A master's degree[note 1] (from Latin magister) is an academic degree awarded by universities or colleges upon completion of a course of study demonstrating mastery or a high-order overview of a specific field of study or area of professional practice. A master's degree normally requires previous study at the bachelor's level, either as a separate degree or as part of an integrated course. Within the area studied, master's graduates are expected to possess advanced knowledge of a specialized body of theoretical and applied topics; high order skills in analysis, critical evaluation, or professional application; and the ability to solve complex problems and think rigorously and independently.
Medieval era to 18th century
The master's degree dates back to the origin of European universities, with a Papal bull of 1233 decreeing that anyone admitted to the mastership in the University of Toulouse should be allowed to teach freely in any other university. The original meaning of the master's degree was thus that someone who had been admitted to the rank (degree) of master (i.e. teacher) in one university should be admitted to the same rank in other universities. This gradually became formalised as the licentia docendi (licence to teach). Originally, masters and doctors were not distinguished, but by the 15th century it had become customary in the English universities to refer to the teachers in the lower faculties (arts and grammar) as masters and those in the higher faculties as doctors. Initially, the Bachelor of Arts (BA) was awarded for the study of the trivium and the Master of Arts (MA) for the study of the quadrivium.
From the late Middle Ages until the nineteenth century, the pattern of degrees was therefore to have a bachelor's and master's degree in the lower faculties and to have bachelor's and doctorates in the higher faculties. In the United States, the first master's degrees (Magister Artium, or Master of Arts) were awarded at Harvard University soon after its foundation. In Scotland, the pre-Reformation universities (St Andrews, Glasgow and Aberdeen) developed so that the Scottish MA became their first degree, while in Oxford, Cambridge and Trinity College, Dublin, the MA was awarded to BA graduates of a certain standing without further examination from the late seventeenth century, its main purpose being to confer full membership of the university. At Harvard the 1700 regulations required that candidates for the master's degree had to pass a public examination, but by 1835 this was awarded Oxbridge-style three years after the BA.
The nineteenth century saw a great expansion in the variety of master's degrees offered. At the start of the century, the only master's degree was the MA, and this was normally awarded without any further study or examination. The Master in Surgery degree was introduced by the University of Glasgow in 1815. By 1861 this had been adopted throughout Scotland as well as by Cambridge and Durham in England and the University of Dublin in Ireland. When the Philadelphia College of Surgeons was established in 1870, it too conferred the Master of Surgery, "the same as that in Europe".
In Scotland, Edinburgh maintained separate BA and MA degrees until the mid nineteenth century, although there were major doubts as to the quality of the Scottish degrees of this period. In 1832 Lord Brougham, the Lord Chancellor and an alumnus of the University of Edinburgh, told the House of Lords that "In England the Universities conferred degrees after a considerable period of residence, after much labour performed, and if they were not in all respects so rigorous as the statutes of the Universities required, nevertheless it could not be said, that Masters of Arts were created at Oxford and Cambridge as they were in Scotland, without any residence, or without some kind of examination. In Scotland all the statutes of the Universities which enforced conditions on the grant of degrees were a dead letter."
It was not until 1837 that separate examinations were reintroduced for the MA in England, at the newly established Durham University (even though, as in the ancient English universities, this was to confer full membership), to be followed in 1840 by the similarly new University of London, which was only empowered by its charter to grant degrees by examination. However, by the middle of the century the MA as an examined second degree was again under threat, with Durham moving to awarding it automatically to those who gained honours in the BA in 1857, along the lines of the Oxbridge MA, and Edinburgh following the other Scottish universities in awarding the MA as its first degree, in place of the BA, from 1858. At the same time, new universities were being established around the then British Empire along the lines of London, including examinations for the MA: the University of Sydney in Australia and the Queen's University of Ireland in 1850, and the Universities of Bombay (now the University of Mumbai), Madras and Calcutta in India in 1857.
In the US, the revival of master's degrees as an examined qualification began in 1856 at the University of North Carolina, followed by the University of Michigan in 1859, although the idea of a master's degree as an earned second degree was not well established until the 1870s, alongside the PhD as the terminal degree. Sometimes it was possible to earn an MA either by examination or by seniority in the same institution, e.g. in Michigan the "in course" MA was introduced in 1848 and was last awarded in 1882, while the "on examination" MA was introduced in 1859.
Probably the most important master's degree introduced in the 19th century was the Master of Science (MS in the US, MSc in the UK). At the University of Michigan this was introduced in two forms in 1858: "in course", first awarded in 1859, and "on examination", first awarded in 1862. The "in course" MS was last awarded in 1876. In Britain, however, the degree took a while longer to arrive. When London introduced its Faculty of Sciences in 1858, the University was granted a new charter giving it the power "to confer the several Degrees of Bachelor, Master, and Doctor, in Arts, Laws, Science, Medicine, Music", but the degrees it awarded in science were the Bachelor of Science and the Doctor of Science. The same two degrees, again omitting the master's, were awarded at Edinburgh, despite the MA being the standard undergraduate degree for Arts in Scotland. In 1862, a Royal Commission suggested that Durham should award master's degrees in theology and science (with the suggested abbreviations MT and MS, contrary to later British practice of using MTh or MTheol and MSc for these degrees), but its recommendations were not enacted. In 1877, Oxford introduced the Master of Natural Science, along with the Bachelor of Natural Science, to stand alongside the MA and BA degrees and be awarded to students who took their degrees in the honours school of natural sciences. In 1879 a statute to actually establish the faculty of Natural Sciences at Oxford was promulgated, but in 1880 a proposal to rename the degree as a Master of Science was rejected along with a proposal to grant Masters of Natural Sciences a Master of Arts degree, in order to make them full members of the University. This scheme would appear to have then been quietly dropped, with Oxford going on to award BAs and MAs in science.
