Medal for Merit
The Medal for Merit was, during the period it was awarded, the highest civilian decoration of the United States. It was awarded by the President of the United States to civilians who "distinguished themselves by exceptionally meritorious conduct in the performance of outstanding services" in the war effort "since the proclamation of an emergency by the President on September 8, 1939". Awards to civilians of foreign nations were eligible "only for the performance of exceptionally meritorious or courageous act or acts in furtherance of the war efforts of the United Nations."
|Medal for Merit|
Obverse and reverse of the Medal for Merit
|Awarded by President of the United States|
|Type||Single grade decoration|
|Eligibility||Civilians of the United States and allied nations|
|Awarded for||Exceptionally meritorious conduct in the performance of outstanding services during World War II|
|Status||No longer awarded|
|Established||July 20, 1942|
|First awarded||March 28, 1944|
|Next (higher)||None (At the time of its awarding)|
|Next (lower)||Medal of Freedom|
Ribbon bar of the medal
The Medal for Merit was created by Public Law 77-671 and its awarding codified by Executive Order 9286 - Medal for Merit on December 24, 1942, later amended and restated by Executive Order 9857A of May 27, 1947. Created during World War II, and awarded to "civilians of the nations prosecuting the war under the joint declaration of the United Nations and of other friendly foreign nations", the medal has not been awarded since 1952.
The Medal for Merit is currently listed as seventh in order of precedence of U.S. civilian decorations, below the Silver Lifesaving Medal and above the National Intelligence Distinguished Service Medal.
Civilians of foreign nations could receive the award for the performance of an exceptionally meritorious or courageous act or acts in furtherance of the war efforts of the Allies against the Axis Powers. The first person to receive this medal who was not an American citizen was Edgar Sengier, the director of the Belgian Union Minière du Haut Katanga during World War II. Sengier was awarded the Medal for Merit on April 9, 1946. The second foreign civilian to receive the medal was the Canadian spymaster William Stephenson in November 1946. Stephenson had the code name "Intrepid" during World War II. Some writers consider Stephenson to be one of the real life inspirations for the fictitious character "James Bond". Another recipient was Sir Robert Watson-Watt, a British pioneer of radar, who created a chain of radar stations around the UK which enabled advance information to be available to the Royal Air Force of incoming German aircraft and was instrumental in the winning of the 1940 Battle of Britain. He was sent to the US in 1941 to advise on air defense, after Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor. He was awarded the US Medal for Merit in 1946.
All proposed awards were considered by the Medal for Merit Board, consisting of three members appointed by the President, of whom one was appointed as the Chairman of the Board. This medal cannot be awarded for any action relating to the prosecution of World War II after the end of hostilities (as proclaimed by Proclamation No. 2714 of December 31, 1946), and no proposal for this award for such services could be submitted after June 30, 1947. The last medal of this type was awarded in 1952 after a long delay in processing.
- Dean Acheson (June 30, 1947)
- Leason H. Adams (1948)
- Homer Burton Adkins
- James Gilbert Baker (1948)
- Chester I. Barnard
- Irving Berlin (1945)
- Vannevar Bush (May 27, 1948)
- G. Edward Buxton Jr. (November 30, 1946)
- Arthur Compton (January 12, 1946)
- James B. Conant (May 27, 1948)
- Granville Conway (July 16, 1947)
- Albert de Vleeschauwer
- Joseph Desch (July 16, 1947)
- Louis G. Dunn (March 21, 1949)
- John R. Dunning (1946)
- William Frederick Durand (1946)
- Enrico Fermi (1946)
- Edwin Broun Fred (1945)
- William F. Friedman (1946)
- Jack Frye (December 18, 1946)
- John C. Garand (March 28, 1944)
- Ivan A. Getting
- David T. Griggs (April 15, 1946)
- Leroy Randle Grumman (1948)
- Gaylord P. Harnwell
- W. Averell Harriman (1946)
- Clarence N. Hickman (1948)
- J. Edgar Hoover (March 8, 1946)
- Bob Hope
- Cordell Hull (April 15, 1947)
- Jerome Clarke Hunsaker (1946)
- Frederick Vinton Hunt
- Louis Johnson (October 1, 1947)
- Eric Johnston (1947)
- Al Jolson (1950)
- Paul E. Klopsteg (1948)
- Edward F. Knipling (1947)
- Frank Knox, the Secretary of the Navy through 1944, on May 31, 1945, posthumously.
