItalyRoberto Bianchi MonteroGuido Castaldo
Francesco Torti
Coriolano Gori
Nino Rosso
English version narrated by Boris Karloff
L'amore primitivo1964ItalyLuigi ScattiniMassimo Pupillo
Luigi Scattini
Lallo Goriaka Primitive Love
Mondo Topless1966USRuss MeyerThe Aladdins
Mondo Freudo1966USLee FrostRodney Lee Bermingham
The Duvals
Chuck Morgan
Bill Wild
Mondo Bizarro1966USLee FrostLee FrostLawrence Von Lattman
Macabro1966ItalyRomolo MarcelliniGiancarlo Del Re
Our Incredible World1966UKEdward Stewart Abrahamaka The Mystery and the Pleasure
Mondo Hollywood1967USRobert Carl CohenRobert Carl CohenMike Curb
Sweden: Heaven and Hell1968ItalyLuigi ScattiniLuigi ScattiniPiero Umiliani
L'altra faccia del peccato1969ItalyMarcello AvalloneGiacinto Ciaccio
Massimo D'Avak
Peppino De Lucaaka The Queer, the Erotic
Mille peccati... nessuna virtù1969ItalySergio MartinoSergio MartinoPeppino De Lucaaka Mondo Sex
Inghilterra nuda1969ItalyVittorio De SistiPino De Martino
Ettore Mattia
Piero Piccioniaka Naked England
America così nuda, così violenta1970ItalySergio MartinoLuciano MartinoBruno Nicolaiaka Naked and Violent
Shocking Asia1974West GermanyRolf OlsenRolf Olsen
Ingeborg Stein Steinbach
Erwin HalletzUncut run time 94 min.
Notti Porno nel Mondo1977ItalyBruno MatteiBruno MatteiGianni Marchettiaka Mondo Erotica
This Is America1977USRomano VanderbesRomano VanderbesEmmanuel Vardiaka Crazy Ridiculous American People (UK), Jabberwalk
Brutes and Savages1978USArthur DavisJenny CravenRiz Ortolani
Mr. Mike's Mondo Video1979USMichael O'DonoghueMitch GlazerPaul Shaffer
This Is America Part 21980USRomano VanderbesBill MillingEmmanuel Vardi
Days of Fury1980USFred WarshofskyFred Warshofskyaka Doomsday
Cannibal Holocaust1980ItalyRuggero DeodatoGianfranco ClericiRiz Ortolani
Des Morts1981France/Belgium Jean-Pol Ferbus
Dominique Garny
Thierry Zéno
Jean-Pol Ferbus
Dominique Garny
Thierry Zéno
Alain Pierreaka Of the Dead; uncut run time 105 min.
Great White Death1981Canada/USJean-Patrick LebelJean Sauvageauaka Sharks! Pirates of the Deep
The Killing of America1982USSheldon Renan
Leonard Schrader
Chieko Schrader
Leonard Schrader
W. Michael Lewis
Mark Lindsay
aka Violence U.S.A. in Japan; uncut run time 90 min.
Shocking Asia II: The Last Taboos1985West GermanyRolf OlsenRolf OlsenErwin Halletz
True Gore1987USM. Dixon CauseyM. Dixon CauseyMonte Cazazza
The Atom Smashers
Mondo New York1988USHarvey KeithHarvey Keith
David Silver
Luis Perico OrtizUncut run time 83 min.
Death Scenes1989USNick BougasNick Bougas
F.B. Vincinzo
Richard Gibson
Empire of Madness1989USM. Dixon Causeyaka True Gore II
Death Scenes 21992USNick BougasNick Bougas
Tom Lavagnino
Mondo Ford2001USScott Calonico
Ricardo Fratelli
Scott Calonico
Ricardo Fratelli
Uncut run time 7 min.
Man VS Man2004ItalyDavide Lingua
Giuseppe Vercellotti
Murder Collection V.12009USFred VogelDon Moore
Fred Vogel
Shelby Vogel
Jerami Cruise
Mondo Sexxxx: The Terry Kobrah Story2011USLogan Myers
Mondo Delirium2011ItalyFlavio SciolèFlavio SciolèUncut run time 170 min.
Made in Italy2012ItalyJephta
Mondomanila2012PhilippinesKhavn
Most Disturbed Person On Planet Earth2013U SThomas Extreme Cinemagore
Most Disturbed Person On Planet Earth 22014U SThomas Extreme Cinemagore
Mondo CANEvese2016ItalyDavide Lingua
Pasquale Vigilante
At the shadow of the tower2017ItalyDavide Lingua
Luigi D'Alessandro
Fabio Tosa
Heart of Africa2018ItalyDavide Lingua
Pasquale Vigilante

See also

References

  1. Kerekes & Slater, p. 108.
  2. Mondo New York (1988) The New York Times,
  3. Kerekes & Slater, p. 102.
  4. Mondo Cane (1962) The New York Times
  5. Revisiting a Cinematic Smackdown, and Other Avant-Garde Pleasures The New York Times, October 1, 2009
  6. Mondo Cane Variety Reviews, December 31, 1961
  7. Kerekes & Slater, p. 107.
  8. Kerekes & Slater, p. 109.
  9. Kerekes & Slater, p. 315.
  10. Kerekes & Slater, p. 155.
  11. Kerekes & Slater, pp. 156-158.

Bibliography

  • RE/Search No. 10: Incredibly Strange Films: A Guide to Deviant Films. RE/Search Publications 1986, ISBN 0-940642-09-3
  • Brottman, Mikita: Mondo Horror. Carnivalizing the Taboo. In: Prince, Stephen (ed.) 2004: The horror film. S. 167-188. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press. ISBN 0813533635.
  • Goodall, Mark 2006: Sweet & Savage. The World Through the Shockumentary Film Lens. London: Headpress. ISBN 978-1900486491. (the standard work on the mondo and cannibal genre)
  • Goodall, Mark 2006: Shockumentary Evidence. The perverse politics of the Mondo film. In: Dennison, Stephanie (Hg.) 2006: Remapping world cinema. Identity, culture and politics in film. S. 118-128. London: Wallflower. ISBN 978-1904764625.
  • Kerekes, David; Slater, David 2006: Killing for culture. Death film from Shockumentaries to snuff. Manchester: Headpress. ISBN 1900486636.
  • Stefano Loparco, 'Gualtiero Jacopetti - Graffi sul mondo'. The first complete biography dedicated to the co-director of 'Mondo cane'. Il Foglio Letterario, 2014 - ISBN 9788876064760
  • Shipka, Danny 2011: Perverse titillation. The exploitation cinema of Italy, Spain and France, 1960-1980. Jefferson: Mcfarland. ISBN 978-0786448883.
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