Monarchy in Manitoba

By the arrangements of the Canadian federation, Canada's monarchy operates in Manitoba as the core of the province's Westminster-style parliamentary democracy.[1] As such, the Crown within Manitoba's jurisdiction is referred to as the Crown in Right of Manitoba,[2] Her Majesty in Right of Manitoba,[3] or the Queen in Right of Manitoba.[4] The Constitution Act, 1867, however, leaves many royal duties in Manitoba specifically assigned to the sovereign's viceroy, the Lieutenant Governor of Manitoba,[1] whose direct participation in governance is limited by the conventional stipulations of constitutional monarchy.[5]

Queen in Right of Manitoba
Elizabeth II
Queen of Canada

since 6 February 1952
StyleHer Majesty
First monarchVictoria
Formation15 July 1870
ResidenceGovernment House, Winnipeg

Constitutional monarchy in Manitoba

The role of the Crown is both legal and practical; it functions in Manitoba in the same way it does in all of Canada's other provinces, being the centre of a constitutional construct in which the institutions of government acting under the sovereign's authority share the power of the whole.[6] It is thus the foundation of the executive, legislative, and judicial branches of the province's government.[7] The Canadian monarch—since 6 February 1952, Queen Elizabeth II—is represented and her duties carried out by the Lieutenant Governor of Manitoba, whose direct participation in governance is limited by the conventional stipulations of constitutional monarchy, with most related powers entrusted for exercise by the elected parliamentarians, the ministers of the Crown generally drawn from amongst them, and the judges and justices of the peace.[5] The Crown today primarily functions as a guarantor of continuous and stable governance and a nonpartisan safeguard against the abuse of power.[5][8][9] This arrangement began with the granting of Royal Assent to the 1870 Manitoba Act and continued an unbroken line of monarchical government extending back to the early 17th century.[1] However, though Manitoba has a separate government headed by the Queen, as a province, Manitoba is not itself a kingdom.[10]

Government House in Winnipeg is owned by the sovereign only in her capacity as Queen in Right of Manitoba and used as an official residence by both the lieutenant governor and the sovereign and other members of the Canadian Royal Family will reside there when in the province.[11]

Royal associations

Those in the Royal Family perform ceremonial duties when on a tour of the province; the royal persons do not receive any personal income for their service, only the costs associated with the exercise of these obligations are funded by both the Canadian and Manitoba Crowns in their respective councils.[12] Monuments around Manitoba mark some of those visits, while others honour a royal personage or event. Further, Manitoba's monarchical status is illustrated by royal names applied regions, communities, schools, and buildings,[13] many of which may also have a specific history with a member or members of the Royal Family. Associations also exist between the Crown and many private organizations within the province; these may have been founded by a Royal Charter, received a royal prefix, and/or been honoured with the patronage of a member of the Royal Family. Examples include the Court of Queen's Bench of Manitoba, the Royal Manitoba Winter Fair, which is under the patronage of Queen Elizabeth II,[14] and the Royal Lake of the Woods Yacht Club, which received its royal prefix from King George V in 1924. At the various levels of education within Alberta, there also exist a number of scholarships and academic awards either established by or named for royal persons.[15]

The main symbol of the monarchy is the sovereign herself, her image (in portrait or effigy) thus being used to signify government authority.[16] A royal cypher or crown may also illustrate the monarchy as the locus of authority, without referring to any specific monarch. Additionally, though the monarch does not form a part of the constitutions of Manitoba's honours, they do stem from the Crown as the fount of honour, and so bear on the insignia symbols of the sovereign.


Princess Anne and her elder brother, Prince Charles, Prince of Wales, presided over the celebrations of the centennial of Manitoba's entry into Confederation.[17]

See also


  1. Victoria (12 May 1870), Manitoba Act, 1870, 6, Westminster: Queen's Printer, retrieved 16 June 2009
  2. Elizabeth II (9 June 2005), The Manitoba Centennial Centre Corporation Act, 1, Winnipeg: Queen's Printer for Manitoba, retrieved 1 July 2009
  3. Elizabeth II (21 March 2002), Manitoba Claim Settlements Implementation Act, 2.b, Ottawa: Queen's Printer for Canada, retrieved 1 July 2009
  4. Department of Canadian Heritage (2009), Canada-Manitoba Agreement on French Language Services (PDF), Ottawa: Queen's Printer for Canada, p. 2, retrieved 1 July 2009
  5. MacLeod, Kevin S. (2008). "A Crown of Maples" (PDF) (1 ed.). Ottawa: Queen's Printer for Canada. p. 16. ISBN 978-0-662-46012-1. Retrieved 21 June 2009.
  6. Cox, Noel (September 2002). "Black v Chrétien: Suing a Minister of the Crown for Abuse of Power, Misfeasance in Public Office and Negligence". Murdoch University Electronic Journal of Law. Perth: Murdoch University. 9 (3): 12. Retrieved 17 May 2009.
  7. Privy Council Office (2008), Accountable Government: A Guide for Ministers and Ministers of State – 2008, Ottawa: Queen's Printer for Canada, p. 49, ISBN 978-1-100-11096-7, retrieved 17 May 2009
  8. Roberts, Edward (2009). "Ensuring Constitutional Wisdom During Unconventional Times" (PDF). Canadian Parliamentary Review. Ottawa: Commonwealth Parliamentary Association. 23 (1): 15. Retrieved 21 May 2009.
  9. MacLeod 2008, p. 20
  10. Forsey, Eugene (31 December 1974), "Crown and Cabinet", in Forsey, Eugene (ed.), Freedom and Order: Collected Essays, Toronto: McClelland & Stewart Ltd., ISBN 978-0-7710-9773-7
  11. MacLeod, p. XIV
  12. Palmer, Sean; Aimers, John (2002), The Cost of Canada's Constitutional Monarchy: $1.10 per Canadian (2 ed.), Toronto: Monarchist League of Canada, archived from the original on 19 June 2008, retrieved 15 May 2009
  13. Kirbyson, Geoff (2 June 2008), "Prince Edward begins Winnipeg visit", Vancouver Sun, retrieved 2 July 2009
  14. "Provincial Exhibition of Manitoba > Our History". The Provincial Exhibition of Manitoba. Retrieved 2 July 2009.
  15. Department of Canadian Heritage. "2010 Royal Tour > Itinerary for 2010 Royal Tour of Canada". Queen's Printer for Canada. Archived from the original on 19 June 2010. Retrieved 9 August 2010.
  16. MacKinnon, Frank (1976), The Crown in Canada, Calgary: Glenbow-Alberta Institute, p. 69, ISBN 978-0-7712-1016-7
  17. Office of the Lieutenant Governor of Manitoba. "History > Government House > The Royal Bedroom". Queen's Printer for Manitoba. Retrieved 2 July 2009.
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