- Julius A. Krug (May 1, 1946)
- William L. Langer (July 18, 1946)
- George William Lewis (1948)
- Alfred Lee Loomis
- William L. Marbury, Jr. (late 1940s)
- Thomas B. McCabe (1946)
- Paul V. McNutt (November 27, 1946)
- George W. Merck (1946)
- Clark B. Millikan (March 21, 1949)
- Robert A. Millikan (March 21, 1949)
- Raymond D. Mindlin
- Henry Morgenthau, Jr. (December 12, 1945)
- Philip McCord Morse (December 1946)
- William Beverly Murphy (1946)
- Dillon S. Myer
- David K. Niles (August 20, 1947)
- Brian O'Brien
- J. Robert Oppenheimer (1946)
- Linus Carl Pauling (February 2, 1948)
- William D. Pawley (May 13, 1946)
- Howard C. Petersen (1947)
- Byron Price (January 15, 1946)
- I. I. Rabi (1948)
- Eddie Rickenbacker
- Richard B. Roberts (1947)
- Samuel I. Rosenman (January 24, 1946)
- Leonard Rowntree (1946)
- Edgar Sengier
- James Augustine Shannon (1948)
- William Shockley (1946)
- Cyril Stanley Smith
- John Wesley Snyder (May 14, 1947)
- William Stephenson (1946)
- Herbert Bayard Swope (1947)
- Myron C. Taylor (December 20, 1948)
- Albert Hoyt Taylor (March 28, 1944)
- Frederick Emmons Terman
- Charles Allen Thomas (January 30, 1946)
- Juan T. Trippe (September 27, 1946)
- Fred M. Vinson (October 3, 1947)
- Theodore von Kármán (1946)
- John von Neumann (1947)
- Robert Watson-Watt (1946)
- Thomas J. Watson Sr. (May 19, 1947)
- Sidney James Weinberg (19 September 1946)
- Eugene Wigner (1946)
- Charles Erwin Wilson (1946)
- Thomas E. Wilson (1946)
- Stephen J. Zand
- 77th Congress of the United States. "Public Law 77-671 To create the decorations to be known as the Legion of Merit, and the Medal for Merit". Retrieved February 28, 2019.
- "Scientific Notes and News" (PDF). Science. American Association for the Advancement of Science. 99 (2571): 276. April 7, 1944. doi:10.1126/science.99.2571.276.
- "The Code of Federal Regulations of the United States of America". p. 345. Office of the Federal Register (US)
- Code of General Regulations, National Defense, Department of the Army, DoD National Archives and Records Administration as a Special Edition of the Federal Register, Published by the Office of the Federal Register, Washington, July 1, 1085. §578.15 Medal of Merit, pg 344-345
- Bureau of Personnel. "Precedence of Awards". United States Navy. Retrieved January 26, 2013.
- War Department: Recommendation for award of Medal for Merit to Edgar Edouard Sengier. Center for Research Libraries
- Picture: Sir William S. Stephenson receives Medal for Merit
- "Citation Accompanying Medal for Merit Awarded to Dean Acheson". The American Presidency Project. June 30, 1947. Retrieved November 6, 2011.
- R. E. Gibson (1980). "Leason Heberling Adams 1887—1969, A Biographical Memoir". National Academy of Sciences. p. 9. Retrieved November 13, 2011.
- "Millikan, son, aide get medals of merit". New York Times. 1949-03-22. Retrieved 2014-10-27.
- Durand, William (1953). Adventures; In the Navy, In Education, Science, Engineering, and in War; A Life Story. American Society of Mechanical Engineers, and McGraw-Hill. p. 153. ASIN B0000CIPMH.
- Getting, Ivan A.; Christie, John M. (1994). "David Tressel Griggs" (PDF). Biographical Memoirs. 64. Washington, DC: National Academies Press. pp. 112–133. Retrieved 27 October 2015.
- Dickie, William. "Dillon S. Myer, Who Headed War Relocation Agency, Dies", The New York Times, October 25, 1982, retrieved on April 6, 2014.
- "Dr. Richard Roberts, 69, Pioneer As Physicist and Microbiologist". New York Times. 1980-04-07. Retrieved 2014-10-27.
- "Thomas J. Watson Sr. Is Dead; I.B.M. Board Chairman Was 82". The New York Times. June 20, 1956. Retrieved January 10, 2015.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Medal for Merit.|
- NARA - Federal Register - Executive Order 9637 - Medal for Merit
- Picture of citation accompanying to Medal for Merit issued by President Truman to Linus Carl Pauling
- Picture of Medal of Merit
- Exploring the Medal for Merit, Philip J. Schlegel, 2012. Includes list of recipients.