Molar ionization energies of the elements

These tables list values of molar ionization energies, measured in kJ mol−1. This is the energy per mole necessary to remove electrons from gaseous atoms or atomic ions. The first molar ionization energy applies to the neutral atoms. The second, third, etc., molar ionization energy applies to the further removal of an electron from a singly, doubly, etc., charged ion. For ionization energies measured in the unit eV, see Ionization energies of the elements (data page). All data from rutherfordium onwards is predicted.

1st10th

numbersymbolname 1st2nd3rd4th5th6th7th8th9th10th
 
1Hhydrogen 1312
2Hehelium 2372.35250.5
3Lilithium 520.27298.111,815
4Beberyllium 899.51757.114,848.721,006.6
5Bboron 800.62427.13659.725,025.832,826.7
6Ccarbon 1086.52352.64620.56222.737,83147,277
7Nnitrogen 1402.328564578.174759444.953,266.664,360
8Ooxygen 1313.93388.35300.57469.210,989.513,326.571,33084,078
9Ffluorine 16813374.26050.48407.711,022.715,164.117,86892,038.1106,434.3
10Neneon 2080.73952.36122937112,17715,23819,99923,069.5115,379.5131,432
11Nasodium 495.845626910.3954313,35416,61320,11725,49628,932141,362
12Mgmagnesium 737.71450.77732.710,542.513,63018,02021,71125,66131,65335,458
13Alaluminium 577.51816.72744.811,57714,84218,37923,32627,46531,85338,473
14Sisilicon 786.51577.13231.64355.516,09119,80523,78029,28733,87838,726
15Pphosphorus 1011.819072914.14963.66273.921,26725,43129,87235,90540,950
16Ssulfur 999.62252335745567004.38495.827,10731,71936,62143,177
17Clchlorine 1251.2229838225158.66542936211,01833,60438,60043,961
18Arargon 1520.62665.8393157717238878111,99513,84240,76046,186
19Kpotassium 418.83052442058777975959011,34314,94416,963.748,610
20Cacalcium 589.81145.44912.46491815310,49612,27014,20618,19120,385
21Scscandium 633.112352388.67090.6884310,67913,31015,25017,37021,726
22Tititanium 658.81309.82652.54174.6958111,53313,59016,44018,53020,833
23Vvanadium 650.91414283045076298.712,36314,53016,73019,86022,240
24Crchromium 652.91590.62987474367028744.915,45517,82020,19023,580
25Mnmanganese 717.31509324849406990922011,50018,77021,40023,960
26Feiron 762.51561.9295752907240956012,06014,58022,54025,290
27Cocobalt 760.41648323249507670984012,44015,23017,95926,570
28Ninickel 737.1175333955300733910,40012,80015,60018,60021,670
29Cucopper 745.51957.9355555367700990013,40016,00019,20022,400
30Znzinc 906.41733.338335731797010,40012,90016,80019,60023,000
31Gagallium 578.81979.329636180
32Gegermanium 7621537.53302.144119020
33Asarsenic 947179827354837604312,310
34Seselenium 94120452973.741446590788014,990
35Brbromine 1139.921033470456057608550994018,600
36Krkrypton 1350.82350.4356550706240757010,71012,13822,27425,880
37Rbrubidium 40326333860508068508140957013,12014,50026,740
38Srstrontium 549.51064.2413855006910876010,23011,80015,60017,100
39Yyttrium 6001180198058477430897011,19012,45014,11018,400
40Zrzirconium 640.112702218331377529500
41Nbniobium 652.11380241637004877984712,100
42Momolybdenum 684.315602618448052576640.812,12513,86015,83517,980
43Tctechnetium 70214702850
44Ruruthenium 710.216202747
45Rhrhodium 719.717402997
46Pdpalladium 804.418703177
47Agsilver 73120703361
48Cdcadmium 867.81631.43616
49Inindium 558.31820.727045210
50Sntin 708.61411.829433930.37456
51Sbantimony 8341594.924404260540010,400
52Tetellurium 869.31790269836105668682013,200
53Iiodine 1008.41845.93180
54Xexenon 1170.42046.43099.4
55Cscaesium 375.72234.33400
56Babarium 502.9965.23600
57Lalanthanum 538.110671850.348195940
58Cecerium 534.410501949354763257490
59Prpraseodymium 5271020208637615551
60Ndneodymium 533.1104021303900
61Pmpromethium 540105021503970
62Smsamarium 544.5107022603990
63Eueuropium 547.1108524044120
64Gdgadolinium 593.4117019904250
65Tbterbium 565.8111021143839
66Dydysprosium 573113022003990
67Hoholmium 581114022044100
68Ererbium 589.3115021944120
69Tmthulium 596.7116022854120
70Ybytterbium 603.41174.824174203
71Lulutetium 523.513402022.343706445
72Hfhafnium 658.5144022503216
73Tatantalum 7611500
74Wtungsten 7701700
75Rerhenium 760126025103640
76Ososmium 8401600
77Iriridium 8801600
78Ptplatinum 8701791
79Augold 890.11980
80Hgmercury 1007.118103300
81Tlthallium 589.419712878
82Pblead 715.61450.53081.540836640
83Bibismuth 70316102466437054008520
84Popolonium 812.1
85Atastatine 899.003
86Rnradon 1037
87Frfrancium 380
88Raradium 509.3979
89Acactinium 499117019004700
90Ththorium 587111019782780
91Paprotactinium 568112818142991
92Uuranium 597.6142019003145
93Npneptunium 604.5112819973242
94Puplutonium 584.7112820843338
95Amamericium 578115821323493
96Cmcurium 581119620263550
97Bkberkelium 601118621523434
98Cfcalifornium 608120622673599
99Eseinsteinium 619121623343734
100Fmfermium 627122523633792
101Mdmendelevium 635123524703840
102Nonobelium 642125426433956
103Lrlawrencium 470142822284910
104Rfrutherfordium 580139023003080
105Dbdubnium 6651547237832994305
106Sgseaborgium 75717332484341645625716
107Bhbohrium 740169025703600473059907230
108Hshassium 7301760283036404940618075408860
109Mtmeitnerium 8001820290039004900
110Dsdarmstadtium 9601890303040005100
111Rgroentgenium 10202070308041005300
112Cncopernicium 11552170316042005500
113Nhnihonium 707.22309322643825638
114Flflerovium 832.21600337044005850
115Mcmoscovium 538.31760265046805720
116Lvlivermorium 663.91330285038106080
117Tstennessine 736.91435.42161.94012.95076.4
118Ogoganesson 860.11560
119Uueununennium 4621700
120Ubnunbinilium 563.3895–
 919
121Ubuunbiunium 300111017104270
122Ubbunbibium 540109018482520

