Model (art)

An art model poses for any visual artist as part of the creative process, providing a visual reference for the human figure in a work of art. However, more than being simply the subject of art, models are often thought of as muses, a source of inspiration without whom the art would not exist.[1] The most common types of art works that use models are figure drawing, figure painting, sculpture and photography, but almost any medium may be used.

Art models are often paid professionals with skill and experience but are rarely employed full-time, and artists may also rely on friends and family to pose. Paid art models are usually anonymous and unacknowledged subjects of the work. Models are most frequently employed for art classes or by informal groups of artists that gather to share the expense of a model. Models are also employed privately by professional artists. Although commercial motives dominate over aesthetics in illustration, its artwork commonly employs models. For example, Norman Rockwell used his friends and neighbors as models for both his commercial and fine art work.[2] An individual who is having their own portrait painted or sculpted is usually called a "sitter" rather than a model, since they are paying to have the work done rather than being paid to pose.[3][4]

Beginning with the Renaissance, drawing the human figure from living models was considered the most effective way to develop the skill of draftsmanship. In the twentieth century, it became established that it is best to draw from life, rather than copying two dimensional images such as photographs.[5] In addition, an artist has a connection to drawing another human being that cannot exist with any other subject.[6][7] Models for life drawing classes are usually nude. In the classroom setting, where the purpose is to learn how to draw the human form in all the different shapes, ages and ethnicity, there are no real limitations on who the model can be. In some cases, the model may pose with various props, one or more other models, against real or artificial background, in natural or artificial light.

The role of art models has changed through different eras as the meaning and importance of the human figure in art and society has changed.[8][9] Nude modeling, nude art and nudity in general are at times subject to social disapproval, at least by some elements in society.[10]


Poses can range in length from seconds to many hours. There is a drawing exercise where the model slowly but continuously moves, but the shortest is usually one minute. Short dynamic poses are used for gesture drawing exercises or warm-ups, with the model taking strenuous or precarious positions that could not be sustained for a longer pose—just long enough for the artist to quickly capture the essence of it. Drawing sessions proceed though groups of 5, 10, 15, or 20 minute poses generally for a total of three hours. Active, gestural, or challenging standing poses are often scheduled at the beginning of a session when the models' energy level is highest. Specific exercises or lesson plans may require a particular type of pose, but more often the model is expected to do a series of poses with little direction. The more a model knows about the types of exercises used to teach art, the better they become at posing.[11]

Poses fall into three basic categories: standing, seated and reclining. Within each of these there are varying levels of difficulty, so one kind is not always easier than another. Artists and life drawing instructors will often prefer poses in which the body is being exerted, for a more dynamic and aesthetically interesting subject. Common poses such as standing twists, slouched seated poses and especially the classical contrapposto are difficult to sustain accurately for any amount of time, although it is often surprising what a skilled model can do. The model's level of experience and skill may be taken into account in determining the length of the posing session and the difficulty of the poses.

While posing, a model is expected to remain essentially motionless,[12] and usually remains silent.[10] Exact requirements may vary depending upon the artist or instructor, but an experienced model will not speak, wriggle, scratch, or readjust during the pose. To accommodate the physical limitations, a schedule such as 20 to 25 minutes of posing, with five- or ten-minute breaks is observed. These breaks—during which the model usually wears a robe or puts on clothing—allow the model to stretch, relax and attend to other needs.

In art schools classrooms or studios, the model usually poses on a raised platform called the model stand or dais. In sculpture studios this platform may be built to rotate to allow for a 360° view for every artist.[13] Long poses are generally required for painting (hours or days) and sculpture (perhaps days). To aid in resuming a long pose after a break, chalk marks and/or masking tape are often placed on the model stand.

Nude modeling

Models for life drawing classes usually pose nude, though visually non-obstructive personal items such as small jewelry and eyeglasses may be worn. In a job advertisement seeking nude models, this may be referred to as being "undraped" or "disrobed." Art models who pose in the nude for life drawing are also called life models or figure models. While the majority of sessions have a single model, when the budget permits two or more may pose together.

