Metropolitan municipalities in Turkey

There are 81 provinces in Turkey (Turkish: il). Among the 81 provinces, thirty are designated metropolitan municipalities[1] (Turkish: büyükşehir belediyeleri). Metropolitan municipalities are subdivided into districts (Turkish: ilçe), where each district includes a corresponding district municipality, which is a second tier municipality.[2]

History

The first metropolitan municipalities were established in 1984.[3] These were the three most populous cities in Turkey, namely; İstanbul, Ankara and İzmir. In each metropolitan municipality a number of second level municipalities (ilçe) were established. In 1986, four new metropolitan municipalities were established in Adana,[4] Bursa,[5] Gaziantep[6] and Konya.[7] Two years later the total number was increased to eight with the addition of Kayseri.[8] In 1993, seven new metropolitan municipalities were established in Antalya, Diyarbakır, Erzurum, Eskişehir, Mersin, Kocaeli and Samsun.[9] Following the earthquake of 1999, Sakarya was also declared a metropolitan municipality.[10]

Before 2004, only the urban centers with a population more than 750,000 were declared metropolitan centers. However, in 2004, the concept of metropolitan municipality was redefined in Istanbul and Kocaeli, where from then on metropolitan municipality borders would overlap with provincial borders. In 2012, this was extended to other metropolitan municipalities.[11] Thus, all provinces with a population in excess of 750,000 were declared metropolitan municipality and accordingly the number of metropolitan municipalities has sharply increased. The following 13 cities became metropolitan municipalities:[11]

Later, with the addition of Ordu, the total number of the metropolitan municipalities was increased to 30.[12]

List of metropolitan areas

Metropolitan municipalities Date of establishment Population (2013)[13] Population (2014)[14] Number of districts
Adana05.06.19862,149,1602,165,59515
Ankara23.03.19845,045,0835,152,07225
Antalya09.09.19932,158,2652,222,56219
Aydın06.12.20121,020,9571,041,57917
Balıkesir06.12.20121,162,7611,189,05720
Bursa18.06.19862,740,9702,787,53917
Denizli06.12.2012963,464978,70019
Diyarbakır09.09.19931,607,4371,635,04817
Erzurum09.09.1993766,729763,32020
Eskişehir09.09.1993799,724812,32014
Gaziantep20.06.19861,844,4381,889,4669
Hatay06.12.20121,503,0661,519,83615
Mersin[Note 1]09.09.19931,705,7741,722,25513
İstanbul23.03.198414,160,46714,377,01839
İzmir23.03.19844,061,0744,113,07230
Kayseri07.12.19881,295,3551,322,37616
Kocaeli[Note 2]09.09.19931,676,2021,722,79512
Konya20.06.19862,079,2252,108,80831
Malatya06.12.2012762,538769,54413
Manisa06.12.20121,359,4631,367,90517
Kahramanmaraş06.12.20121,075,0761,089,03811
Mardin06.12.2012779,738788,99610
Muğla06.12.2012866,665894,50913
Ordu14.03.2013731,452[Note 3]724,26819
Sakarya[Note 4]06.03.2000917,373932,70616
Samsun09.09.19931,261,8101,269,98917
Tekirdağ06.12.2012874,475906,73211
Trabzon06.12.2012758,237766,78218
Şanlıurfa06.12.20121,801,9801,845,66713
Van06.12.20121,070,1131,089,54213
Total N/A 58,999,701 59,968,586 519

Since the total population of Turkey is 77,695,904, the population in the 30 provinces make up 77% of the population of the country.

See also

Notes

  1. Formerly named İçel.
  2. Formerly the center city of Kocaeli Province was İzmit, which is now a district
  3. The population of Ordu Province was more than 750,000 limit in 2013
  4. Formerly the center city of Sakarya Province was Adapazarı, which is now a district

        References

        1. Statistical Institute page
        2. Law act no 5216 (in Turkish)
        3. Belleten of legislation (in Turkish)
        4. Art no 3306 (in Turkish)
        5. "Art no 3391" (in Turkish). Archived from the original on 2014-02-03. Retrieved 2014-01-31.
        6. "Art no.3398" (in Turkish). Archived from the original on 2014-01-31. Retrieved 2014-01-31.
        7. "Art no 3399" (in Turkish). Archived from the original on 2014-02-03. Retrieved 2014-01-31.
        8. "Art no 3508" (in Turkish). Archived from the original on 2014-02-03. Retrieved 2014-01-31.
        9. "Decree no 504" (in Turkish). Archived from the original on 2014-02-03. Retrieved 2014-01-31.
        10. "Art no 593" (in Turkish). Archived from the original on 2014-02-03. Retrieved 2014-01-31.
        11. "Art no 6360" (in Turkish).
        12. CNN Turk news (in Turkish)
        13. "Statistical Institute 2013". Archived from the original on 2015-01-30. Retrieved 2015-01-30.
        14. "Statistical Institute 2014". Archived from the original on 2015-01-30. Retrieved 2015-01-30.
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