McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet

The McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet is a twin-engine, supersonic, all-weather, carrier-capable, multirole combat jet, designed as both a fighter and attack aircraft (hence the F/A designation). Designed by McDonnell Douglas (now Boeing) and Northrop, the F/A-18 was derived from the latter's YF-17 in the 1970s for use by the United States Navy and Marine Corps. The Hornet is also used by the air forces of several other nations, and since 1986, by the U.S. Navy's Flight Demonstration Squadron, the Blue Angels.

F/A-18 Hornet
A U.S. Navy F/A-18C in flight
Role Multirole fighter
National origin United States
Manufacturer McDonnell Douglas (1974–1997)
with Northrop (1974–1994)
Boeing (1997–present)
First flight 18 November 1978 (1978-11-18)
Introduction 1 July 1984 (USN)
7 January 1984 (USMC)
Status In service
Primary users United States Navy (historical)
United States Marine Corps
Royal Australian Air Force
Spanish Air Force
Number built F/A-18A/B/C/D: 1,480[1]
Unit cost
US$29 million (F-18C/D) (2006)[2]
Developed from Northrop YF-17
Variants McDonnell Douglas CF-18 Hornet
High Alpha Research Vehicle
Developed into Boeing F/A-18E/F Super Hornet
Boeing X-53 Active Aeroelastic Wing

The F/A-18 has a top speed of Mach 1.8 (1,034 knots, 1,190 mph or 1,915 km/h at 40,000 ft or 12,200 m). It can carry a wide variety of bombs and missiles, including air-to-air and air-to-ground, supplemented by the 20-mm M61 Vulcan cannon. It is powered by two General Electric F404 turbofan engines, which give the aircraft a high thrust-to-weight ratio. The F/A-18 has excellent aerodynamic characteristics, primarily attributed to its leading-edge extensions. The fighter's primary missions are fighter escort, fleet air defense, suppression of enemy air defenses, air interdiction, close air support, and aerial reconnaissance. Its versatility and reliability have proven it to be a valuable carrier asset, though it has been criticized for its lack of range and payload compared to its earlier contemporaries, such as the Grumman F-14 Tomcat in the fighter and strike fighter role, and the Grumman A-6 Intruder and LTV A-7 Corsair II in the attack role.

The Hornet first saw combat action during the 1986 United States bombing of Libya and subsequently participated in the 1991 Gulf War and 2003 Iraq War. The F/A-18 Hornet served as the baseline for the Boeing F/A-18E/F Super Hornet, its larger, evolutionary redesign.



The U.S. Navy started the Naval Fighter-Attack, Experimental (VFAX) program to procure a multirole aircraft to replace the Douglas A-4 Skyhawk, the A-7 Corsair II, and the remaining McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom IIs, and to complement the F-14 Tomcat. Vice Admiral Kent Lee, then head of Naval Air Systems Command, was the lead advocate for the VFAX against strong opposition from many Navy officers, including Vice Admiral William D. Houser, deputy chief of naval operations for air warfare – the highest-ranking naval aviator.[3]

In August 1973, Congress mandated that the Navy pursue a lower-cost alternative to the F-14. Grumman proposed a stripped F-14 designated the F-14X, while McDonnell Douglas proposed a naval variant of the F-15, but both were nearly as expensive as the F-14.[4] That summer, Secretary of Defense James R. Schlesinger ordered the Navy to evaluate the competitors in the Air Force's Lightweight Fighter (LWF) program, the General Dynamics YF-16 and Northrop YF-17.[5] The Air Force competition specified a day fighter with no strike capability. In May 1974, the House Armed Services Committee redirected $34 million from the VFAX to a new program, the Navy Air Combat Fighter (NACF),[5] intended to make maximum use of the technology developed for the LWF program.[4]

Redesigning the YF-17

Though the YF-16 won the LWF competition, the Navy was skeptical that an aircraft with one engine and narrow landing gear could be easily or economically adapted to carrier service, and refused to adopt an F-16 derivative. On 2 May 1975, the Navy announced its selection of the YF-17.[6] Since the LWF did not share the design requirements of the VFAX, the Navy asked McDonnell Douglas and Northrop to develop a new aircraft from the design and principles of the YF-17. On 1 March 1977, Secretary of the Navy W. Graham Claytor announced that the F-18 would be named "Hornet".[4]

Northrop had partnered with McDonnell Douglas as a secondary contractor on NACF to capitalize on the latter's experience in building carrier aircraft, including the widely used F-4 Phantom II. On the F-18, the two companies agreed to evenly split component manufacturing, with McDonnell Douglas conducting final assembly. McDonnell Douglas would build the wings, stabilators, and forward fuselage; while Northrop would build the center and aft fuselage and vertical stabilizers. McDonnell Douglas was the prime contractor for the naval versions, and Northrop would be the prime contractor for the F-18L land-based version which Northrop hoped to sell on the export market.[4][5]

The F-18, initially known as McDonnell Douglas Model 267, was drastically modified from the YF-17. For carrier operations, the airframe, undercarriage, and tailhook were strengthened, folding wings and catapult attachments were added, and the landing gear was widened.[7] To meet Navy range and reserves requirements, McDonnell increased fuel capacity by 4,460 pounds (2,020 kg), by enlarging the dorsal spine and adding a 96-gallon fuel tank to each wing. A "snag" was added to the wing's leading edge and stabilators to prevent an aeroelastic flutter discovered in the F-15 stabilator. The wings and stabilators were enlarged, the aft fuselage widened by 4 inches (102 mm), and the engines canted outward at the front. These changes added 10,000 lb (4,540 kg) to the gross weight, bringing it to 37,000 lb (16,800 kg). The YF-17's control system was replaced with a fully digital fly-by-wire system with quadruple redundancy, the first to be installed in a production fighter.[7]

Originally, plans were to acquire a total of 780 aircraft of three variants: the single-seat F-18A fighter and A-18A attack aircraft, differing only in avionics, and the dual-seat TF-18A, which retained full mission capability of the F-18 with a reduced fuel load.[8] Following improvements in avionics and multifunction displays, and a redesign of external stores stations, the A-18A and F-18A were able to be combined into one aircraft.[4] Starting in 1980, the aircraft began to be referred to as the F/A-18A, and the designation was officially announced on 1 April 1984. The TF-18A was redesignated F/A-18B.[4]

Northrop's F-18L

Northrop developed the F-18L as a potential export aircraft. Since it was not strengthened for carrier service, it was expected to be lighter and better performing, and a strong competitor to the F-16 Fighting Falcon then being offered to American allies. The F-18L's normal gross weight was lighter than the F/A-18A by 7,700 pounds (3,490 kg), via lighter landing gear, lack of wing folding mechanism, reduced part thickness in areas, and lower fuel-carrying capacity. Though the aircraft retained a lightened tailhook, the most obvious external difference was removed "snags" on the leading edge of the wings and stabilators. It still retained 71% commonality with the F/A-18 by parts weight, and 90% of the high-value systems, including the avionics, radar, and electronic countermeasure suite, though alternatives were offered. Unlike the F/A-18, the F-18L carried no fuel in its wings and lacked weapons stations on the intakes. It had three underwing pylons on each side, instead.[9]

The F/A-18L version followed to coincide with the US Navy's F/A-18A as a land-based export alternative. This was essentially an F/A-18A lightened by about 2,500 to 3,000 pounds (1,130 to 1,360 kg); weight was reduced by removing the folding wing and associated actuators, implementing a simpler landing gear (single wheel nose gear and cantilever oleo main gear), and changing to a land-based tail hook. The revised F/A-18L included wing fuel tanks and fuselage stations of the F/A-18A. Its weapons capacity would increase from 13,700 to 20,000 pounds (6,210 to 9,070 kg), largely due to the addition of a third underwing pylon and strengthened wingtips (11 stations in total vs 9 stations of the F/A-18A). Compared to the F-18L, the outboard weapons pylons are moved closer to the wingtip missile rails. Because of the strengthened nonfolding wing, the wingtip missile rails were designed to carry either the AIM-7 Sparrow or Skyflash medium-range air-to-air missiles, in addition to the AIM-9 Sidewinder as found on the F/A-18A. The F/A-18L was strengthened for a 9 g design load factor compared to the F/A-18A's 7.5 g factor.[10]

The partnership between McDonnell Douglas and Northrop soured over competition for foreign sales for the two models. Northrop felt that McDonnell Douglas would put the F/A-18 in direct competition with the F-18L. In October 1979, Northrop filed a series of lawsuits charging that McDonnell was using Northrop technology developed for the F-18L for foreign sales of the F/A-18 in violation of their agreement, and asked for a moratorium on foreign sales of the Hornet. McDonnell Douglas countersued, alleging Northrop illegally used F/A-18 technology in its F-20 Tigershark. A settlement was announced 8 April 1985 for all of the lawsuits.[11][12][13][14] McDonnell Douglas paid Northrop $50 million for "rights to sell the F/A-18 wherever it could".[14] Additionally, the companies agreed on McDonnell Douglas as the prime contractor with Northrop as the principal subcontractor.[11][12][13][14] As principal subcontractor, Northrop will produce the rear section for the F/A-18 (A/B/C/D/E/F), while McDonnell Douglas will produce the rest with final assembly to be performed by McDonnell Douglas.[15] At the time of the settlement, Northrop had ceased work on the F-18L. Most export orders for the F18-L were captured by the F-16 or the F/A-18.[9] The F-20 Tigershark did not enter production, and although the program was not officially terminated until 17 November 1986, it was dead by mid-1985.[16]