During art school classes or in other academic settings, strict rules that apply to models, students, and instructors are observed to maintain decorum and emphasize the serious intent of figure studies.[14][15] Photography is generally forbidden, and in some schools, the students (sometimes including non-art students) are not allowed to also be models, as it creates the possibility of conflict for the institution.[16] Admission to and visibility of the area where a nude model is posing is tightly controlled. Disrobing is done discreetly, and the model wears a robe when not posing.[10] It is generally prohibited for anyone (including the instructor) to touch a model. Very close examinations are only made with the permission of the model. Some institutions allow only the instructor to speak directly with a model. Experienced models avoid any sexually suggestive poses.[10] Art instructors and institutions may consider the incident of a male model gaining an erection while posing cause for termination, or at any rate, grounds for not hiring him again.[17] Any of these policies may vary in different parts of the world. In Europe and South America attitudes are more relaxed, while in China and Korea attitudes are more repressed.[12]

In non-academic settings, models may pose as requested by artists within the limits of the law and their own comfort, including work that requires physical contact with other models, the artist, or the public. French artist Yves Klein applied paint to models' bodies which were then pressed into or dragged across canvas both as performance art and as painting technique.[18] In 2010 at the Museum of Modern Art, a retrospective of the work of Marina Abramović included two nude models standing in a narrow doorway through which visitors passed, replicating a work performed by the artist and a parner in 1977.[19]

Modeling in private

The conventions for professional artists working in private are much less defined, especially as the models are often friends or family. However, artists who hire individuals with whom they have no prior relationship tend to observe art school standards in order to make models feel more comfortable, and to avoid possible legal issues. Professional artists often hire the same models on a regular basis. When a comfortable working relationship is established, many artists relax their standards and models do the same. This may be something as simple as not undressing in another room, or not wearing a robe during breaks. In addition, silence is no longer necessary if the artist is comfortable working and conversing with the model. A more collegial relationship may develop where artist and model feel that they are collaborating. However, in a private studio environment, with an artist on a deadline or with commission guidelines, stricter work standards may apply regarding punctuality and holding longer, more demanding poses, but also require higher rates of pay.

Chuck Close apologized when several women accused him of making inappropriate comments when they came to his studio to pose, but initially denied any wrongdoing.[20]

Artists frequently have used family members as models, both nude and otherwise, in creating their works and the role between male photographers and their wives as models is studied in Arthur Ollman's book, ‘’The Model Wife. It focuses on the photographers Baron Adolph de Meyer, Alfred Stieglitz, whose model wife Georgia O’Keefe was a celebrated artist in her own right, Edward Weston, Harry Callahan, Emmet Gowin, Lee Friedlander, Masahisa Fukase, Seiichi Furuya, and Nicholas Nixon.[21]

In Western countries, there is generally no objection to either sex posing nude for or drawing members of the opposite sex. However, this was not always so. In 1886, Thomas Eakins was famously dismissed from the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Art for removing the loincloth from a male model in a mixed classroom. Similarly, Victorian modesty sometimes required the female model to pose nude with her face draped (Masked Nude by Eakins, for example). European arts academies did not allow women to study the nude at all until the end of the nineteenth century. Even today there remain some schools where the employment of nude models is limited (male models wearing jockstraps) or prohibited, usually for religious reasons.

Alternative views

All of the above is based upon a moderate position regarding the value of figure studies and nudity in art. There are also schools or studios that may be more conservative, or more liberal. Many art programs in Christian institutions consider nudity in any form to be in conflict with their beliefs, and therefore hire only clothed models for art classes.[22] Brigham Young University does not allow nude models, describing their policy as self-censorship within the context of the school's honor code.[23] Other institutions view the absence of figure studies as bringing into question the completeness of the art education offered.[24] Some recognize that an appreciation of the beauty of the human body is compatible with a Christian education.[25] Gordon College not only maintains the need for nude figure studies as part of a complete classical art education, but sees the use of models clad in swimwear or other revealing garments as placing the activity in the context of advertisement and sexual exploitation.[26]

James Elkins voices an alternative to classical "dispassionate" figure study by stating that the nude is never devoid of erotic meaning, and it is a fiction to pretend otherwise.[27] Even the staunch advocate of classical aesthetics Kenneth Clark recognized that "biological urges" were never absent even in the most chaste nude, nor should they be unless all life is drained from the work.[8] However, most models maintain that posing nude need not be any more sexual than any other coed social situation as long as all participants maintain a mature attitude.[10] However, decorum is not always maintained when either a model or the students are not familiar with the often unspoken rules. Models may be apprehensive about posing for incoming freshmen who, having never encountered classroom nudity, respond immaturely.[12][13]

Acceptance of the erotic is apparent in the work and behavior of some artists, for example Picasso was also famous for having a series of model/muse/mistresses through his life: Marie-Thérèse Walter, Fernande Olivier, Dora Maar, and Françoise Gilot. The painter John Currin, whose work is often erotic, combines images from popular culture and references to his wife, Rachel Feinstein.