The Master of Science (MSc) degree was finally introduced in Britain in 1878 at Durham, followed by the new Victoria University in 1881. At the Victoria University both the MA and MSc followed the lead of Durham's MA in requiring a further examination for those with an ordinary bachelor's degree but not for those with honours.
At the start of the twentieth century there were therefore four different sorts of master's degree in the UK: the Scottish MA, granted as a first degree; the Master of Arts (Oxbridge and Dublin), granted to all BA graduates a certain period after their first degree without further study; master's degrees that could be gained either by further study or by gaining an honours degree (which, at the time in the UK involved further study beyond the ordinary degree, as it still does in Scotland and some Commonwealth countries); and master's degrees that could only be obtained by further study (including all London master's degrees). In 1903, the London Daily News criticised the practice of Oxford and Cambridge, calling their MAs "the most stupendous of academic frauds" and "bogus degrees". Ensuing correspondence pointed out that "A Scotch M.A., at the most, is only the equivalent of an English B.A." and called for common standards for degrees, while defenders of the ancient universities said that "the Cambridge M.A. does not pretend to be a reward of learning" and that "it is rather absurd to describe one of their degrees as a bogus one because other modern Universities grant the same degree for different reasons".
In 1900, Dartmouth College introduced the Master of Commercial Science (MCS), first awarded in 1902. This was the first master's degree in business, the forerunner of the modern MBA. The idea quickly crossed the Atlantic, with Manchester establishing a Faculty of Commerce, awarding Bachelor and Master of Commerce degrees, in 1903. Over the first half of the century the automatic master's degrees for honours graduates vanished as honours degrees became the standard undergraduate qualification in the UK. In the 1960s, new Scottish universities (with the exception of Dundee, which inherited the undergraduate MA from St Andrews) reintroduced the BA as their undergraduate degree in Arts, restoring the MA to its position as a postgraduate qualification. Oxford and Cambridge retained their MAs, but renamed many of their postgraduate bachelor's degrees in the higher faculties as master's degrees, e.g. the Cambridge LLB became the LLM in 1982, and the Oxford BLitt, BPhil (except in philosophy) and BSc became the MLitt, MPhil and MSc.
In 1983, the Engineering Council issued a "'Statement on enhanced and extended undergraduate engineering degree courses", proposing the establishment of a four-year first degree (Master of Engineering). These were up and running by the mid 1980s and were followed in the early 1990s by the MPhys for physicists and since then integrated master's degrees in other sciences such as MChem, MMath, and MGeol, and in some institutions general or specific MSci (Master in Science) and MArts (Master in Arts) degrees. This development was noted by the Dearing Report into UK Higher Education in 1997, which called for the establishment of a national framework of qualifications and identified five different routes to master's degrees:
- Four year (five in Scotland) undergraduate degrees such as the MEng
- Conversion degrees, sometimes below the standard of undergraduate degrees in the same subject
- The undergraduate arts degree of the ancient universities of Scotland
- Specialist postgraduate programmes, such as the MA and MSc
- The Oxbridge MA, awarded without additional work
This led to the establishment of the Quality Assurance Agency, which was charged with drawing up the framework.
In 2000 renewed pressure was put on Oxbridge MAs in the UK Parliament, with Labour MP Jackie Lawrence introducing an early day motion calling for them to be scrapped and telling the Times Higher Education it was a "discriminatory practice" and that it "devalues and undermines the efforts of students at other universities". The following month the Quality Assurance Agency announced the results of a survey of 150 major employers showing nearly two thirds mistakenly thought the Cambridge MA was a postgraduate qualification and just over half made the same error regarding the Edinburgh MA, with QAA chief executive John Randall calling the Oxbridge MA "misleading and anachronistic".
The QAA released the first "framework for higher education qualifications in England, Wales and Northern Ireland" in January 2001. This specified learning outcomes for M-level (master's) degrees and advised that the title "Master" should only be used for qualifications that met those learning outcomes in full. It addressed many of the Dearing Report's concerns, specifying that shorter courses at H-level (honours), e.g. conversion courses, should be styled Graduate Diploma or Graduate Certificate rather than as master's degrees, but confirmed that the extended undergraduate degrees were master's degrees, saying that "Some Masters degrees in science and engineering are awarded after extended undergraduate programmes that last, typically, a year longer than Honours degree programmes". It also addressed the Oxbridge MA issue, noting that "the MAs granted by the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge are not academic qualifications". The first "framework for qualifications of Higher Education Institutes in Scotland", also published in January 2001, used the same qualifications descriptors, adding in credit values that specified that a stand-alone master should be 180 credits and a "Masters (following an integrated programme from undergraduate to Masters level study)" should be 600 credits with a minimum of 120 at M-level. It was specified that the title "Master" should only be used for qualifications that met the learning outcomes and credit definitions, although it was noted that "A small number of universities in Scotland have a long tradition of labelling certain first degrees as 'MA'. Reports of Agency reviews of such provision will relate to undergraduate benchmarks and will make it clear that the title reflects Scottish custom and practice, and that any positive judgement on standards should not be taken as implying that the outcomes of the programme were at postgraduate level."
The Bologna declaration in 1999 started the Bologna Process, leading to the creation of the European Higher Education Area (EHEA). This established a three-cycle bachelor's—master's—doctorate classification of degrees, leading to the adoption of master's degrees across the continent, often replacing older long-cycle qualifications such as the Magister (arts), Diplom (sciences) and state registration (professional) awards in Germany. As the process continued, descriptors were introduced for all three levels in 2004, and ECTS credit guidelines were developed. This led to questions as to the status of the integrated master's degrees and one-year master's degrees in the UK. However, the Framework for Higher Education Qualifications in England, Wales and Northern Ireland and the Framework for Qualifications of Higher Education Institutes in Scotland have both been aligned with the overarching framework for the EHEA with these being accepted as master's-level qualifications.