Into production

During flight testing, the snag on the leading edge of the stabilators was filled in, and the gap between the leading-edge extensions (LEX) and the fuselage was mostly filled in. The gaps, called the boundary layer air discharge slots, controlled the vortices generated by the LEX and presented clean air to the vertical stabilizers at high angles of attack, but they also generated a great deal of parasitic drag, worsening the problem of the F/A-18's inadequate range. McDonnell filled in 80% of the gap, leaving a small slot to bleed air from the engine intake. This may have contributed to early problems with fatigue cracks appearing on the vertical stabilizers due to extreme structural loads, resulting in a short grounding in 1984 until the stabilizers were strengthened. Starting in May 1988, a small vertical fence was added to the top of each LEX to broaden the vortices and direct them away from the vertical stabilizers. This also provided a minor increase in controllability as a side effect.[17] F/A-18s of early versions had a problem with insufficient rate of roll, exacerbated by the insufficient wing stiffness, especially with heavy underwing ordnance loads.

The first production F/A-18A flew on 12 April 1980. After a production run of 380 F/A-18As[18] (including the nine assigned to flight systems development), manufacture shifted to the F/A-18C in September 1987.[8]

Improvements and design changes

In the 1990s, the U.S. Navy faced the need to replace its aging A-6 Intruders and A-7 Corsair IIs with no replacement in development.[19] To answer this deficiency, the Navy commissioned development of the F/A-18E/F Super Hornet. Despite its designation, it is not just an upgrade of the F/A-18 Hornet, but rather, a new, larger airframe using the design concepts of the Hornet.

Hornets and Super Hornets will serve complementary roles in the U.S. Navy carrier fleet until the Hornet A-D models are completely replaced by the F-35C Lightning II. The Marines have chosen to extend the use of certain F/A-18s up to 10,000 flight hours, due to delays in the F-35B variant.[20]


The F/A-18 is a twin engine, midwing, multimission tactical aircraft. It is highly maneuverable, owing to its good thrust-to-weight ratio, digital fly-by-wire control system, and leading-edge extensions, which allow the Hornet to remain controllable at high angles of attack. The trapezoidal wing has a 20-degree sweepback on the leading edge and a straight trailing edge. The wing has full-span, leading-edge flaps and the trailing edge has single-slotted flaps and ailerons over the entire span.[21]

Canted vertical stabilizers are another distinguishing design element, one among several other such elements that enable the Hornet's excellent high angle of attack ability, including oversized horizontal stabilators, oversized trailing-edge flaps that operate as flaperons, large full-length leading-edge slats, and flight control computer programming that multiplies the movement of each control surface at low speeds and moves the vertical rudders inboard instead of simply left and right. The Hornet's normally high angle of attack performance envelope was put to rigorous testing and enhanced in the NASA F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV). NASA used the F-18 HARV to demonstrate flight handling characteristics at high angle-of-attack (alpha) of 65–70 degrees using thrust vectoring vanes.[22] F/A-18 stabilators were also used as canards on NASA's F-15S/MTD.

The Hornet was among the first aircraft to heavily use multifunction displays, which at the switch of a button allow a pilot to perform either fighter or attack roles or both. This "force multiplier" ability gives the operational commander more flexibility to employ tactical aircraft in a fast-changing battle scenario. It was the first Navy aircraft to incorporate a digital multiplexing avionics bus, enabling easy upgrades.[8]

The Hornet is also notable for having been designed to reduce maintenance, and as a result, has required far less downtime than its heavier counterparts, the F-14 Tomcat and the A-6 Intruder. Its mean time between failures is three times greater than any other Navy strike aircraft, and requires half the maintenance time.[8] Its General Electric F404 engines were also innovative in that they were designed with operability, reliability, and maintainability first. The engine, while unexceptional in rated performance, demonstrates exceptional robustness under various conditions and is resistant to stall and flameout.[23] The F404 engine connects to the airframe at only 10 points and can be replaced without special equipment; a four-person team can remove the engine within 20 minutes.[24]

The engine air inlets of the Hornet, like that of the F-16, are of a simpler "fixed" design, while those of the F-4, F-14, and F-15 have variable geometry or variable intake ramp air inlets. This is a speed-limiting factor in the Hornet design. Instead, the Hornet uses bleed-air vents on the inboard surface of the engine air intake ducts to slow and reduce the amount of air reaching the engine. While not as effective as variable geometry, the bleed-air technique functions well enough to achieve near Mach 2 speeds, which is within the designed mission requirements.[25]

A 1989 USMC study found that single-seat fighters were well suited to air-to-air combat missions, while dual-seat fighters were favored for complex strike missions against heavy air and ground defenses in adverse weather—the question being not so much as to whether a second pair of eyes would be useful, but as to having the second crewman sit in the same fighter or in a second fighter. Single-seat fighters that lacked wingmen were shown to be especially vulnerable.[26]

Operational history

United States

Entry into service

McDonnell Douglas rolled out the first F/A-18A on 13 September 1978,[18] in blue-on-white colors marked with "Navy" on the left and "Marines" on the right. Its first flight was on 18 November.[18] In a break with tradition, the Navy pioneered the "principal site concept"[5] with the F/A-18, where almost all testing was done at Naval Air Station Patuxent River,[8] instead of near the site of manufacture, and using Navy and Marine Corps test pilots instead of civilians early in development. In March 1979, Lt. Cdr. John Padgett became the first Navy pilot to fly the F/A-18.[27]

Following trials and operational testing by VX-4 and VX-5, Hornets began to fill the Fleet Replacement Squadrons VFA-125, VFA-106, and VMFAT-101, where pilots are introduced to the F/A-18. The Hornet entered operational service with Marine Corps squadron VMFA-314 at MCAS El Toro on 7 January 1983,[18] and with Navy squadron VFA-25 on 1 July 1984, replacing F-4s and A-7Es, respectively.[8]

Navy strike-fighter squadrons VFA-25 and VFA-113 (assigned to CVW-14) deployed aboard USS Constellation from February to August 1985, marking the first deployment for the F/A-18.[28]

The initial fleet reports were complimentary, indicating that the Hornet was extraordinarily reliable, a major change from its predecessor, the F-4J.[29] Other squadrons that switched to F/A-18 are VFA-146 "Blue Diamonds", and VFA-147 "Argonauts". In January 1985, the VFA-131 "Wildcats" and the VFA-132 "Privateers" moved from Naval Air Station Lemoore, California to Naval Air Station Cecil Field, Florida to become the Atlantic Fleet's first F/A-18 squadrons.

The U.S. Navy's Blue Angels Flight Demonstration Squadron switched to the F/A-18 Hornet in 1986,[18][30] replacing the A-4 Skyhawk. The Blue Angels perform in F/A-18A, B, C, and D models at air shows and other special events across the US and worldwide. Blue Angels pilots must have 1,400 hours and an aircraft-carrier certification. The two-seat B and D models are typically used to give rides to VIPs, but can also fill in for other aircraft in the squadron in a normal show, if the need arises.

NASA operates several F/A-18 aircraft for research purposes and also as chase aircraft; these F/A-18s are based at the Armstrong Flight Research Center (formerly the Dryden Flight Research Center) in California.[31] On 21 September 2012, two NASA F/A-18s escorted a NASA Boeing 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft carrying the Space Shuttle Endeavour over portions of California to Los Angeles International Airport before being delivered to the California Science Center museum in Los Angeles.[32]

Combat operations

The F/A-18 first saw combat action in April 1986, when VFA-131, VFA-132, VMFA-314, and VMFA-323 Hornets from USS Coral Sea flew Suppression of Enemy Air Defense (SEAD) missions against Libyan air defenses during Operation Prairie Fire and an attack on Benghazi as part of Operation El Dorado Canyon.[33]

During the Gulf War of 1991, the Navy deployed 106 F/A-18A/C Hornets and Marine Corps deployed 84 F/A-18A/C/D Hornets.[34] F/A-18 pilots were credited with two kills during the Gulf War, both MiG-21s.[35] On 17 January, the first day of the war, U.S. Navy pilots Lieutenant Commander Mark I. Fox and his wingman, Lieutenant Nick Mongilio were sent from USS Saratoga in the Red Sea to bomb an airfield in southwestern Iraq. While en route, they were warned by an E-2C of approaching MiG-21 aircraft. The Hornets shot down the two MiGs with AIM-7 and AIM-9 missiles in a brief dogfight. The F/A-18s, each carrying four 2,000 lb (910 kg) bombs, then resumed their bombing run before returning to Saratoga.[18][36]

The Hornet's survivability was demonstrated when a Hornet took hits in both engines and flew 125 mi (201 km) back to base. It was repaired and flying within a few days. F/A-18s flew 4,551 sorties with 10 Hornets damaged including three losses, one confirmed lost to enemy fire.[37] All three losses were U.S. Navy F/A-18s, with two of their pilots lost. On 17 January 1991, Lieutenant Commander Scott Speicher of VFA-81 was shot down and killed in the crash of his aircraft.[38] An unclassified summary of a 2001 CIA report suggests that Speicher's aircraft was shot down by a missile fired from an Iraqi Air Force aircraft,[39][40] most likely a MiG-25.[41]

On 24 January 1991, F/A-18A bureau number 163121, from USS Theodore Roosevelt, piloted by Lt H.E. Overs, was lost due to an engine failure or loss of control over the Persian Gulf. The pilot ejected and was recovered by USS Wisconsin.[42] On 5 February 1991, F/A-18A bureau number 163096, piloted by Lieutenant Robert Dwyer was lost over the North Persian Gulf after a successful mission to Iraq; he was officially listed as killed in action, body not recovered.