A feminist view is the male gaze, which asserts that nudes are inherently voyeuristic, with the viewer in the place of the powerful male gazing upon the passive female subject.[28]


There has been controversy regarding the status of photography as a fine arts medium that is reflected in the unwillingness of some nude models for other fine art media to also pose for photography.[10] The experience of nude modeling for an amateur photographer is different from that of posing for figure drawing/painting.[13] Traditional media create a single image that is not a true likeness of the individual model, but photographs require a release in order to protect the model's right to privacy. The hourly rate of pay for models posing for fine art photography is much higher than for other media, although less than for commercial photography.[10]

Occasionally the distinction of participating in Fine Art may make a young amateur model willing to pose for a photographer, with unexpected consequences; examples being Vanessa Williams and Madonna. A signed print of one of the nude photographs of Madonna taken by Lee Friedlander in 1979 sold at auction in 2012 for $37,000.[29] Although largely a result of her fame, the model does not share in this increased value of the artwork.

Clothed modeling

Painting classes, and artists doing historical themed works often require clothed or costumed models who take poses that may be sustained until the work is completed. This creates some demand for clothed models in those schools that continue to teach academic painting methods. Some models may promote their services based upon having interesting or varied costumes.[30] Clothing is required in public venues, such as Dr Sketchy's Anti-Art School,[31] but occurs in more traditional settings as well, such as the fund-raising marathons sponsored by the Bay Area Models Guild.[11] Other than costumes, the work requirements and conditions of clothed models for art are identical to that of nude models.

Portraits generally have a client or "sitter" rather than a model as the subject; and are now often done from photographs at least in part, although artists prefer to have at least some hours of live sitting particularly at the beginning to better capture the personality, and at the end for final touches.

Training and selection

Most models learn on the job, but many have experience in the performing arts, athletics, or yoga[12] that provide a basis for posing, such as strength, flexibility, and a well-developed sense of kinesthesis.

In some countries there are organizations which concern themselves with the competence, conduct and reliability of art models. An example is the Register of Artists' Models (RAM) in the United Kingdom.[32] Some basic training is offered to beginners and membership is by audition – to test competence, not to discriminate on grounds of physical characteristics. RAM also acts as an important employment exchange for models and publishes the 'RAM Guidelines', which are widely referred to by models and employers. A similar organization in the United States, the Bay Area Models Guild in California, was founded in 1947. Groups also exist in Australia,[33] Sweden,[34] Washington, D.C.,[35] and several other cities in the United States.[36]

These groups may also attempt to establish minimum rates of pay and working conditions, but only rarely have models been sufficiently organized to go on strike. [37] [38][39]


Unlike fashion modeling, modeling in an art school classroom is for the purpose of learning how to draw humans of different shapes, ages, and ethnicity.[12] Obese models may be in demand by experienced artists.[40]

Children are generally excluded from modeling nude for classes. The minimum age can vary, but is often 15 to 18. Despite being nonsexual in nature, this may be influenced by the age of consent (i.e. at or slightly below). Children are not good candidates for art modeling since they lack the ability to hold still.[10] A small number of photographers have done fine art works of nude children, under special circumstances, such as Sally Mann photographing her own children.[41] Less well-known photographers have been charged as criminals for photos of their own children.[42] Jock Sturges photographed entire families of naturists[43] which led to an FBI investigation.[44] Some writers characterize many of these images as sexualizing children regardless of artistic merit.[45]

Gender roles and stereotypes in society are reflected in a different experience for male and female models, and different responses when those not in the arts learn that someone is a nude model. However, both male and female models tend to keep their modeling career distinct from their other social interactions, if for different reasons. Attitudes toward male nudity, issues of homosexuality when male models work from male artists, and some bias towards the female form in art may lead to less opportunity for male models,[10] and works of art that include male nudity are much less marketable.[11] However, historically this has not been the case (See below).