Master's degrees are commonly titled using the form 'Master of ...', where either a faculty (typically Arts or Science) or a field (Engineering, Physics, Chemistry, Business Administration, etc.) is specified. The two most common titles of master's degrees are the Master of Arts (MA/M.A./A.M) and Master of Science (MSc/M.S./S.M.) degrees; which normally consist of a mixture of research and taught material.
The title of Master of Philosophy (MPhil) indicates (in the same manner as Doctor of Philosophy) an extended degree with a large research component. Other generically-named masters programs include the Master of Studies (MSt)/Master of Advanced Study (MASt)/Master of Advanced Studies (M.A.S.), and Professional Master's (MProf). Integrated master's degrees and postgraduate master's degrees oriented towards professional practice are often more specifically named for their field of study ("tagged degrees"), including, for example, the Master of Business Administration, Master of Divinity, Master of Engineering and Master of Physics.
The form "Master in ..." is also sometimes used, particularly where a faculty title is used for an integrated master's in addition to its use in a traditional postgraduate master's, e.g. Master in Science (MSci) and Master in Arts (MArts). This form is also sometimes used with other integrated master's degrees, and occasionally for postgraduate master's degrees (e.g. Master's in Accounting). Some universities use Latin degree names; because of the flexibility of syntax in Latin, the Master of Arts and Master of Science degrees may be known in these institutions as Magister artium and Magister scientiæ or reversed from the English order to Artium magister and Scientiæ magister. Examples of the reversed usage include Harvard University, the University of Chicago and MIT, leading to the abbreviations A.M. and S.M. for these degrees. The forms "Master of Science" and "Master in Science" are indistinguishable in Latin, thus MSci is "Master of Natural Sciences" at the University of Cambridge.
In the UK, fullstops (periods) are not commonly used in degree abbreviations. In the US, The Gregg Reference Manual recommends placing periods in degrees (e.g. B.S., Ph.D.), however The Chicago Manual of Style recommends writing degrees without periods (e.g. BS, PhD).
Master of Science is generally abbreviated M.S. or MS in countries following United States usage and MSc in countries following British usage, where MS would refer to the degree of Master of Surgery. In Australia, some extended master's degrees use the title "doctor": Juris doctor and Doctors of Medical Practice, Physiotherapy, Dentistry, Optometry and Veterinary Practice. Despite their titles these are still master's degree and may not be referred to as doctoral degrees, nor may graduates use the title "doctor".
- Postgraduate/graduate master's degrees (MA/M.A./A.M., MPhil/M.Phil., MSc/M.S./SM, MBA/M.B.A., LLM/LL.M., etc.) are the traditional formal form of master's degree, where the student already holds an undergraduate (bachelor's) degree on entry. Courses normally last one year in the UK and two years in the US.
- Integrated master's degrees (MChem, MEng, MMath, MPharm, MPhys, MPsych, MSci, etc.) are UK degrees that combine an undergraduate bachelor's degree course with an extra year at master's level (i.e. a total of four years in England, Wales and Northern Ireland, and five years in Scotland). A 2011 survey of UK Higher Education Institutes found that 64% offered integrated master's course, mostly in STEM disciplines, with the most common degrees being MEng, MSci and MChem. 82% of respondents conferred only a master's degree for the course, while 9% conferred a bachelor's degree at the end of the bachelor's-level stage and a master's degree at the end of the course and a further 9% conferred both bachelor's and master's degrees at the end of the course.
- Non-master's level master's degrees The ancient universities of the UK and Ireland have traditionally awarded MAs in a different manner to that usual today. The Scottish MA is a bachelor's-level qualification offered by the ancient universities of Scotland. The Oxbridge MA is not an academic qualification; it is granted without further examination to those who have gained a BA from Oxford or Cambridge Universities in England, and the MA of Trinity College Dublin in Ireland is granted to its graduates in a similar manner.
The UK Quality Assurance Agency defines three categories of Master's degrees:
- Research master's degrees are primarily research based, although may contain taught elements, particularly on research methods. Examples are the MLitt (usually, but not always a research degree), the Master's by Research, and the MPhil. The Master's by Research (MbyRes, ResM), which is a research degree, is distinct from the Master of Research (MRes), which is a taught degree concentrating on research methods.
- Specialised or advanced study master's degrees are primarily taught degrees, although commonly at least a third of the course is devoted to a research project assessed by dissertation. These may be stand-alone master's courses, leading to, e.g., MSc, MA or MRes degrees, or integrated master's degrees.
- Professional or practice master's degrees (see also professional degree) are designed to prepare students for a particular professional career and are primarily taught, although they may include work placements and independent study projects. Some may require professional experience for entry. Examples include MBA, MDiv, LLM and MSW as well as some integrated master's degrees. The name of the degree normally includes the subject name.
The United States Department of Education classifies master's degrees as research or professional. Research master's degrees in the US (e.g., M.A./A.M. or M.S.) require the completion of taught courses and examinations in a major and one or more minor subjects, as well as (normally) a research thesis. Professional master's degrees may be structured like research master's (e.g., M.E./M.Eng.) or may concentrate on a specific discipline (e.g., M.B.A.) and often substitute a project for the thesis.
The Australian Qualifications Framework classifies master's degrees as research, coursework or extended. Research master's degrees typically take one to two years, and two thirds of their content consists of research, research training and independent study. Coursework master's degrees typically also last one to two years, and consist mainly of structured learning with some independent research and project work or practice-related learning. Extended master's degrees typically take three to four years and contain significant practice-related learning that must be developed in collaboration with relevant professional, statutory or regulatory bodies.
In Ireland, master's degrees may be either Taught or Research. Taught master's degrees are normally one to two year courses, rated at 60 - 120 ECTS credits, while research master's degrees are normally two year courses, either rated at 120 ECTS credits or not credit rated.
There is a range of pathways to the degree with entry based on evidence of a capacity to undertake higher level studies in a proposed field. A dissertation may or may not be required depending on the program. In general, structure and duration of a program of study leading to a master's degree will differ by country and university.