As the A-6 Intruder was retired in the 1990s, its role was filled by the F/A-18. The F/A-18 demonstrated its versatility and reliability during Operation Desert Storm, shooting down enemy fighters and subsequently bombing enemy targets with the same aircraft on the same mission. It broke records for tactical aircraft in availability, reliability, and maintainability.

Both U.S. Navy F/A-18A/C models and Marine F/A-18A/C/D models were used continuously in Operation Southern Watch and over Bosnia and Kosovo in the 1990s. U.S. Navy Hornets flew during Operation Enduring Freedom in 2001 from carriers operating in the North Arabian Sea. Both the F/A-18A/C and newer F/A-18E/F variants were used during Operation Iraqi Freedom in 2003, operating from aircraft carriers as well from an air base in Kuwait. Later in the conflict USMC A+, C, and primarily D models operated from bases within Iraq.

An F/A-18C was accidentally downed in a friendly fire incident by a Patriot missile when a pilot tried to evade two missiles fired at his plane and crashed.[43] Two others collided over Iraq in May 2005. In January 2007, two Navy F/A-18E/F Super Hornets collided in midair and crashed in the Persian Gulf.[44]

The USMC plans to use the F/A-18 until the early 2030s.[45][46]

The last operational deployment of the F/A-18C Hornet in U.S. Navy service was aboard the USS Carl Vinson and ended on 12 March 2018.[47] The aircraft briefly went back to sea for routine carrier qualifications in October, but it was retired from active Navy service on 1 February 2019. The type continued to be used by reserve units, primarily for adversary training,[48] but the final Navy F/A-18C operational flight occurred on 2 October 2019. The Blue Angels will continue to fly legacy Hornets until they are replaced by Super Hornets in 2021.[49]

Non-U.S. service

The F/A-18 has been purchased and is in operation with several foreign air services. Export Hornets are typically similar to U.S. models of a similar manufacture date. Since none of the customers operates aircraft carriers, all export models have been sold without the automatic carrier landing system, and the Royal Australian Air Force further removed the catapult attachment on the nose gear.[29] Except for Canada, all export customers purchased their Hornets through the U.S. Navy, via the U.S. Foreign Military Sales program, where the Navy acts as the purchasing manager, but incurs no financial gain or loss. Canada is the largest Hornet operator outside of the U.S.


The Royal Australian Air Force purchased 57 F/A-18A fighters and 18 F/A-18B two-seat trainers to replace its Dassault Mirage IIIOs.[50][51] Numerous options were considered for the replacement, notably the F-15A Eagle, the F-16 Falcon, and the then new F/A-18 Hornet.[52] The F-15 was discounted because the version offered had no ground-attack capability. The F-16 was considered unsuitable largely due to having only one engine.[53] Australia selected the F/A-18 in October 1981.[51] Original differences between the Australian and US Navy's standard F/A-18 were the removed nose-wheel tie bar for catapult launch (later re-fitted with a dummy version to remove nose wheel shimmy), addition of a high frequency radio, an Australian fatigue data analysis system, an improved video and voice recorder, and the use of instrument landing system/VHF omnidirectional range instead of the carrier landing system.[53]

The first two aircraft were produced in the US, with the remainder assembled in Australia at Government Aircraft Factories. F/A-18 deliveries to the RAAF began on 29 October 1984, and continued until May 1990.[54] In 2001, Australia deployed four aircraft to Diego Garcia, in an air-defense role, during coalition operations against the Taliban in Afghanistan. In 2003, 75 Squadron deployed 14 F/A-18s to Qatar as part of Operation Falconer and these aircraft saw action during the invasion of Iraq.[55] Australia had 71 Hornets in service in 2006, after four were lost to crashes.[50]

The fleet was upgraded beginning in the late 1990s to extend their service lives to 2015.[56] They were expected to be retired then and replaced by the F-35 Lightning II.[57][58] Several of the Australian Hornets have had refits applied to extend their service lives until the planned retirement date of 2020.[59] Australia has also purchased 24 F/A-18F Super Hornets, with deliveries beginning in 2010.[60]

In March 2015, six F/A-18As from No. 75 Squadron were deployed to the Middle East as part of Operation Okra, replacing a detachment of Super Hornets.[61]

Australia has sold 25 F/A-18A/Bs to Canada with first two delivered to RCAF in February 2019.[62]


Canada was the first export customer for the Hornet, replacing the CF-104 Starfighter (air reconnaissance and strike), the McDonnell CF-101 Voodoo (air interception) and the CF-116 Freedom Fighter (ground attack). The Canadian Forces Air Command ordered 98 A models (Canadian designation CF-188A/CF-18A) and 40 B models (designation CF-188B/CF-18B). The original CF-18 as delivered was nearly identical to the F/A-18A and B models.[63][64]

In 1991, Canada committed 26 CF-18s to the Gulf War, based in Qatar. These aircraft primarily provided Combat Air Patrol duties, although, late in the air war, began to perform air strikes on Iraqi ground targets. On 30 January 1991, two CF-18s on CAP detected and attacked an Iraqi TNC-45 patrol boat. The vessel was repeatedly strafed and damaged by 20mm cannon fire, but an attempt to sink the ship with an air-to-air missile failed. The ship was subsequently sunk by American aircraft, but the Canadian CF-18s received partial credit for its destruction.[65] In June 1999, 18 CF-18s were deployed to Aviano AB, Italy, where they participated in both the air-to-ground and air-to-air roles in the former Yugoslavia.

62 CF-18A and 18 CF-18B aircraft took part in the Incremental Modernization Project which was completed in two phases. The program was launched in 2001 and the last updated aircraft was delivered in March 2010. The aims were to improve air-to-air and air-to-ground combat abilities, upgrade sensors and the defensive suite, and replace the datalinks and communications systems on board the CF-18 from the F/A-18A and F/A-18B standard to the current F/A-18C and F/A-18D standard.[63][66]

In July 2010 the Canadian government announced plans to replace the remaining CF-18 fleet with 65 F-35 Lightning IIs, with deliveries scheduled to start in 2016.[67] In November 2016, Canada announced plans to buy 18 Super Hornets as an interim solution while reviewing its F-35 order.[68] The plan for Super Hornets was later, in October 2017, put on hold due to a trade conflict with the United States over the Bombardier C-Series. Instead, Canada was seeking to purchase surplus Hornets from Australia or Kuwait.[69][70][71] Canada has since acquired 25 ex-Australian F/A-18A/Bs, the first two of which were delivered in February 2019.[72] 18 of these airframes will be introduced into active service with the remaining 7 to be used for spare parts and testing.[73]


The Finnish Air Force ordered 64 F-18C/Ds (57 C models, seven D models). All F-18D were built at St Louis, and then all F-18C were assembled in Finland. Delivery of the aircraft started in November 1995 and ended in August 2000.[74] The Hornet replaced the MiG-21bis and Saab 35 Draken in Finnish service. The Finnish Hornets were initially to be used only for air defense, hence the F-18 designation. The F-18C includes the ASPJ (Airborne-Self-Protection-Jammer) jamming pod ALQ-165.[75] The US Navy later included the ALQ-165 on their F/A-18E/F Super Hornet procurement.

