Minor Planet Center
The Minor Planet Center (MPC) is the official worldwide organization in charge of collecting observational data for minor planets (such as asteroids), calculating their orbits and publishing this information via the Minor Planet Circulars. Under the auspices of the International Astronomical Union (IAU), it operates at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, which is part of the Center for Astrophysics along with the Harvard College Observatory.
The MPC runs a number of free online services for observers to assist them in observing minor planets and comets. The complete catalogue of minor planet orbits (sometimes referred to as the "Minor Planet Catalogue") may also be freely downloaded. In addition to astrometric data, the MPC collects light curve photometry of minor planets. A key function of the MPC is helping observers coordinate follow up observations of possible Near Earth Objects (NEOs) via its NEO web form and blog. The MPC is also responsible for identifying, and alerting to, new NEOs with a risk of impacting Earth in the few weeks following their discovery (see Potentially hazardous objects and § Videos).
The Minor Planet Center was set up at the University of Cincinnati in 1947, under the direction of Paul Herget.:63 Upon Herget's retirement on June 30, 1978,:67 the MPC was moved to the SAO, under the direction of Brian G. Marsden.:67 From 2006–2015, the director of the MPC was Timothy Spahr, who oversaw a staff of five. As of February 2015, the Minor Planet Center is headed by interim director Matthew Holman.
The MPC periodically releases astrometric observations of minor planets, as well as of comets and natural satellites. These publications are the Minor Planet Circulars (MPCs), the Minor Planet Electronic Circulars (MPECs), and the Minor Planet Supplements (MPSs and MPOs). An extensive archive of publications in a PDF format is available at the Minor Planet Center's website. The archive's oldest publication dates back to 1 November 1977 (MPC 4937–5016).
- Minor Planet Circulars (M.P.C. or MPCs), established 1947, is a scientific journal that is generally published by the Minor Planet Center on the date of each full moon, when the number of reported observations are minimal due to the brighter night sky. The Circulars contain astrometric observations, orbits and ephemerides of minor planets, comets and certain natural satellites. The astrometric observations of comets are published in full, while the minor planet observations are summarised by observatory code (the full observations now being given in the Minor Planet Circulars Supplement). New numberings and namings of minor planets (also see Naming of Minor Planets), as well as numberings of periodic comets and natural satellites, are announced in the Circulars. New orbits for comets and natural satellites appear in the Circulars; new orbits for minor planets appear in the Minor Planets and Comets Orbit Supplement (see below).
- The Minor Planet Electronic Circulars (MPECs) are published by the Minor Planet Center. They generally contain positional observations and orbits of unusual minor planets and all comets. Monthly lists of observable unusual objects, observable distant objects, observable comets and the critical list of numbered minor planets also appear on these circulars. Daily Orbit Update MPECs, issued every day, contain new identifications and orbits of minor planets, obtained over the previous 24 hours.
- The Minor Planets and Comets Supplement (MPS) is published on behalf of IAU's Division F (Planetary Systems and Bioastronomy) by the Minor Planet Center.
- The Minor Planets and Comets Orbit Supplement (MPO) is published on behalf of IAU's Division F by the Minor Planet Center.
- Centres – Minor Planet Center. International Astronomical Union. Retrieved 20 April 2016.
- Marsden, B. G.; Williams, G. V. (1998). "The NEO Confirmation Page". Planetary and Space Science. 46 (2): 299. Bibcode:1998P&SS...46..299M. doi:10.1016/S0032-0633(96)00153-5. Retrieved 20 April 2016.
- "NEOCP Blog". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 20 April 2016.
- Donald E. Ostertbrock & P. Kenneth Seidelmann (1987). Paul Herget 1908 - 1981. A Biographical Memoir (PDF). National Academy of Sciences. pp. 64–65.
- Brian G. Marsden (1980). "The Minor Planet Center". Celestial Mechanics. 22 (1): 63–71. Bibcode:1980CeMec..22...63M. doi:10.1007/BF01228757.
- "Minor Planet Center Director Steps Down". The Daily Minor Planet Blog. Minor Planet Center. 6 January 2015. Retrieved 20 April 2016.
- "MPEC 2010-W10: BRIAN MARSDEN (1937 Aug. 5-2010 Nov. 18)". Minor Planet Center.
- "Interim Director Appointed to the Minor Planet Center". The Daily Minor Planet Blog. Minor Planet Center. 4 February 2015. Retrieved 1 December 2015.
- "MPC: Publications". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 6 May 2016.
- "MPC/MPO/MPS Archive". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 6 May 2016.
- "International Astronomical Union | IAU". www.iau.org. Retrieved 2017-11-07.
- Minor Planet Center, homepage
- Minor Planet Center Publication Archive, all published circulars since 1977 (downloadable as PDF)
- MPCORB, The MPC Orbit (MPCORB) Database (downloadable catalog files)
- The Minor Planet Center Status Report, Matthew J. Holman, 8 November 2015
- Recent MPECs, list of most recently published Minor Planet Electronic Circulars
- Asteroid Hazards, Part 1: What Makes an Asteroid a Hazard? on YouTube (min. 6:04)
- Asteroid Hazards, Part 2: The Challenge of Detection on YouTube (min. 7:14)
- Asteroid Hazards, Part 3: Finding the Path on YouTube (min. 5:38)