Master's programs in the US and Canada are normally two years in length. In some fields/programs, work on a doctorate begins immediately after the bachelor's degree, but a master's may be granted along the way as an intermediate qualification if the student petitions for it. Some universities offer evening options so that students can work during the day and earn a master's degree in the evenings.
In the UK, postgraduate master's degrees typically take one to two years full-time or two to four years part-time. Master's degrees may classified as either "research" or "taught", with taught degrees (those where research makes up less than half of the volume of work) being further subdivided into "specialist or advanced study" or "professional or practice". Taught degrees (of both forms) typically take a full calendar year (180 UK credits, compared to 120 for an academic year), while research degrees are not typically credit rated but may take up to two years to complete. An MPhil normally takes two calendar years (360 credits). An integrated master's degree (which is always a taught degree) combines a bachelor's degree course with an additional year of study (120 credits) at master's level for a four (England, Wales and Northern Ireland) or five (Scotland) academic year total period.
In Australia, master's degrees vary from one year for a "research" or "coursework" master's following on from an Australian honours degree in a related field, with an extra six months if following on straight from an ordinary bachelor's degree and another extra six months if following on from a degree in a different field, to four years for an "extended" master's degree. At some Australian universities, the master's degree may take up to two years.
In the Overarching Framework of Qualifications for the European Higher Education Area defined as part of the Bologna process, a "second cycle" (i.e. master's degree) programme is typically 90–120 ECTS credits, with a minimum requirement of at least 60 ECTS credits at second-cycle level. The definition of ECTS credits is that "60 ECTS credits are allocated to the learning outcomes and associated workload of a full-time academic year or its equivalent", thus European master's degrees should last for between one calendar year and two academic years, with at least one academic year of study at master's level. The Framework for Higher Education Qualification (FHEQ) in England Wales and Northern Ireland level 7 qualifications and the Framework for Qualification of Higher Education Institutes in Scotland (FQHEIS) level 11 qualifications (postgraduate and integrated master's degrees, with the exception of MAs from the ancient universities of Scotland and Oxbridge MAs) have been certified as meeting this requirement.
Irish master's degrees are 1–2 years (60–120 ECTS credits) for taught degrees and 2 years (not credit rated) for taught and research degrees. These have also been certified as compatible with the FQ-EHEA.
Admission to a master's degree normally requires successful completion of study at bachelor's degree level either (for postgraduate degrees) as a stand-alone degree or (for integrated degrees) as part of an integrated scheme of study. In countries where the bachelor's degree with honours is the standard undergraduate degree, this is often the normal entry qualification. In addition, students will normally have to write a personal statement and, in the arts and humanities, will often have to submit a portfolio of work.
In the UK, students will normally need to have a 2:1. Students may also have to provide evidence of their ability to successfully pursue a postgraduate degree to be accepted into a taught master's course, and possibly higher for a research master's. Graduate schools in the US similarly require strong undergraduate performance, and may require students to take one or more standardised tests, such as the GRE, GMAT or LSAT.
Comparable European degrees
In some European countries, a magister is a first degree and may be considered equivalent to a modern (standardized) master's degree (e.g., the German, Austrian and Polish university Diplom/Magister, or the similar five-year Diploma awarded in several subjects in Greek, Spanish, Portuguese, and other universities and polytechnics).
Under the Bologna Process, countries in the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) are moving to a three cycle (bachelor's - master's - doctorate) system of degrees. Two thirds of EHEA countries have standardised on 120 ECTS credits for their second-cycle (master's) degrees, but 90 ECTS credits is the main form in Cyprus, Ireland and Scotland and 60-75 credits in Montenegro, Serbia and Spain. The combined length of the first and second cycle varies from "3 + 1" years (240 ECTS credits), through "3 + 2" or "4 + 1" years (300 ECTS credits), to "4 + 2" years (360 ECTS credits). As of 2015, 31 EHEA countries have integrated programmes that combine the first and second cycle and lead to a second-cycle qualification (e.g. the UK integrated master's degree), particularly in STEM subjects and subjects allied to medicine. These typically have a duration of 300 – 360 ECTS credits (five to six years), with the integrated master's degrees in England, Wales and Northern Ireland being the shortest at 240 ECTS credits (four years).
- In Denmark there are two forms of master's degree. The Master's Degree or candidatus is a FQ-EHEA second-cycle qualification worth 120 ECTS credits. These degrees are research-based and offered through universities (e.g. University of Copenhagen and Copenhagen Business School). The second form is the Master Degree (no possessive) within the adult further education system, which is worth 60 ECTS credits and is taught part-time. The candidatus degree is abbreviated cand. and upon completion of, for instance, an engineering master's degree, a person becomes cand.polyt. (polytechnical). Similar abbreviations, inspired by Latin, apply to a large number of fields, e.g.: sociology (cand.scient.soc), economics (cand.merc., cand.polit. or cand.oecon), law (cand.jur), humanities (cand.mag) etc. Use of a cand. title requires a master's degree. Holders of a cand. degree are also entitled to use M.Sc. or M.A. titles, depending on the field of study. In Finland and Sweden, the title of kand. equates to a bachelor's degree.
- In France, the master's degree (diplôme de master) takes two years and is worth 120 ECTS credits. The French master's degree is the combination of two individual years : the master 1 (M1) and master 2 (M2), following the Bologna Process. Depending on the goal of the student (a doctorate or a professional career) the master 2 can also be called a "Master Recherche" (research master) and a "Master Professionnel" (professional master), each with different requirements. To obtain a national diploma for the master 2 requires a minimum of one year of study after the master 1.
A French diplôme d'ingénieur (postgraduate degree in engineering) is also the equivalent of a master's degree, provided the diploma is recognised by the Commission des titres d'ingénieur, as are qualifications recognised at Level I of the répertoire national des certifications professionnelles (national register of professional certificates).