One fighter was destroyed in a mid-air collision in 2001. A damaged F-18C, nicknamed "Frankenhornet", was rebuilt into a F-18D using the forward section of a Canadian CF-18B that was purchased.[76][77] The modified fighter crashed during a test flight in January 2010,[77][78] due to a faulty tailplane servo cylinder.[79]

Finland is upgrading its fleet of F-18s with new avionics, including helmet mounted sights (HMS), new cockpit displays, sensors and standard NATO data link. Several of the remaining Hornets are going to be fitted to carry air-to-ground ordnance such as the AGM-158 JASSM, in effect returning to the original F/A-18 multi-role configuration. The upgrade includes also the procurement and integration of new AIM-9X Sidewinder and AIM-120C-7 AMRAAM air-to-air missiles. This Mid-Life Upgrade (MLU) is estimated to cost between €1–1.6 billion and work is scheduled to be finished by 2016. After the upgrades the aircraft are to remain in active service until 2020–2025.[80][81] In October 2014 the Finnish broadcaster Yle announced that consideration was being given to the replacement of the Hornet.[82]

Over half of the fleet was upgraded by 1 June 2015. During that week the Finnish Air Force was to drop its first live bombs (JDAM) in 70 years, since World War II.[83]


The Kuwait Air Force (Al Quwwat Aj Jawwaiya Al Kuwaitiya) ordered 32 F/A-18C and eight F/A-18D Hornets in 1988. Delivery started in October 1991 until August 1993.[84][85] The F/A-18C/Ds replaced A-4KU Skyhawk. Kuwait Air Force Hornets have flown missions over Iraq during Operation Southern Watch in the 1990s. They have also participated in military exercises with the air forces of other Gulf nations.[86] Kuwait had 39 F/A-18C/D Hornets in service in 2008.[87] Kuwait also participated in the Yemeni Civil War (2015–present). In February 2017, the Commander of the Kuwait Air Force revealed that the F/A-18s based at King Khalid Air Base had performed approximately 3,000 sorties over Yemen.[88][89]


The Royal Malaysian Air Force (Tentera Udara Diraja Malaysia) has eight F/A-18Ds.[90] Delivery of the aircraft spanned from March 1997 to August 1997.[74]

Three Hornets together with five UK-made BAE Hawk 208 were deployed in a bombing airstrike on the "Royal Security Forces of the Sultanate of Sulu and North Borneo" terrorists on 5 March 2013, just before the joint forces of the Royal Malaysian Army and Royal Malaysia Police commandos launched an all-out assault during Operation Daulat.[91] The Hornets were tasked with close air support to the no-fly zone in Lahad Datu, Sabah.[92]


The Spanish Air Force (Ejército del Aire) ordered 60 EF-18A model and 12 EF-18B model Hornets (the "E" standing for "España", Spain), named respectively as C.15 and CE.15 by Spanish AF.[93] Delivery of the Spanish version started on 22 November 1985 until July 1990.[18][94] These fighters were upgraded to F-18A+/B+ standard, close to F/A-18C/D (plus version includes later mission and armament computers, databuses, data-storage set, new wiring, pylon modifications and software, new abilities as AN/AAS-38B NITE Hawk targeting FLIR pods).

In 1995 Spain obtained 24 ex-USN F/A-18A Hornets, with six more on option. These were delivered from December 1995 until December 1998.[95] Before delivery, they were modified to EF-18A+ standard.[96] This was the first sale of USN surplus Hornets.

Spanish Hornets operate as an all-weather interceptor 60% of the time and as an all-weather day/night attack aircraft for the remainder. In case of war, each of the front-line squadrons would take a primary role: 121 is tasked with tactical air support and maritime operations; 151 and 122 are assigned to all-weather interception and air combat roles; and 152 is assigned the SEAD mission. Air refueling is provided by KC-130Hs and Boeing 707TTs. Pilot conversion to EF-18 is centralized in 153 Squadron (Ala 15). Squadron 462's role is air defense of the Canary Islands, being responsible for fighter and attack missions from Gando AB.

Spanish Air Force EF-18 Hornets have flown Ground Attack, SEAD, combat air patrol (CAP) combat missions in Bosnia and Kosovo, under NATO command, in Aviano detachment (Italy). They shared the base with Canadian and USMC F/A-18s. Six Spanish Hornets had been lost in accidents by 2003.[93]

Over Yugoslavia, eight EF-18s, based at Aviano AB, participated in bombing raids in Operation Allied Force in 1999. Over Bosnia, they also performed missions for air-to-air combat air patrol, close air support air-to-ground, photo reconnaissance, forward air controller-airborne, and tactical air controller-airborne. Over Libya, four Spanish Hornets participated in enforcing a no-fly zone.[97]


The Swiss Air Force purchased 26 C models and eight D models.[93] Aircraft were delivered from January 1996 to December 1999.[98][18] Three D models and one C model[99] had been lost in crashes as of 2016.[100][101] On 14 October 2015, a F/A-18D crashed in France during training with two Swiss Air Force Northrop F-5s in the Swiss/French training area EURAC25; the pilot ejected safely.[102]

In late 2007, Switzerland requested to be included in the F/A-18C/D Upgrade 25 Program, to extend the useful life of its F/A-18C/Ds. The program includes significant upgrades to the avionics and mission computer, 12 ATFLIR surveillance and targeting pods, and 44 sets of AN/ALR-67v3 ECM equipment. In October 2008, the Swiss Hornet fleet reached the 50,000 flight hour milestone.[103]

The Swiss Air Force has also taken delivery of two F/A-18C full-scale mock-ups for use as ground crew interactive training simulators. Locally built by Hugo Wolf AG, they are externally accurate copies and have been registered as Boeing F/A-18C (Hugo Wolf) aircraft with tail numbers X-5098 and X-5099.[104] These include a complex equipment fit, including many original cockpit components and instruments, allowing the simulation of fires, fuel leaks, nosewheel collapse and other emergency scenarios. X-5098 is permanently stationed at Payerne Air Base while X-5099, the first one built, is moved between air bases according to training demands.[105][106]

Potential operators

The F/A-18C and F/A-18D were considered by the French Navy (Marine Nationale) during the 1980s for deployment on their aircraft carriers Clemenceau and Foch[107] and again in the 1990s for the later nuclear-powered Charles de Gaulle,[108] in the event that the Dassault Rafale M was not brought into service when originally planned.

Austria,[109] Chile,[29] Czech Republic,[109] Hungary,[109] Philippines,[109] Poland,[109] and Singapore[29] evaluated the Hornet but did not purchase it. Thailand ordered four C and four D model Hornets but the Asian financial crisis in the late 1990s resulted in the order being canceled. The Hornets were completed as F/A-18Ds for the U.S. Marine Corps.[29]

The F/A-18A and F-18L land-based version competed for a fighter contract from Greece in the 1980s.[110] The Greek government chose F-16 and Mirage 2000 instead.



The F/A-18A is the single-seat variant and the F/A-18B is the two-seat variant. The space for the two-seat cockpit is provided by a relocation of avionics equipment and a 6% reduction in internal fuel; two-seat Hornets are otherwise fully combat-capable. The B-model is used primarily for training.

In 1992, the original Hughes AN/APG-65 radar was replaced with the Hughes (now Raytheon) AN/APG-73, a faster and more capable radar. A-model Hornets that have been upgraded to the AN/APG-73 are designated F/A-18A+.


The F/A-18C is the single-seat variant and the F/A-18D is the two-seat variant. The D-model can be configured for training or as an all-weather strike craft. The "missionized" D model's rear seat is configured for a Marine Corps Naval Flight Officer who functions as a Weapons and Sensors Officer to assist in operating the weapons systems. The F/A-18D is primarily operated by the U.S. Marine Corps in the night attack and Forward Air Controller (Airborne) (FAC(A)) roles.[111]

The F/A-18C and D models are the result of a block upgrade in 1987[18] incorporating upgraded radar, avionics, and the capacity to carry new missiles such as the AIM-120 AMRAAM air-to-air missile and AGM-65 Maverick[8] and AGM-84 Harpoon air-to-surface missiles. Other upgrades include the Martin-Baker NACES (Navy Aircrew Common ejection seat), and a self-protection jammer. A synthetic aperture ground mapping radar enables the pilot to locate targets in poor visibility conditions. C and D models delivered since 1989 also have improved night attack abilities, consisting of the Hughes AN/AAR-50 thermal navigation pod, the Loral AN/AAS-38 NITE Hawk FLIR (forward looking infrared array) targeting pod, night vision goggles, and two full-color (formerly monochrome) multi-function display (MFDs) and a color moving map.[8]

In addition, 60 D-model Hornets are configured as the night attack F/A-18D (RC) with ability for reconnaissance.[111] These could be outfitted with the ATARS electro-optical sensor package that includes a sensor pod and equipment mounted in the place of the M61 cannon.[112]

Beginning in 1992, the F404-GE-402 enhanced performance engine, providing approximately 10% more maximum static thrust became the standard Hornet engine.[113] Since 1993, the AAS-38A NITE Hawk added a designator/ranger laser, allowing it to self-mark targets. The later AAS-38B added the ability to strike targets designated by lasers from other aircraft.[114]

Production of the C- and D- models ended in 2000. The last F/A-18C was assembled in Finland and delivered to the Finnish Air Force in August 2000.[74] The last F/A-18D was delivered to the U.S. Marine Corps in August 2000.[98]

In April 2018, the US Navy announced the retirement of the F/A-18C from combat roles after a final deployment that had ended the month prior.[115]

E/F Super Hornet

The single-seat F/A-18E and two-seat F/A-18F, both officially named Super Hornet, carry over the name and design concept of the original F/A-18 but have been extensively redesigned by McDonnell Douglas. The Super Hornet has a new, 25% larger airframe, larger rectangular air intakes, more powerful GE F414 engines based on F/A-18's F404, and an upgraded avionics suite. Like the Marine Corps' F/A-18D, the Navy's F/A-18F carries a naval flight officer as a second crew member in a weapon systems officer (WSO) role. The Super Hornet is unofficially known as "Rhino" in operational use. This name was chosen to distinguish the newer variants from the legacy F-18A/B/C/D Hornet and avoid confusion during carrier deck operations.[116][117][118] The Super Hornet is also operated by Australia.