11th20th

numbersymbolname 11th12th13th14th15th16th17th18th19th20th
11Nasodium 159,076
12Mgmagnesium 169,988189,368
13Alaluminium 42,647201,266222,316
14Sisilicon 45,96250,502235,196257,923
15Pphosphorus 46,26154,11059,024271,791296,195
16Ssulfur 48,71054,46062,93068,216311,048337,138
17Clchlorine 51,06857,11963,36372,34178,095352,994380,760
18Arargon 52,00259,65366,19972,91882,47388,576397,605427,066
19Kpotassium 54,49060,73068,95075,90083,08093,40099,710444,880476,063
20Cacalcium 57,11063,41070,11078,89086,31094,000104,900111,711494,850527,762
21Scscandium 24,10266,32073,01080,16089,49097,400105,600117,000124,270547,530
22Tititanium 25,57528,12576,01583,28090,880100,700109,100117,800129,900137,530
23Vvanadium 24,67029,73032,44686,45094,170102,300112,700121,600130,700143,400
24Crchromium 26,13028,75034,23037,06697,510105,800114,300125,300134,700144,300
25Mnmanganese 27,59030,33033,15038,88041,987109,480118,100127,100138,600148,500
26Feiron 28,00031,92034,83037,84044,10047,206122,200131,000140,500152,600
27Cocobalt 29,40032,40036,60039,70042,80049,39652,737134,810145,170154,700
28Ninickel 30,97034,00037,10041,50044,80048,10055,10158,570148,700159,000
29Cucopper 25,60035,60038,70042,00046,70050,20053,70061,10064,702163,700
30Znzinc 26,40029,99040,49043,80047,30052,30055,90059,70067,300171,200
36Krkrypton 29,70033,80037,70043,10047,50052,20057,10061,80075,80080,400
38Srstrontium 31,270
39Yyttrium 19,90036,090
42Momolybdenum 20,19022,21926,93029,19652,49055,00061,40067,70074,00080,400

21st30th

numbersymbolname 21st22nd23rd24th25th26th27th28th29th30th
21Scscandium 582,163
22Tititanium 602,930639,294
23Vvanadium 151,440661,050699,144
24Crchromium 157,700166,090721,870761,733
25Mnmanganese 158,600172,500181,380785,450827,067
26Feiron 163,000173,600188,100195,200851,800895,161
27Cocobalt 167,400178,100189,300204,500214,100920,870966,023
28Ninickel 169,400182,700194,000205,600221,400231,490992,7181,039,668
29Cucopper 174,100184,900198,800210,500222,700239,100249,6601,067,3581,116,105
30Znzinc 179,100
36Krkrypton 85,30090,40096,300101,400111,100116,290282,500296,200311,400326,200
42Momolybdenum 87,00093,40098,420104,400121,900127,700133,800139,800148,100154,500

References

  • Ionization energies of the elements (data page)
  • Hoffman, Darleane C.; Lee, Diana M.; Pershina, Valeria (2006). "Transactinides and the future elements". In Morss; Edelstein, Norman M.; Fuger, Jean (eds.). The Chemistry of the Actinide and Transactinide Elements (3rd ed.). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer Science+Business Media. ISBN 1-4020-3555-1. (for predictions)
  • Cotton, Simon (2006). Lanthanide and Actinide Chemistry. John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
  • Fricke, Burkhard (1975). "Superheavy elements: a prediction of their chemical and physical properties". Recent Impact of Physics on Inorganic Chemistry. 21: 89–144. doi:10.1007/BFb0116498. Retrieved 4 October 2013. (for predictions)
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