- In Italy the master's degree is equivalent to the two-year Laurea magistrale, which can be earned after a Laurea (a three-year undergraduate degree, equivalent to a bachelor's degree). In particular fields, namely law, pharmacy and medicine, this distinction is not made. University courses are therefore single and last five to six years, after which the master's degree is awarded (in this case referred to as Laurea magistrale a ciclo unico). The old Laurea degree (Vecchio Ordinamento, Old Regulations), which was the only awarded in Italy before the Bologna process, is equivalent to the current Laurea Magistrale.
- In the Netherlands the titles ingenieur (ir.), meester (mr.) and doctorandus (drs.) may be rendered, if obtained in the Netherlands from a university, after the application of the Bologna process, as: MSc instead of ir., LLM instead of mr. and MA or MSc instead of drs. This is because a single program that led to these degree was in effect before 2002, which comprised the same course load as the bachelor and master programs put together. Those who had already started the program could, upon completing it, bear the appropriate title (MSc, LLM or MA), but alternatively still use the old-style title (ir., mr. or drs.), corresponding to their field of study. Since these graduates do not have a separate bachelor's degree (which is in fact – in retrospect – incorporated into the program), the master's degree is their first academic degree. Bearers of foreign master's degree are able to use the titles ir., mr. and drs. only after obtaining a permission to bear such titles from the Dienst Uitvoering Onderwijs. Those who received their mr., ir. or drs. title after the application of the Bologna process have the option of signing as A. Jansen, MA or A. Jansen, MSc, depending on the field in which the degree was obtained, since the ir., mr. and drs. titles are similar to a master's degree, and the shortcut MA or MSc. may officially be used in order to render such title as an international title.
- In Switzerland, the old Licence or Diplom (4 to 5 years in duration) is considered equivalent to the master's degree.
- In Slovenia and Croatia, during the pre-Bologna process education, all academic degrees were awarded after a minimum of four years of university studies and a successful defence of a written thesis and are considered equivalent to the master's degree. After the completion of that first cycle of the pre-Bologna higher education, the students obtained professional degrees with the titles of Professor (abbreviation "prof.") for educational studies, Engineer (abbreviation "ing.") for technical studies, or Licensed professional of their field of expertise (abbreviation "dipl." with a reference to the profession) for other studies. The title of Magister Scientiae (abbreviation "mr. sc.") was awarded to students who completed a postgraduate university programme (and therefore qualified for a doctorate programme), while the title of Scientiae Doctor (abbreviation "dr. sc.") was awarded to students who completed a postgraduate doctoral programme. Slovenia is a full member of the Bologna Process since 1999 and Croatia since 2001.
- In Baltic countries there is a two-year education program that offers a chance to gain a master's degree in interdisciplinary issues. The system offers an education in different areas, such as humanities, environmental and social issues, whilst paying specific consideration to the Baltic Sea area. It is a joint-degree program, which is part of a team effort with four universities. There is for example the University of Tartu in Estonia, Vytautas Magnus University in Lithuania and the University of Latvia. The educational programmes allow students to be mobile within the system, for example one semester may be taken in a confederate school without paying additional membership or tuition fees. Subsequently, after passing the qualifications provided, people may procure teaching qualifications and continue their scholastic research around doctoral studies, or carry on studying within their career in the private or public sector. Graduates of the program, within the Baltic Sea area are also given the chance to continue onwards with their studies within the postgraduate system if they have studied the social sciences or humanities field.
- In Greece, the metaptychiako (μεταπτυχιακό) which literally translates as post-degree (...programme or title), lasts normally from one to, more often, two years, and can be studied after a, at least, four-years undergraduate ptychio, which means degree.
Also, the five-year diploma (δίπλωμα) awarded in all Polytechnics (schools of engineering) and the Athens School of Fine Arts is considered equal to a graduate degree plus a master's degree.
- In Russia master (магистр) degree can be obtained after a two-year master course (магистратура) which is available after a four-year bachelor or a five-year specialist course. A graduate may choose a master course completely different from his/her previous one. During these two years master students attend specialized lectures in chosen profile, choose a faculty advisor and prepare their master thesis which is eventually defended before certifying commission consisting mostly of professors, leading by the professor from another university.
- In the United Kingdom, first degrees in medicine, dentistry and veterinary science are considered equivalent to master's degrees despite, for historical reasons, often having the titles of bachelor's degrees.
- The old Spanish degrees of Licenciado (Licenciate), Arquitecto (Architect) and Ingeniero (Engineer) are also equivalent to master's degrees. They were integrated programmes of study that combined first and second cycles and led to a second cycle qualification. The Spanish government issued a royal decree in 2014 establishing the official equivalences between the Spanish pre-Bologna degrees and the European Qualifications Framework (EQF) levels. Most (if not all) Licenciado, Arquitecto and Ingeniero degrees were placed in level 7 (Master) of the EQF. These programmes have been phased out and replaced with the new Bologna programmes of Máster, to be completed after completion of a programme of Grado (Bachelor's).
After acquiring a Bachelor's or Licenciate Degree, students are qualified to continue their academic career through Master's Degree ("mestrado", in Portuguese, a.k.a. stricto sensu post-graduation) or Specialization Degree ("especialização", in Portuguese, a.k.a. lato sensu post-graduation) programs. At the Master's program there are 2–3 years of graduate-level studies. Usually focused on academic research, the Master's Degree requires, on any specific knowledge area, the development of a thesis to be presented and defended before a board of professors after the period of research. Conversely, the Specialization Degree, also comprehends a 1–2 years studies, but does not require a new thesis to be proposed and defended, being usually attended by professionals looking for complementary training on a specific area of their knowledge.