G Growler

The EA-18G Growler is an electronic warfare version of the two-seat F/A-18F, which entered production in 2007. The Growler has replaced the Navy's EA-6B Prowler and carries a Naval Flight Officer as a second crewman in an Electronic Warfare Officer (EWO) role.

Other US variants

This was a proposed reconnaissance version of the F/A-18A. It included a sensor package that replaced the 20 mm cannon. The first of two prototypes flew in August 1984. Small numbers were produced.[112]
Proposed two-seat reconnaissance version for the US Marine Corps in the mid-1980s. It was to carry a radar reconnaissance pod. The system was canceled after it was unfunded in 1988. This ability was later realized on the F/A-18D(RC).[112]
Two-seat training version of the F/A-18A fighter, later redesignated F/A-18B.[4]
Single-seat High Alpha Research Vehicle for NASA.[119] High angles of attack using thrust vectoring, modifications to the flight controls, and forebody strakes
X-53 Active Aeroelastic Wing
A NASA F/A-18 has been modified to demonstrate the Active Aeroelastic Wing technology, and was designated X-53 in December 2006.

Export variants

These designations are not part of 1962 United States Tri-Service aircraft designation system.

A proposed land-based export version of the single-seat F-18A with air-superiority and attack capabilities. This variant was to be lightened by the removal of carrier landing capability and assembled by Northrop. Customers preferred the standard Hornet and the F-18L never entered mass production.[29]
  • (A)F/A-18A: Single-seat fighter/attack version for the Royal Australian Air Force.
  • (A)F/A-18B: Two-seat training version for the Royal Australian Air Force.
"F/A-18A" was the original company designation, designations of "AF-18A" & "ATF-18A" have also been applied. Assembled in Australia (excluding the first two (A)F/A-18Bs) by Aero-Space Technologies of Australia (ASTA) from 1985 through to 1990, from kits produced by McDonnell Douglas with increasing local content in the later aircraft. Originally the most notable differences between an Australian (A)F/A-18A/B and a US F/A-18A/B were the lack of a catapult attachment, replacing the carrier tailhook with a lighter land arresting hook, and the automatic carrier landing system with an Instrument Landing System. Australian Hornets have been involved in several major upgrade programs. This program called HUG (Hornet Upgrade) has had a few evolutions over the years. The first was to give Australian Hornets F/A-18C model avionics. The second and current upgrade program (HUG 2.2) updates the fleet's avionics even further.
CF-18 Hornet
  • CF-18A: Single-seat fighter/attack version for the Royal Canadian Air Force. The official Canadian designation is CF-188A Hornet.
  • CF-18B: Two-seat training and combat version for the Royal Canadian Air Force. The official Canadian designation is CF-188B Hornet.
EF-18 Hornet
  • EF-18A: Single-seat fighter/attack version for the Spanish Air Force. The Spanish Air Force designation is C.15. They were first upgraded to the EF-18A+ version in 1992 and from 2003 to 2004 to 2013 they were locally upgraded by EADS CASA and Indra Sistemas with better avionics, TPAC, data presentation, navigation, software and ECM suit. The AN/APG-65 radar was upgraded to the V3 version and the aircraft also received the AL-400 Radar Warning Receiver and the ASQ-600 emission detector and were certified to operate with Iris-T, Meteor, GBU-48 and Taurus . This version is locally known as EF-18M/C.15M.
  • EF-18B: Two-seat training version for the Spanish Air Force. The Spanish Air Force designation is CE.15. They were first upgraded to the EF-18B+ version in 1992.
KAF-18 Hornet
  • KAF-18C: Single-seat fighter/attack version for the Kuwait Air Force[84]
  • KAF-18D: Two-seat training version for the Kuwait Air Force[84]
F-18C/D Hornet
  • The Finnish Air Force uses F/A-18C/D Hornets, with a Finland-specific mid-life update. The first seven Hornets (D models) were produced by McDonnell Douglas.[75] The 57 single-seat F-18C model units were assembled by Patria in Finland.[120] These variants were delivered without air-to-ground capability so the letter A was dropped from the name. They were later upgraded to carry air-to-ground weaponry.
F-18C/D Hornet
  • Switzerland uses F-18C/D,[121] later Swiss specific mid-life update. The Swiss F-18s had no ground attack capability originally, until hardware was retrofitted.


  • Kuwait Air Force - 31 F/A-18Cs and 8 F/A-18Ds in service as of November 2008[122]
    • 9th Fighter and Attack Squadron[125]
    • 25th Fighter and Attack Squadron[125]
  • Spanish Air Force - 85 F/A-18A/B in service.
    • Ala de Caza 15 (15th Fighter Wing) Zaragoza AB, (151, 152 and 153 Squadrons)
    • Ala de Caza 12, Torrejón AB (121 and 122 Squadrons)
    • Ala 46, Gando AB (Canary islands), with Squadron 462 operating 20 ex-US Navy F/A-18s.[127]
 United States
  • United States Navy - 314 F/A-18A/B/C/D Hornets in operation as of 2015[132]
    • VFC-12 1990–present (Naval Air Reserve Force)
    • VFA-15 1986–2017 (disestablished)
    • VFA-22 1990–2004 (initially converted to F/A-18E Super Hornet, 2004–2007; subsequently converted to F/A-18F Super Hornet, 2007–present)
    • VFA-25 1984–2013 (converted to F/A-18E Super Hornet)
    • VFA-27 1991–2004 (converted to F/A-18E Super Hornet)
    • VFA-34 1996–2019 (to convert to F/A-18E Super Hornet)[133]
    • VFA-37 1990–2018 (converted to F/A-18E Super Hornet)
    • VFA-81 1988–2008 (converted to F/A-18E Super Hornet)
    • VFA-82 1987–2005 (disestablished)
    • VFA-83 1988–2018 (converted to F/A-18E Super Hornet)
    • VFA-86 1987–2012 (converted to F/A-18E Super Hornet)
    • VFA-87 1986–2015 (converted to F/A-18E Super Hornet)
    • VFA-94 1990–2016 (converted to F/A-18F Super Hornet)
    • VFA-97 1991–2015 (converted to F/A-18E Super Hornet)
    • VFA-105 1990–2006 (converted to F/A-18E Super Hornet)
    • VFA-106 1984–2018 (fleet replacement squadron for USN and USMC; operates F/A-18A/A+/B/C/D/E/F)
    • VFA-113 1984–2016 (converted to F/A-18E Super Hornet)
    • VFA-115 1996–2001 (converted to F/A-18E Super Hornet)
    • VFA-122 2010-2013 (fleet replacement squadron for F/A-18E/F; legacy F/A-18A/A+/B/C/D Hornets phased out in 2013)
    • VFA-125 1980–2010 (disestablished, former fleet replacement squadron for USN and USMC; aircraft transferred to VFA-122 and legacy F/A-18A/A+/B/C/D Hornets phased out in 2013)
    • VFA-127 1989–1996 (disestablished)
    • VFA-131 1984–2018 (converted to F/A-18E Super Hornet)
    • VFA-132 1984–1992 (disestablished)
    • VFA-136 1985–2008 (converted to F/A-18E Super Hornet)
    • VFA-137 1985–2003 (converted to F/A-18E Super Hornet)
    • VFA-146 1989–2015 (converted to F/A-18E Super Hornet)
    • VFA-147 1989–2007 (converted to F/A-18E Super Hornet)
    • VFA-151 1986–2013 (converted to F/A-18E Super Hornet)
    • VFA-161 1986–1988 (disestablished)
    • VFA-192 1986–2014 (converted to F/A-18E Super Hornet)
    • VFA-195 1985–2011 (converted to the F/A-18E Super Hornet)
    • VFA-201 1999–2007 (Naval Air Reserve Force; disestablished)
    • VFA-203 1990–2004 (Naval Air Reserve Force; disestablished)
    • VFA-204 1990–present (Naval Air Reserve Force)
    • VFA-303 1990–1994 (Naval Air Reserve Force; disestablished)
    • VFA-305 1990–1994 (Naval Air Reserve Force; disestablished)
    • VX-4 1982-1994 (merged with VX-5 in 1994 to form VX-9)
    • VX-5 1983-1994 (merged with VX-4 in 1994 to form VX-9)
    • VX-9 1994–present
    • VX-23
    • VX-31
    • Naval Strike and Air Warfare Center / Naval Aviation Warfighting Development Center

