A military junta (/ -/,) is a government led by a committee of military leaders. The term junta means "meeting" or "committee" and originated in the national and local junta organized by the Spanish resistance to Napoleon's invasion of Spain in 1808. The term is now used to refer to an authoritarian form of government characterized by oligarchic military dictatorship, as distinguished from other categories of authoritarian rule, specifically strongman (autocratic military dictatorships); machine (oligarchic party dictatorships); and bossism (autocratic party dictatorships).
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A junta often comes to power as a result of a coup d'état. The junta may either formally take power as the nation's governing body, with the power to rule by decree, or may exercise power by exercising binding (but informal) control over a nominally civilian government. These two forms of junta rule are sometimes called open rule and disguised rule. Disguised rule may take the form of either civilianization or indirect rule. Civilization occurs when a junta publicly ends its obviously military features, but continues its dominance. For example, the junta may terminate martial law, forgo military uniforms in favor of civilian attire, "colonize" government with former military officers, and make use of political parties or mass organizations. "Indirect rule" involves the junta's exertion of concealed, behind-the-scenes control over a civilian puppet. Indirect rule by the military can include either broad control over the government or control over a narrower set of policy areas, such as military or national security matters.
Since the 1920s, military juntas have been frequently seen in Latin America, typically in the form of an "institutionalized, highly corporate/professional junta" headed by the commanding officers of the different military branches (army, navy, and air force), and sometimes joined by the head of the national police or other key bodies. Political scientist Samuel Finer, writing in 1988, noted that juntas in Latin America tended to be smaller than juntas elsewhere; the median junta had 11 members, while Latin American juntas typically had three or four. "Corporate" military coups have been distinguished from "factional" military coups. The former are carried out by the armed forces as an institution, led by senior commanders at the top of the military hierarchy, while the latter are carried out by a segment of the armed forces and are often led by mid-ranking officers.
Well-known military juntas
- Argentina — National Reorganization Process (1976–1983)
- Bolivia — Bolivian military juntas (1970–1971 and 1980–1982)
- Brazil — Military Junta of 1930
- Brazil — Military junta of 1969
- Chile — Government Junta (1973–1990)
- Egypt — Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (2011–2012)
- El Salvador — Revolutionary Government Junta (1979–1982)
- Ethiopia — Derg (1974–1987)
- Fiji — military government of Frank Bainimarama (2006–2014)
- Greece — Regime of the Colonels (1967–1974)
- Guinea — National Council for Democracy and Development (2008–2010)
- Haiti — Junta that took control in the 1991 coup and was deposed in 1994 (1991–1994)
- Myanmar (Burma) — State Peace and Development Council (1988–2011), known as the State Law and Order Restoration Council from 1988 to 1997.
- Nicaragua — Junta of National Reconstruction (1979–1985)
- Nigeria — Military juntas (1966–1979 and 1983–1998)
- Peru — Military junta of 1968-1980 (1968–1980)
- Poland — Military Council of National Salvation (1981–1983)
- Portugal — National Salvation Junta (1974–1975)
- South Korea — Supreme Council for National Reconstruction (1961–1963)
- Thailand — Council for National Security (2006–2008)
- Junta, Encyclopædia Britannica (last updated 1998).
- Brian Lai & Dan Slater (2006). "Institutions of the Offensive: Domestic Sources of Dispute Initiation in Authoritarian Regimes, 1950-1992". American Journal of Political Science. 50 (1): 113–126.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
- Paul Brooker, Non-Democratic Regimes (Palgrave Macmillan: 2d ed. 2009), pp. 148-150.
- Paul Brooker, Comparative Politics (ed. Daniele Caramani: Oxford University Press, 2014), pp. 101-102.
- Brooker, Non-Democratic Regimes (2d ed.), p. 153.
- David Kuehn, "Democratic Control of the Military" in Handbook of the Sociology of the Military (eds. Giuseppe Caforio & Marina Nuciari: Springer, 2nd ed.), p. 164.
- "Fiji holds historic election after years of military rule - DW - 17.09.2014". DW.com. Deutsche Welle.