In addition, many Brazilian universities offer a MBA program. However, those are not the equivalent to a United States MBA degree, as it does not formally certify the student with a Master's degree (stricto sensu) but with a Specialization Degree (lato sensu) instead. A regular post-graduation course has to comply with a minimum of 360 class-hours, while a M.B.A. degree has to comply with a minimum of 400 class-hours. Master's degree (stricto sensu) does not requires minimum class-hours, but it's practically impossible to finish it before 1.5 year due the workload and research required; an average time for the degree is 2.5 years. Specialization (lato sensu) and M.B.A. degrees can be also offered as distance education courses, while the master's degree (stricto-sensu) requires physical attendance. In Brazil, the degree often serves as additional qualification for those seeking to differentiate themselves in the job market, or for those who want to pursue a Ph.D. It corresponds to the European (Bologna Process) 2nd Cycle or the North American master's.
M.Arch., M.L.A., M.U.D., M.A., M.Sc., M.Soc.Sc., M.S.W., M.Eng., LL.M.
- Hong Kong requires one or two years of full-time coursework to achieve a master's degree.
For part-time study, two or three years of study are normally required to achieve a postgraduate degree.
- As in the United Kingdom, M.Phil/MPhil/Master of Philosophy is the most advanced masters degree and usually includes both a taught portion and a research portion which requires candidates to complete an extensive original research for their thesis. Regardless of subject, students in all faculties (including sciences, arts, humanities and social sciences) may be awarded the Master of Philosophy.
In Pakistani education system, there are two different master's degree programmes:
- 2 years master's programmes: these are mostly Master of Arts (M.A.) leading to M.Phil.
- 4 years master's programmes: these are mostly Master of Science (M.S.) leading to Ph.D
Both M.A. and M.S. are offered in all major subjects.
In the Indian system, a master's degree is a postgraduate degree following a Bachelor's degree and preceding a Doctorate, usually requiring two years to complete. The available degrees include but are not limited to the following:
- Master of Arts (M.A.)
- Master of Social Work (MSW)
- Master of Business Administration (M.B.A.)
- Master of Computer Applications (M.C.A.)
- Master of Engineering (M.Eng.)
- Master of Philosophy (M.Phil.)
- Master of Science (M.Sc.)
- Master of Technology (M.Tech.)
- Master of Statistics (M.Stat.)
- Master of Laws (LL.M.)
- Master of Commerce (M.Com.)
- Master of Architecture (M.Arch.)
- Master of Veterinary Science (MVSc)
In the Indonesian higher education system, a master's degree (Indonesian: magister) is a postgraduate degree following a Bachelor's degree and preceding a Doctorate, requiring maximum of four years to complete. Master's student is required to submit their thesis (Indonesian: tesis) for examination by two or three examiners. The available degrees include but are not limited to the following:
- Magister Administrasi Bisnis (M.A.B) (Master of Business Administration)
- Magister Manajemen (M.M) (Master of Management)
- Magister Sains (M.Si) (Master of Science)
- Magister Teknik (M.T) (Master of Engineering)
- Magister Hukum (M.H) (Master of Laws)
- Magister Pendidikan (M.Pd) (Master of Education)
Postgraduate studies in Israel require the completion of a bachelor's degree and is dependent upon this title's grades; see Education in Israel #Higher education. Degrees awarded are the M.A., M.Sc., M.B.A. and LLM; the Technion awards a non-thesis M.Eng.  There also exists "a direct track" doctorate degree, which lasts four to five years. Taking this route, students prepare a preliminary research paper during their first year, after which they must pass an exam before being allowed to proceed, at which point they are awarded a master's degree.
In Nepal, after bachelor's degree about to at least three or four years with full-time study in college and university with an entrance test for those people who want to study further can study in master and further Ph.D. and doctorate degree. All doctoral and Ph.D. or third cycle degree are based on research and experience oriented and result based. Master of Engineering (M.Eng.), Master of Education (M.Ed.), Master of Arts (M.A.) and all law and medicine related courses are studied after completion of successful bachelor towards doctoral degree. M.B.B.S. is only a medical degree with six and half years of study resulting medical doctor and need to finish its study o 4 years of period joining after master degree with minimum education with 15 or 16 years of university bachelor's degree education. The most professional and internationalised program in Nepal are as follows:
- Master of Business Administration (M.B.A.)
- Master of Computer Applications (M.C.A.)
- Master of Engineering (M.Eng.)
- Master of Science (M.Sc.)
- Master of Science in Information Technology (M.Sc.I.T.)
- Master of Business Studies (M.B.S.)
- Master of Education (M.Ed)
- Master of Arts (M.A.)
- Master of Science in Agriculture (M.Sc.Ag.)
- Master of Laws (LL.M.)
- Master of Management (M.M.)
In Taiwan, bachelor's degrees are about four years (with honors) and there is an entrance examination required for people who want to study in master and Ph.D. degrees. The courses offered for master and PhD normally are research-based.
Programs are entirely in English and tuition is less than would be paid in North America, with as little as US$5000 for an M.B.A. As an incentive to increase the number of foreign students, the government of Taiwan and universities have made extra efforts to provide a range of quality scholarships available. These are university-specific scholarships ranging from tuition waivers, up to NT$20,000 per month. The government offers the Taiwan Scholarship ranging from NT$20,000–30,000 per month for two years. (US$18,000–24,000 for a two-year program)
- Associate's degree
- Bachelor's degree
- British degree abbreviations
- Diploma mill
- Educational specialist
- Engineer's degree
- European Joint Master degree in Economics
- Graduate school
- List of master's degrees
- Magister (degree)
- Master of Advanced Studies
- Master of Arts (Oxbridge and Dublin)
- Master of Arts (Scotland)
- Master of Engineering
- Master of Laws
- Master of Science
- Master's degree in Europe
- Master's degree in North America
- Master's degree non-Euroamerican
- Professional Science Master's degree
- Terminal degree
- The spelling of master's degree and master's without an apostrophe is considered a mistake by many (see non-standard apostrophe use), but it is becoming more common. It is considered incorrect by most if not all US and most UK and Australian universities, style guides, and dictionaries, for example: OED, Collins, Cambridge Dictionaries Online, American Heritage (master's), American Heritage (master's degree), Merriam-Webster, and the Macquarie Dictionary (not free online) as shown in the following Monash University quotation. Monash University's style guide directly admits that the incorrectly missing apostrophe used to be more widespread in publications of this and therefore presumably other Australian universities: "Note that both 'bachelor's degree’ and 'master's degree', when used in a generic sense, require an apostrophe. While some dislike this convention, it is prescribed by the Macquarie Dictionary (the Australian standard) and the Oxford English Dictionary (the UK standard), and aligns with our key institutional partner Warwick University. Currently you will find the terms used both with and without an apostrophe throughout our online and print publications – gradually, we need to move toward correct usage."