Aircraft on display


Notable accidents

Specifications (F/A-18C/D)

Data from U.S. Navy fact file,[169] Frawley Directory,[170] Great Book[171]

General characteristics

  • Crew: 1 (C)/2 (D - pilot and weapon systems officer)
  • Length: 56 ft 1 in (17.1 m)
  • Wingspan: 40 ft 4 in (12.3 m) with AIM-9 Sidewinders on wingtip LAU-7 launchers
  • Width: 32 ft 7 in (9.94 m) wing folded
  • Height: 15 ft 5 in (4.7 m)
  • Wing area: 410 sq ft (38 m2)
  • Aspect ratio: 4
  • Airfoil: root:NACA 65A005 mod.; tip:NACA 65A003.5 mod.
  • Empty weight: 23,000 lb (10,433 kg)
  • Gross weight: 36,970 lb (16,769 kg)
  • Max takeoff weight: 51,900 lb (23,541 kg)
  • Fuel capacity: 10,860 pounds (4,930 kg) internally
  • Powerplant: 2 × General Electric F404-GE-402 afterburning turbofan engines, 11,000 lbf (49 kN) thrust each dry, 17,750 lbf (79.0 kN) with afterburner


  • Maximum speed: 1,034 kn (1,190 mph, 1,915 km/h) at 40,000 ft (12,000 m)
  • Maximum speed: Mach 1.8
  • Cruise speed: 570 kn (660 mph, 1,060 km/h)
  • Range: 1,089 nmi (1,253 mi, 2,017 km)
  • Ferry range: 1,800 nmi (2,100 mi, 3,300 km)
  • Service ceiling: 50,000 ft (15,000 m)
  • Rate of climb: 50,000 ft/min (250 m/s)
  • Wing loading: 93 lb/sq ft (450 kg/m2)
  • Thrust/weight: 0.96 (1.13 with loaded weight at 50% internal fuel)



  • Hughes APG-73 radar
  • ROVER (Remotely Operated Video Enhanced Receiver) antenna for use by U.S. Navy's F/A-18C strike fighter squadrons

Notable appearances in media

Hornets make frequent appearances in action movies and military novels. The Hornet was featured in the film Independence Day and in 1998's Godzilla. The Hornet has a major role in Jane's US Navy Fighters (1994), Jane's Fighters Anthology (1997) and Jane's F/A-18 Simulator computer simulators.