Art model job listings and policies

Job description posted by art schools includes statements that poses are nude, and requirements are generally limited to being able to hold poses up to 45 minutes, and to follow cues from the instructor.[46][47] Models cannot be students at the Art Academy of Cincinnati[48] or Orange Coast College[49], but students may model as Oregon State University[50]

Some colleges have lists of guidelines, while others have extensive manuals that describe policies regarding both in-class and outside interaction by models, students, and faculty; with special consideration for issues of sexual harassment.

The Columbus College of Art and Design guidelines specifically state that students are discouraged from forming any amorous relationship with models, and must report any existing relationship to avoid possible conflicts. Male models must remain in an unaroused state. Models may not be accompanied by non-class members.[51]

Guidelines at St. Olaf College specifies tight control on access to the room when models are posing, forbids photography, and discourages comments on models' appearance.[52]


The Greeks, who had the naked body constantly before them in the exercises of the gymnasium, had far less need of professional models than the moderns; but it is scarcely likely that they could have attained the high level reached by their works without constant study from nature. It was probably in Ancient Greece that models were first used. The story told of Zeuxis by Valerius Maximus, who had five of the most beautiful virgins of the city of Crotone offered him as models for his picture of Helen, proves their occasional use. The remark of Eupompus, quoted by Pliny, who advised Lysippos, "Let nature be your model, not an artist", directing his attention to the crowd instead of to his own work, also suggests a use of models which the many portrait statues of Greek and Roman times show to have been not unknown.[53] The names of some of these models of the era are themselves known, such as the beautiful Phryne who modeled for many paintings and sculptures.

The nude virtually disappeared from Western art during the Middle Ages due to a combination of civil disorder and the attitude of the early Christians.[54] This changed with the Renaissance and the rediscovery of classical antiquity, when painters generally made use of their relatives and friends as models, of which many examples might be quoted from Venice, Florence, Rome and other places, and the stories of Titian and the duchess of Ferrara and of Botticelli and Simonetta Vespucci, go to show that ladies of exalted rank were sometimes not averse to having their charms immortalized by the painter's brush.[53] The story of the love between Raphael and his mistress-model Margarita Luti (La Fornarina) is "the archetypal artist-model relationship of Western tradition".[55]

Art modeling as an occupation appeared in the late Renaissance when the establishment of schools for the study of the human figure created a regular demand, and since that time the remuneration offered ensured a continual supply.[53] However, academy models were only men until the 19th Century, as were the students. The status of nude models has fluctuated with the value and acceptance of nudity in art. Maintaining the classical ideals of Greece and Rome into the Christian Era, nudity was prominent in the decoration of Catholic churches in the Renaissance, only to be covered up with draperies or fig leaves by more prudish successors. The Protestant Reformation went even further, destroying many artworks. From being a possibly glamorous occupation celebrating beauty, being a nude model was at other times equivalent to prostitution, practiced by persons without the means to gain more respectable employment. The costumed models used to create historical paintings may not have been a distinct group, since nude studies were done in preparation for any figure painting.

In 19th century Paris, a number of models earned a place in art history. Victorine Meurent became a painter herself after posing for several works, including two of the most infamous: Manet's Olympia and Le déjeuner sur l'herbe. Joanna Hiffernan (c. 1843  after 1903) was an Irish artists' model and muse who was romantically linked with American painter James Abbott McNeill Whistler and French painter Gustave Courbet. She is the model for Whistler's painting Symphony in White, No. 1: The White Girl and is rumored to be the model for Courbet's painting L'Origine du monde. Suzanne Valadon, also a painter, modeled for Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Henri Toulouse-Lautrec, Pierre Puvis de Chavannes, and Edgar Degas. She is best known as the figure in Renoir's Dance at Bougival, and she was the mother of the painter Maurice Utrillo.