- Archived October 21, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
- Hastings Rashdall (1895). "I". The Universities of Europe in the Middle Ages: Volume 1, Salerno, Bologna, Paris. pp. 1–22.
- "History of Medieval Education, Middle Ages European Learning". Academic Apparel. Retrieved 8 August 2016.
- Corydon Ireland (22 May 2012). "Commencements, from 1642 onward". Harvard Gazette. Retrieved 8 August 2016.
- "Oxbridge masters degrees 'offensive', says Cambridge don". Daily Telegraph. 27 May 2010.
- "Harvard College Laws of 1700". Constitution Society. Retrieved 8 August 2016.
- Board Of Overseers, Harvard University (6 January 1825). Revised Code of Laws. Report of a Committee of the Overseers of Harvard College. p. 22.
- J. A. Lawrie (20 July 1855). The Charters of the Scotch Universities and Medical Corporations, and Medical Reform in Scotland. Association Medical Journal. Provincial Medical and Surgical Association. p. 687.
- "Minutes of the Medical Council". The Medical Times and Gazette. 13 July 1861. p. 441.
- College of Surgeons. The Philadelphia University Journal of Medicine and Surgery. 13. 1870. p. 284.
- Barnard, Henry (1858). University of Edinburgh. American Journal of Education. 4. p. 821.
- "PARLIAMENTARY REFORM—BILL FOR SCOTLAND—COMMITTEE". Hansard. 9 July 1832. Retrieved 21 August 2016.
- C. E. Whiting (29 June 1937). "Durham University Centenary". Yorkshire Post. Retrieved 8 August 2016 – via British Newspaper Archive.
The M.A. degree at Oxford and Cambridge had degenerated, and was granted to Bachelors of three years' standing on the payment of certain fees. At Durham the B.A. had to keep residence for three extra terms, and to pass what seems have been an honours examination in order to proceed to the Master's degree, and for a number of years classes were awarded in the M.A. examination.
- "Examination for the degree of Matter of Arts". Regulations of the University of London on the Subject of Degrees in Arts. 1839. pp. 21–23.
- "Regulations". The Durham University Calendar. 1842. pp. xxv–xxvi.
- Chambers w. And r, ltd (1862). Edinburgh University. Chambers's Encyclopaedia•volume=III.
- "Graduate Education: Parameters for Public Policy" (PDF). National Science Board. 1969. pp. 1–5. Retrieved 10 August 2016.
- "A (Very) Brief History the Master's Degree". American Historical Association. Retrieved 10 August 2016.
- Walter Arthur Donnelly (1941). Degrees Authorized by the University of Michigan. The University of Michigan, an Encyclopedic Survey. University of Michigan. p. 294.
- "Third Charter, 1858". University of London, the Historical Record: 1836-1912. University of London Press. 1912. pp. 39–48.
- "University of London". Southern Reporter and Cork Commercial Courier. 28 December 1859 – via British Newspaper Archive.
- Ravenscroft, Edward (872). Regulations as to Degrees in Science. The Edinburgh University Calendar. pp. 115–117.
- "Durham University". Bury and Norwich Post. 7 October 1862 – via British Newspaper Archive.
- "New Degrees of Science". Cheltenham Chronicle. 5 June 1877 – via British Newspaper Archive.
- "University Intelligence". Oxford Journal. 5 April 1879 – via British Newspaper Archive.
- "University Intelligence". Manchester Courier and Lancashire General Advertiser. 5 February 1880 – via British Newspaper Archive.
- "Clippings from the Athenaeum". Sunderland Daily Echo and Shipping Gazette. 24 August 1878 – via British Newspaper Archive.
- "The Victoria University and its Science Degrees". Birmingham Daily Post. 16 April 1881. Retrieved 8 August 2016 – via British Newspaper Archive.
- University Calendar. Victoria University. 1883. pp. 37–38.
- "Mr. Meyer and his D.D.". London Daily News. 31 August 1903 – via British Newspaper Archive.
- "University Degrees". London Daily News. 2 September 1903 – via British Newspaper Archive.
- "University Degrees". London Daily News. 7 September 1903 – via British Newspaper Archive.
- Carter A. Daniel (1998). MBA: The First Century. Bucknell University Press. p. 15. ISBN 9780838753620.
- "Commerce as a Science". London Daily News. 26 November 1903 – via British Newspaper Archive.
- "The Faculty of Law". University of Cambridge. Retrieved 14 August 2016.
- "Regulations for Degrees, Diplomas, and Certificates". Statutes and Regulations. University of Oxford. 16 September 2015. Conversion of BLitt, BPhil, and BSc to MLitt, MPhil, and MSc. Retrieved 14 August 2016.
- "New-style engineering degrees proposed". The Production Engineer. [IEEE]. September 1983. Retrieved 13 August 2016.
- Colin R. Chapman; Jack Levy (2004). "An Engine for Change: A Chronicle of the Engineering Council" (PDF). Engineering Council. Retrieved 13 August 2016.
- The National Committee of Inquiry into Higher Education (1997). Higher Education in the learning society. Her Majesty's Stationery Office.
- Jennifer Currie (16 June 2000). "Why I...think Oxbridge MA degrees should be scrapped". Times Higher Education.
- "Early day motion 806". Parliament.uk. Retrieved 14 August 2016.