See also

Related development

Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era

Related lists


  1. Jenkins 2000, pp. 186–87.
  2. "F/A-18 Hornet strike fighter" Archived 11 January 2014 at the Wayback Machine. U.S. Navy. Retrieved: 12 December 2008.
  3. Kelly, Orr. Hornet: the Inside Story of the F/A-18. Novato, California: Presidio Press, 1990. ISBN 978-0-89141-344-8.
  4. Jenkins 2000, pp. 19–21.
  5. "F/A-18 Hornet and F/A-18 Super Hornet." Archived 17 December 2014 at the Wayback Machine U.S. Navy. Retrieved: 4 July 2008.
  6. Donald, David ed. "Boeing F/A-18 Hornet". Warplanes of the Fleet. London: AIRtime, 2004. ISBN 978-1-880588-81-9.
  7. Jenkins 2000, pp. 22–26.
  8. "F/A-18 Hornet." Archived 8 November 2015 at the Wayback Machine Federation of American Scientists. Retrieved: 4 July 2008.
  9. Jenkins 2000, pp. 26–29.
  10. Northrop F/A-18L design brochure 1978.
  11. DAY, KATHLEEN (9 April 1985). "McDonnell Settles Suit by Northrop for $50 Million". Archived from the original on 11 October 2017. Retrieved 10 April 2018.
  12. "McDonnell, Northrop Suit The McDonnell Douglas Corporation and the Northrop Corporation yesterday announced". The New York Times. 9 April 1985. Archived from the original on 10 August 2017. Retrieved 4 September 2017.
  13. "McDonnell Douglas, Northrop Settle Jet Feud". 9 April 1985. Archived from the original on 18 October 2017. Retrieved 10 April 2018.
  14. Orr Kelly (2014). Hornet: The Inside Story of the F/A-18. Open Road Media. p. 113. ISBN 978-1-4976-4567-7.
  15. "F/A-18 E/F Super Hornet". Northrop Grumman. Archived from the original on 31 March 2018. Retrieved 10 April 2018.
  16. "Northrop F-5G/F-20A Tigershark". Archived from the original on 13 November 2017. Retrieved 10 April 2018.
  17. Jenkins 2000, p. 35.
  18. "F/A-18 Hornet Milestones." Boeing. Retrieved: 17 March 2007. Archived 21 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  19. Donald 2004, p. 45.
  20. Munoz, Carlo. "Navy, Marines Eye JSF Dough to Keep F-18s Flying." Archived 7 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine AOL Defense, 29 September 2011.
  21. Jenkins 2000, pp. 131, 139.
  22. "F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) fact sheet." Archived 21 April 2008 at the Wayback Machine NASA/Dryden Flight Research Center. Retrieved: 1 November 2009.
  23. Jenkins 2000, pp. 24, 144.
  24. Spick 2000, p. 278.
  25. Jenkins 2000, pp. 24, 147.
  26. Richardella, Ronald G. "The Role Of Hornet-D In The Marine Air Ground Task Force Air Combat Element." Archived 3 December 2011 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved: 7 April 2011.
  27. Jenkins 2000, p. 29.
  28. "USS Constellation (CV 64) WestPac Cruise Book 1985 - Carrier Air Wing 14". Archived from the original on 18 October 2016. Retrieved 9 August 2016.
  29. Jenkins 2000.
  30. Blue Angels Historical aircraft Archived 22 January 2016 at the Wayback Machine. Blue Angels web page.
  31. "F/A-18 Mission Support Aircraft | NASA". Archived from the original on 30 September 2015. Retrieved 24 January 2016.
  32. Jenkins 2000, pp. 42–44.
  33. Jenkins 2000, p. 71.
  34. Miller, David. The Illustrated Directory of Modern Weapons. St. Paul, Minnesota: MBI Publishing Company, 2002. ISBN 978-0-7603-1346-6.
  35. Jenkins 2000, pp. 74–75.
  36. Jenkins 2000, p. 72.
  37. "Officials Identify Gulf War Pilot's Remains." Archived 5 August 2009 at the Wayback Machine US Navy, 2 August 2009. Retrieved: 1 November 2009.
  38. "Intelligence Community Assessment of the Lieutenant Commander Speicher Case". 27 March 2001. FOIA Electronic Reading Room. CIA. 10 September 2006. page 1, page 2, page 3
  39. Atkinson, Rick (1994). Crusade: The Untold Story of the Persian Gulf War. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, p. 47. ISBN 0-395-71083-9
  40. Weiner, Tim. "With Iraq's O.K., a U.S. Team Seeks War Pilot's Body." The New York Times, 14 December 1995: A1.
  41. The Air Forces Book of the F/A-18 Hornet, p. 85.
  42. "Nathan Dennis White, Lieutenant, United States Navy." Archived 12 June 2010 at the Wayback Machine Arlington National Cemetery. Retrieved: 19 September 2010.
  43. "2 Navy Fighter Jets Crash In Persian Gulf." Archived 22 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine CBS. 7 January 2008. Retrieved: 1 November 2009.
  44. Pike, John. "F/A-18 Service Life". Archived from the original on 2 July 2017. Retrieved 16 July 2017.
  45. "Marines Would Save $1B If F-35 Entered Service Faster; F-18 Hornets Struggling To Stay Mission-Ready". 28 March 2017. Archived from the original on 9 April 2018. Retrieved 10 April 2018.
  46. Navy Retires F/A-18C Hornet from Combat as F-35C Enters Service Archived 20 April 2018 at the Wayback Machine. 20 April 2018.
  47. End of the Line for the Fleet’s Legacy Hornets Archived 3 February 2019 at the Wayback Machine. Aviation International News. 31 January 2019.
  48. "US Navy F/A-18C Hornet makes final flight". Flight International. 4 October 2019.
  49. Crick, Darren. "ADF Aircraft Serial Numbers RAAF A21 McDonnell Douglas F/A-18A/B Hornet." Archived 18 October 2006 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved: 31 December 2006.
  50. Jenkins 2000, p. 86.
  51. Wilson 1993, pp. 80–81.
  52. Tewes, Alex. "Australia's F/A-18 Hornet Aircraft: Implications of Use in Iraq." Parliament of Australia Parliamentary Library, 18 March 2003. Retrieved: 1 November 2009. Archived 5 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  53. Jenkins 2000, pp. 86, 89.
  54. Holmes 2006, p. 38.
  55. Jenkins 2000, p. 91.
  56. Nelson, Brendan. "Joint Strike Fighter." Archived 16 September 2009 at the Wayback Machine Defence Ministers & Parliamentary secretary Media Release, 1 February 2007. Retrieved: 4 July 2008.
  57. Nelson, Brendan. "$6 billion to maintain Australia's regional air superiority." Archived 1 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine Defence Ministers & Parliamentary secretary Media Release, 3 June 2007. Retrieved: 4 April 2008.
  58. "Australia upgrades older F/A-18 Hornets." Archived 7 July 2010 at the Wayback Machine UPI, 2 July 2010.
  59. "Super Hornets arrive in south-east Queensland." Archived 13 November 2012 at the Wayback Machine ABC News, 26 March 2010. Retrieved: 15 July 2011.
  60. "Air Task Group Deploys". Air Force. 12 March 2015. p. 8. Archived from the original on 12 March 2015. Retrieved 10 March 2015.
  61. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 19 February 2019. Retrieved 19 February 2019.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  62. "Auditing the Upgrades to the CF-18 Fighter Aircraft (Part 1)." Archived 3 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine, December 2004. Retrieved: 8 June 2010.
  63. Ng, Allan. "The CF18 Incremental Modernization Program – In Detail 'Not Your Father’s Hornet — the CF18 Incremental Modernization Program'." Archived 3 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine, December 2003. Retrieved: 8 June 2010.
  64. "Canadian Air Force Attacks Boat, First Combat". Archived from the original on 24 May 2014. Retrieved 23 May 2014.
  65. Ng, Allen. "The CF18 Incremental Modernization Program – In Detail 'Not Your Father’s Hornet – the CF18 Incremental Modernization Program'." Archived 3 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine, December 2003. Retrieved: 8 June 2010.
  66. "Government Of Canada Strengthens Sovereignty While Generating Significant Economic Benefits." Canada Department of National Defence, 16 July 2010, Retrieved: 26 July 2010. Archived 15 May 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  67. "Canada says it will buy 18 Super Hornet fighter jets — but the cost of aircraft is unknown". 22 November 2016. Archived from the original on 26 April 2017. Retrieved 26 April 2017.
  68. Canada moves toward buying Australian fighter jets, upping ante in trade dispute with Boeing Archived 13 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine News Corp Australia Network, October 12, 20173:42am
  69. David Pugliese. "Defence Minister: Canada looked at Kuwaiti F-18s but Australian aircraft the ones being considered" Archived 19 February 2019 at the Wayback Machine. Ottawa Citizen, 28 September 2017.
  70. Ally Schmid. "Canada Puts Boeing Defense Order on Hold" Archived 18 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine. Market Realist, 4 October 2017
  72. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 30 March 2019. Retrieved 19 February 2019.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  73. Senior, p. 33.
  74. Jenkins 2000, pp. 100–101.
  75. "Patria unveils twin-seat F-18 built out of single-seat F-18 Hornet." Patria, 21 September 2009. Retrieved: 24 September 2009.
  76. "PICTURES: Second accident spells end for Finland's 'Frankenhornet'" Archived 8 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine. "Flightglobal", 22 January 2010.
  77. "Fighter jet crashes in forest." Archived 24 January 2010 at the Wayback Machine, 21 January 2010. Retrieved: 5 April 2010.
  78. "Hornet-onnettomuuden taustalla vikaantunut ohjausjärjestelmän servosylinteri (Finnish)." Archived 10 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine, 21 January 2010.
  79. Raivio, Jyri. "Hornetien uudistuksesta jättikulut" (Finnish). Archived 15 October 2008 at the Wayback Machine, 2 October 2008. Retrieved: 5 April 2010.
  80. Vuoristo, Pekka. "Helsingin Sanomat" (Finnish). Archived 10 October 2008 at the Wayback Machine, 2 October 2008. Retrieved: 5 April 2010.
  81. "Finnish Defence Forces to replace aging Hornet fighter fleet". Yle Uutiset. Archived from the original on 19 October 2014.
  82. Huhtanen, Jarmo (31 May 2015). "Ilmavoimat pudottaa ensimmäiset pomminsa 70 vuoteen – kalleimpia aseita säästetään "pahan päivän varalle"". Helsingin Sanomat. Archived from the original on 31 May 2015. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
  83. Jenkins 2000, pp. 93–94.
  84. Senior, p. 31.
  85. Jenkins 2000, p. 96.
  86. "Kuwait Air Force: Order of Battle." Archived 3 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved: 5 April 2010.
  87. Chief, Habib Toumi, Bureau (26 February 2017). "Kuwait fighter jets conducted 3,000 sorties in Yemen". Archived from the original on 2 March 2017. Retrieved 2 March 2017.
  88. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 3 March 2017. Retrieved 2 March 2017.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  89. "Boeing Delivers Malaysian Hornets on Schedule." Archived 3 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine Boeing, 9 September 1997. Retrieved: 4 July 2008.
  90. "Malaysia soldiers attack armed Filipino clan in Borneo". BBC News. 5 March 2013. Archived from the original on 5 March 2013. Retrieved 5 March 2013.
  91. "OPS Daulat: F/A-18D Hornet close air support and interdiction". Malaysia Military Power. 22 March 2013. Archived from the original on 16 October 2015. Retrieved 2 September 2015.
  92. Senior.
  93. Senior, p. 25.
  94. Senior, p. 27.
  95. Jenkins 2000, p. 93.
  96. "España envía a Italia cuatro aviones F-18 para participar en la operación contra Gadafi" (in Spanish)." Archived 21 March 2011 at the Wayback Machine France Presse (News Agency) via El Mundo, 18 March 2011.
  97. Senior, p. 37.
  98. "Boeing F/A-18 Hornet" Archived 1 January 2009 at the Wayback Machine, 2015.
  99. Archived 29 August 2016 at the Wayback Machine.
  100. "20 Minuten - "Ich hörte einen ohrenbetäubenden Knall" - News". 14 October 2015. Archived from the original on 17 October 2015. Retrieved 24 January 2016.
  101. "Swiss Hornets reach 50,000 flight hours milestone" Archived 19 October 2008 at the Wayback Machine., 2008.
  102. "Schweizer Luftwaffe: Militärische Kennungen: Registrationen" (Swiss Air Force: Military Identifications: Registrations), Swiss Air Force, 16 October 2017. (retrieved 8 November 2017)
  103. "F/A 18C Mock-Up brochure" Archived 11 November 2017 at the Wayback Machine. Hugo Wolf AG. (retrieved 6 February 2016)
  104. Hans Rudolf Schneider. "Die Hornisse, die nie fliegen wird" Archived 9 November 2017 at the Wayback Machine (The Hornet that won't fly). Berner Zeitung, 20 August 2016 (retrieved 25 August 2017).
  105. Tillman Barrett. MiG Master: Story of the F-8 Crusader (second edition). Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1990. ISBN 978-0-87021-585-8.
  106. Donald 2001, p. 122.
  107. Anderson, Barbara. "Philippine Pilots Complete F/A-18 Hornet Flight Evaluation." McDonnell Douglas, 11 December 1996. Archived 30 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  108. "Greek fighter marathon nears end." Archived 26 September 2009 at the Wayback Machine Flight International, 31 July 1982.
  109. Jenkins 2000, pp. 64–66.
  110. Jenkins 2000, pp. 66–70.
  111. Donald, David. "Boeing F/A-18 Hornet". Warplanes of the Fleet. AIRtime Publishing Inc, 2004. ISBN 978-1-880588-81-9.
  112. Jenkins 2000, pp. 61–62, 156.
  113. "Navy retires F/A-18C Hornet from combat as F-35C nears operational status". Archived from the original on 21 April 2018. Retrieved 20 April 2018.
  114. " - Ask Us - F-18E/F Rhino". Archived from the original on 11 October 2017. Retrieved 10 April 2018.
  115. "F/A-18 Super Hornet/Rhino". Archived from the original on 7 April 2018. Retrieved 10 April 2018.
  116. "F/A-18E/F Rhino Breaks Speed of Sound". Archived from the original on 24 December 2017. Retrieved 10 April 2018.
  117. Jenkins 2000, pp. 49–52.
  118. Karivalo, Perttu. Tomcat vs. Hornet: An Air Forces Monthly Special, p. 68. Key Publishing Ltd, 2003.
  119. Nicholls, Mark. Tomcat vs. Hornet: An Air Forces Monthly Special, p. 78. Key Publishing Ltd, 2003.
  120. "Directory: World Air Forces." Archived 11 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine Flight International, 11–17 November 2008.
  121. "Hornet-kalusto saavuttaa suorituskykynsä huipun". The Finnish Air Force. 10 April 2015. Archived from the original on 4 September 2015. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
  122. Annual Report 2014 (PDF) (Report). The Finnish Defence Forces. 20 March 2015. pp. 18–21. Archived (PDF) from the original on 14 May 2015. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
  123. "Kuwait Air Force Overview. Aircraft Order of Battle." Archived 17 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine Scramble Magazine. Retrieved: 31 December 2008.
  124. "Malaysian Air Force Overview. Aircraft Order of Battle." Archived 12 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine Scramble Magazine. Retrieved: 28 September 2010.
  125. Yañez and Rodriguez 2008, p. 23.
  126. "Swiss crashed military plane in France". Neue Zürcher Zeitung (in German). 14 October 2015. Archived from the original on 2 February 2016. Retrieved 13 February 2016.
  127. "20 Minuten - Die schlimmsten Abstürze der Schweizer Luftwaffe - News". 14 October 2015. Archived from the original on 16 October 2015. Retrieved 24 January 2016.
  128. "Schweizer Luftwaffe. Aircraft Order of Battle." Archived 2 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine Scramble Magazine. Retrieved: 31 December 2008.
  129. "Fighter jet crashes in Switzerland, 2 crew missing — RT News". 23 October 2013. Archived from the original on 19 November 2013. Retrieved 16 November 2013.
  130. Archived 22 December 2015 at the Wayback Machine
  131. "VFA 34 'Blueblasters' return to NAS Oceana after historic deployment". 10 April 2018. Archived from the original on 14 April 2018. Retrieved 28 April 2018.
  132. "NASA F-18 Mission Support Aircraft." Archived 12 January 2010 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved: 5 April 2010.
  133. "F/A-18 Hornet/160775." Archived 13 July 2015 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved: 1 July 2015.
  134. "HORNET 1". China Lake Museum Foundation. Retrieved 17 November 2019.
  135. "F/A-18 Hornet/160780." Archived 18 March 2017 at the Wayback Machine Virginia Air and Space Center. Retrieved: 1 July 2015.
  136. "F/A-18 Hornet/161353." Archived 25 June 2015 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved: 1 July 2015.
  137. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 16 May 2018. Retrieved 15 May 2018.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  138. "F/A-18 Hornet/161367." Archived 26 June 2015 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved: 25 April 2015.
  139. "F/A-18 Hornet/161712." Archived 4 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved: 25 April 2016.
  140. "F/A-18 Hornet/161726." Archived 4 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved: 25 April 2016.
  141. "F/A-18 Hornet/161749." Archived 11 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine Flying Leatherneck Aviation Museum. Retrieved: 1 July 2015.
  142. "F/A-18 Hornet/161941." Archived 23 June 2015 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved: 25 April 2016.
  143. "F/A-18 Hornet/161942." Archived 16 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine USS Lexington Museum. Retrieved: 21 March 2013.
  144. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 24 May 2016. Retrieved 15 May 2018.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  145. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 16 May 2018. Retrieved 15 May 2018.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  146. "F/A-18 Hornet/161982." Archived 4 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved: 25 April 2016.
  147. "F/A-18 Hornet/161983." Archived 15 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine Navy-Marine Corps Memorial Stadium. Retrieved: 25 April 2016.
  148. "F/A-18 Hornet/162430." Archived 1 December 2015 at the Wayback Machine Palm Springs Air Museum. Retrieved: 10 December 2015.
  149. "Tour & Explore Aircraft - Patriots Point". Archived from the original on 30 March 2019. Retrieved 10 April 2019.
  150. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 16 May 2018. Retrieved 15 May 2018.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  151. "F/A-18 Hornet/162454." Archived 13 July 2015 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved: 1 July 2015.
  152. "F/A-18 Hornet/162826." Archived 3 May 2015 at the Wayback Machine Fort Worth Aviation Museum. Retrieved: 1 April 2014.
  153. "F/A-18 Hornet/162901." Archived 25 March 2013 at the Wayback Machine San Diego Aircraft Carrier Museum. Retrieved: 21 March 2013.
  154. "F/A-18 Hornet/163119." Archived 13 July 2015 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved: 1 July 2015.
  155. "F/A-18 Hornet/163157." Archived 17 August 2017 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved: 1 July 2015.
  156. " Archived 5 August 2016 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved: 6 June 2016.
  157. "F/A-18 Hornet/161746." Archived 30 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine Saint Louis Science Center. Retrieved: 25 April 2016.
  158. "Yanks Search Results". Archived from the original on 18 October 2016. Retrieved 21 September 2016.
  159. "F/A-18 Hornet/163106." Archived 24 August 2016 at the Wayback Machine "Museum of Flight, Seattle WA" Retrieved: 23 August 2016.
  160. "F/A-18 Hornet/163437." Archived 23 July 2015 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved: 25 April 2016.
  161. "F/A-18 Hornet/163486." Archived 13 July 2015 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved: 1 July 2015.
  162. Liewer, Steve, Sharon A. Heilbrunn and Angelica Martinez. "Rubble, despair all that remain: Man returns to site where jet crash killed his family." Archived 11 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine San Diego Union-Tribune, 10 December 2008. Retrieved: 11 December 2008.
  163. "Four dead in San Diego jet crash." Archived 7 January 2009 at the Wayback Machine BBC, 10 December 2008. Retrieved: 10 December 2008.
  164. Breaking: Jet crashes in Virginia Beach." WTR, 6 April 2012. Retrieved: 6 April 2012. Archived 8 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  165. Martinez, Michael and Barbara Starr. "Navy jet has 'catastrophic mechanical malfunction,' hits apartments in Virginia." Archived 6 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine CNN, 6 April 2012. Retrieved: 6 April 2012.
  166. Forer, Ben. "F/A-18 Crashes Into Apartment Building in Virginia Beach." Archived 9 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine ABC news, 6 April 2012. Retrieved: 9 April 2012.
  167. "F/A-18 Hornet strike fighter fact file." Archived 11 January 2014 at the Wayback Machine US Navy, 26 May 2009.
  168. Frawley, Gerald. "Boeing F/A-18 Hornet". The International Directory of Military Aircraft, 2002/2003. Fyshwick ACT: Aerospace Publications Pty Ltd., 2002. ISBN 978-1-875671-55-7.
  169. Spick, Mike, ed. "F/A-18 Hornet". Great Book of Modern Warplanes, pp. 250-311. St. Paul, Minnesota: MBI Publishing, 2000. ISBN 978-0-7603-0893-6.
  170. "Designations of U.S. Nuclear Weapons." Archived 4 April 2007 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved: 8 April 2011.