When Victorian attitudes took hold in England, studies with a live model became more restrictive than they had been in the prior century, limited to advanced classes of students that had already proved their worthiness by copying old master paintings and drawing from plaster casts. This is in part because many schools were publicly funded, so decisions were under the scrutiny of non-artists. Modeling was not respectable, and even less so for women. During the same period, the French art atelier system allowed any art student to work from life in a less formal atmosphere, and also admitted women as students. Live figure studies only returned to its classical status in art education throughout the England, Europe and the United States with the approach of the 20th Century.[9]

In the postmodern era, the nude has returned to gain some acceptance in the art world, but not necessarily the art model. Figure drawing is offered in most art schools, but may not be required for a fine art degree. Peter Steinhart says that in trendy galleries, the nude has become passé,[11] while according to Wendy Steiner there has been a revival in the importance of the figure as a source of beauty in contemporary art.[56] Some established living artists work from models, but more work from photographs, or their imagination. Yet privately held open drawing sessions with a live model remain as popular as ever.[11][57]


While there have been a number of films that exploited the artist/model stereotype, a few have more accurately portrayed the working relationship.

See also


  1. Annette and Luc Vizin (2003). The 20th Century Muse. New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc. ISBN 0-8109-9154-3.
  2. Denny, Diana. "A Day in the Life of Norman Rockwell Model Chuck Marsh". Retrieved November 29, 2012.
  3. Pierce, Andrew (2008). "Lucian Freud portrait worth millions destroyed by sitter". Retrieved November 29, 2012.
  4. "sitter". Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. Retrieved November 29, 2012.
  5. Nicolaides, Kimon (1975). The Natural Way to Draw. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co. ISBN 978-0-395-20548-8.
  6. Berry, William A. (1977). Drawing the Human Form: A Guide to Drawing from Life. New York: Van Nortrand Reinhold Co. p. 4. ISBN 978-0-442-20717-5.
  7. Jacobs, Ted Seth (1986). Drawing with an Open Mind. New York: Watson-Guptill Publications. ISBN 978-0-8230-1464-4.
  8. Clark, Kenneth (1956). The Nude - A Study in Ideal Form: Chapter 1. The Naked and the Nude. Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-01788-4.
  9. Postle, M.; Vaughn, W. (1999). The Artist's Model: from Etty to Spencer. London: Merrell Holberton. ISBN 978-1-85894-084-7.
  10. Phillips, Sarah R. (2006). Modeling Life: Art Models Speak about Nudity, Sexuality and the Creative Process. Albany: SUNY Press. ISBN 978-0-7914-6908-8.
  11. Steinhart, Peter (2004). The Undressed Art: Why We Draw. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 978-1-4000-4184-8.
  12. Bullock, Linda (2005). Finding Human Form: Artists' Models in Studio and Classroom. Ashville: R.S. Press. ISBN 978-0-9613949-9-8.
  13. Rooney, Kathleen (2009). Live Nude Girl: My Life as an Object. Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press. ISBN 978-1-55728-891-2.
  14. "Figure Model Guidelines" (PDF). Ringling College of Art and Design. Retrieved September 24, 2019.
  15. "Policy for the Study of Nude Models in SIUE Figure Drawing Classes". Southern Illinois University Edwardsville. Retrieved September 24, 2019.
  16. Amy K. Stewart (March 26, 2008). "UVSC drafts nude-modeling rules". Deseret News.
  17. "RAM Guidelines - Contentious Issues". Retrieved 18 October 2012.
  18. "Yves Klein, Anthropometries". Tate Modern. January 17, 2013. Retrieved December 10, 2019.
  19. Randy Kennedy (March 19, 2010). "Who's Afraid of Marina?". The New York Times.
  20. Robin Pogrebin (December 20, 2017). "Chuck Close Apologizes After Accusations of Sexual Harassment". THe New York Times. Retrieved October 30, 2019.
  21. Ollman, Arthur (1999). The Model Wife. Little, Brown.
  22. Daniel Grant (2011-07-18). "Christian Colleges Struggle with Their Fine Art Programs". Huffington Post. Retrieved 7 October 2012.