  • Donald, David. Carrier Aviation Air Power Directory. London: AIRtime Publishing Inc, 2001. ISBN 978-1-880588-43-7.
  • Drendel, Lou. F/A-18 Hornet in action (Aircraft Number 136). Carrollton, Texas: Squadron/Signal Publications, 1993. ISBN 978-0-89747-300-2.
  • Elward, Brad. Boeing F/A-18 Hornet (WarbirdTech, Vol. 31). Specialty Press, 2001. ISBN 978-1-58007-041-6.
  • Gunston, Bill. F/A-18 Hornet (Modern Combat Aircraft 22). St. Paul, Minnesota: Motorbooks International, 1985. ISBN 978-0-7110-1485-5.
  • Holmes, Tony. "RAAF Hornets at War". Australian Aviation. Canberra: Phantom Media, January/February 2006/No. 224. ISSN 0813-0876.
  • Jenkins, Dennis R. F/A-18 Hornet: A Navy Success Story. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2000. ISBN 978-0-07-134696-2.
  • Miller, Jay. McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet (Aerofax Minigraph 25). Arlington, Texas: Aerofax Inc., 1988. ISBN 978-0-942548-39-6.
  • Peacock, Lindsay. F/A-18 Hornet (Osprey Combat Aircraft Series). London: Osprey Publishing, 1986. ISBN 978-0-85045-707-0.
  • Senior, Tim. "F/A-18 Hornet, The AirForces Monthly book". AirForces Monthly, 2003. ISBN 978-0-946219-69-8.
  • Spick, Mike. McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet (Classic Warplanes). London: Salamander Books, 1991. ISBN 978-0-8317-1412-3.
  • Spick, Mike, ed. "F/A-18 Hornet". The Great Book of Modern Warplanes. St. Paul, Minnesota: MBI, 2000. ISBN 978-0-7603-0893-6.
  • Vann, Frank. McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet (How They Work: Jet Fighter). New York: Exeter Books, 1988. ISBN 978-0-7917-0226-0.
  • Wilson, Stewart. Phantom, Hornet and Skyhawk in Australian Service. Weston Creek, ACT, Australia: Aerospace Publications, 1993. ISBN 9781875671038.
  • Yañez, Roberto and Alex Rodriguez. "Spanish Hornets: Providing a Potent Sting". Air International, Volume 75, Number 2, August 2008, pp. 22–25.
This article is issued from Wikipedia. The text is licensed under Creative Commons - Attribution - Sharealike. Additional terms may apply for the media files.