  23. Katelyn Johns (October 19, 2012). "Honor Code and the visual arts". The Daily Universe. Retrieved September 24, 2019.
  24. White, Jenny (March 1, 2012). "Nudity in art is professional, not sexual". Associated Students of Olivet Nazarene University. Retrieved 2013-02-28.
  25. "Art Policy on Nude Models" (PDF). Retrieved March 6, 2016.
  26. "POLICY ON THE USE OF NUDE MODELS IN ART". Gordon College. Retrieved December 10, 2019.
  27. Elkins, James (2001). Why Art Cannot Be Taught: A Handbook for Art Students. Urbana: University of Illinois Press. p. 85. ISBN 978-0-252-06950-5.
  28. Eaton, E.W. (September 2008). "Feminist philosophy of art". Philosophy Compass. 3 (5): 873–893. doi:10.1111/j.1747-9991.2008.00154.x.
  29. "Christie's: Nude (Madonna), 1979". Retrieved 20 October 2012.
  30. "Kimono Model". Retrieved October 6, 2012.
  31. Rachel Kramer Bussel. "Model Behavior". The Village Voice. Retrieved 10 October 2012.
  32. "Register of Artists' Models". Retrieved 2012-03-31.
  33. "". Retrieved 2019-05-16.
  34. "The Swedish Organization for Life Models". Retrieved 2012-03-31.
  35. "Figure Models Guild of Washington, D.C." Archived from the original on December 27, 2015. Retrieved March 6, 2016.
  36. " List of model guilds and associations". 2012-09-09. Retrieved 2012-11-03.
  37. "Model's Strike 1941". Trove. Retrieved 2012-10-10.
  38. "Italian Model's Strike 2008". Fox News. Retrieved 2012-10-10.
  39. "Paris Model's Strike 2008". Bloomberg News. Retrieved 2012-10-10.
  40. "I was mortified to strip off says benefits manager. Now my portrait is to sell for $35 million ..." DailyMail. 11 April 2008.
  41. Mann, Sally; Price, Reynolds (1992). Immediate Family. Aperture. ISBN 978-0893815233.
  42. Powell, Lynn (2010). Framing Innocence: A Mother's Photographs, a Prosecutor's Zeal, and a Small Town's Response. The New Press. ISBN 978-1595585516.
  43. "Jock Sturges Biography".
  44. HAROLD MAASS (July 5, 1990). "Photo Lab Sets Off FBI Probe : Art: Jock Sturges' photographs of nude families are at issue". Los Angeles Times.
  45. GORDON, MARY (1996). "Sexualizing Children: Thoughts on Sally Mann". Salmagundi. Skidmore College (111): 144–145. JSTOR 40535995.
  46. "Artist Model Ad" (PDF). Kansas City Art Institute. Retrieved September 24, 2019.
  47. "Job Posting". Kishwaukee College. Retrieved September 24, 2019.
  48. "Job Posting" (PDF). Art Academy of Cincinnati. Retrieved September 24, 2019.
  49. "Art Model". Classified Staff, Management, and Other Opportunities. Retrieved September 24, 2019.
  50. "Model for the Department". Oregon State University. Retrieved September 24, 2019.
  51. "Model Handbook" (PDF). Columbus College of Art and Design. Retrieved September 24, 2019.
  52. "Modeling Q&A" (PDF). St. Olaf College. Retrieved September 24, 2019.
  53.  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Models, Artists'". Encyclopædia Britannica. 18 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 640.
  54. Sorabella, Jean (January 2008). "The Nude in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History". New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved 25 October 2012.
  55. Lathers, Marie (2001). Bodies of Art: French Literary Realism and the Artist's Model. University of Nebraska Press. p. 60. ISBN 978-0-8032-2941-9.
  56. Wendy, Steiner (2001). Venus in Exile: The Rejection of Beauty in Twentieth-century Art. The Free Press. ISBN 978-0-684-85781-7.
  57. Gail Gregg (2010-12-01). "Nothing Like the Real Thing". ArtNews.
  58. Lathers, Marie. "Laure". In Jiminez, Jill Berk (ed.). Dictionary of Artists' Models. pp. 315–316.
  59. Rozas, Diana & Gottehrer Bourne, Anita (1999). American Venus: The Extraordinary Life of Audrey Munson, Model and Muse. Los Angeles: Balcony Press.
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Further reading

  • Lipton, Eunice (1992). Alias Olympia: A Woman's Search for Manet's Notorious Model and Her Own Desires. Cornell University Press. ISBN 978-0-8014-8609-8.
  • Steiner, Wendy (2010). The Real Thing: the Model in the Mirror of Art. University of Chicago Press.
  • Waller, Susan (2006). The Invention of the Model: Artists and Models in Paris, 1830–1870. Burlington: Ashgate. ISBN 978-0-7546-3484-3.
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