- Ben Russell (3 July 2000). "Oxbridge MAs are misleading, says agency". The Independent.
- "The framework for higher education qualifications in England, Wales and Northern Ireland". Quality Assurance Agency. January 2001. Archived from the original on 14 April 2001. Retrieved 14 August 2016.
- "The framework for qualifications of Higher Education Institutes in Scotland". Quality Assurance Agency. January 2001. Archived from the original on 2 March 2001. Retrieved 14 August 2016.
- "EUROPE: Future of masters programmes". University World News. 26 April 2009. Retrieved 19 August 2016.
- Great Britain: Parliament: House of Commons: Education and Skills Committee (30 April 2007). The Bologna process and the UK. The Bologna process: fourth report of session 2006-07, report, together with formal minutes, oral and written evidence. The Stationery Office. p. 52. ISBN 9780215033727.
- Results of the 2011 UK HE International Unit European Activity Survey of UK HEIs - UK (PDF) (Report). UK Higher Education International Unit. 23 April 2012. p. 6.
- "Structure of the U.S. Education System: Master's Degrees". United States Department of Education. February 2008.
- The Frameworks for Higher Education Qualifications of UK Degree-Awarding Bodies (PDF). Quality Assurance Agency. November 2014. p. 36.
- "University of Nottingham Qualifications Framework". Quality Manual. University of Nottingham. Retrieved 10 July 2016.
- "Masters in Accounting". QS Top Universities. QS Quacquarelli Symonds. Retrieved 10 July 2016.
- University of Oxford Style Guide (PDF). University of Oxford. 2016. p. 20. Retrieved 10 July 2016.
- "University Degrees". Debrett's. Archived from the original on 28 May 2016. Retrieved 10 July 2016.
- "Academic Degrees & Professional Designations". Accu-Assist. Retrieved 29 May 2016.
- Australian Qualifications Framework (PDF) (Second ed.). Australian Qualifications Framework Council. January 2013. pp. 72–73. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-09-10.
- The Frameworks for Higher Education Qualifications of UK Degree-Awarding Bodies. Quality Assurance Agency. November 2014. p. 29.
- Results of the 2011 UK HE International Unit European Activity Survey of UK HEIs - UK (PDF) (Report). UK Higher Education International Unit. 23 April 2012. p. 7. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 July 2014.
- "TCD to keep selling Masters - Independent.ie". Independent.ie. 19 November 2005. Retrieved 11 July 2016.
- Master's Degree Characteristics Statement (PDF) (Report). Quality Assurance Agency. September 2015. pp. 4–5.
- Master's Degree Characteristics Statement (PDF) (Report). Quality Assurance Agency. September 2015. pp. 10–13.
- Australian Qualifications Framework (PDF) (Second ed.). Australian Qualifications Framework Council. January 2013. pp. 59–62. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-09-10.
- "Irish National Framework of Qualifications (NFQ)". Quality and Qualifications Ireland. Retrieved 13 July 2016.
- "Georgia Institute of Technology: Evening Program". Retrieved 14 July 2015.
- "What is a Master's degree?". Prospects. Retrieved 9 February 2019.
- "Master's Degree Characteristics Statement" (PDF). QAA. September 2015. Retrieved 9 February 2019.
- "Higher education credit framework for England" (PDF). QAA. August 2008. Retrieved 9 February 2019.
- "The framework of qualifications for the European Higher Education Area" (PDF). European Higher Education Area. 20 May 2005. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 March 2016. Retrieved 10 July 2016.
- ECTS Users' Guide (PDF). European Union. 2015. p. 10. doi:10.2766/87192. ISBN 978-92-79-43559-1.
- "Verification of compatibility of the framework for qualifications of higher education institutions in Scotland with the framework for qualifications of the European Higher Education Area" (PDF). Quality Assurance Agency. October 2006.
- "Verification of the compatibility of The framework for higher education qualifications in England, Wales and Northern Ireland (FHEQ) with the Framework for Qualifications of the European Higher Education Area(FQ-EHEA)" (PDF). Quality Assurance Agency. November 2008.
- "Verification of Compatibility of Irish National Framework of Qualifications with the Framework for Qualifications of the European Higher Education Area" (PDF). November 2006.
- "Verification of Compatibility of Irish National Framework of Qualifications with the Framework for Qualifications of the European Higher Education Area" (PDF). November 2006. p. 7.
- "Applying for a Masters degree". prospects.ac.uk. Graduate Prospects. June 2016. Retrieved 13 July 2016.
- "FAQs about postgraduate study". UCAS. Retrieved 14 July 2016.
- "Graduate Admissions Tests at a Glance: GMAT, GRE, LSAT, TOEFL & IELTS". Top Universities. QS Quacquarelli Symonds. 13 November 2013. Retrieved 14 July 2016.
- "ΦΕΚ 54". Journal of the Government of the Greek Republic (in Greek). 54 (Appendix). Athens, Greece. August 1, 1978.
- European Commission/EACEA/Eurydice (2015). The European Higher Education Area in 2015: Bologna Process Implementation Report (Report). Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union. p. 17.
- European Commission/EACEA/Eurydice (2015). The European Higher Education Area in 2015: Bologna Process Implementation Report (Report). Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union. pp. 54–56.
- Verification of compatibility of the Danish National Qualifications Framework for Higher Education with the Framework for Qualifications of the European Higher Education Area (PDF). The Danish Evaluation Institute. November 2009. pp. 17–18. ISBN 978-87-7958-556-0.
- "Organisation licence master doctorat (L.M.D.)" (in French). Ministère de l'Education nationale, de l'Enseignement supérieur et de la Recherche. 30 September 2014. Retrieved 10 July 2016.
- "Degree & recognition". Centre International de Formation Europëenne. Retrieved 10 July 2016.
- "The French National Qualifications Framework". Commission nationale de la certification professionnelle. Retrieved 10 July 2016.
- "Ministero dell'Istruzione, dell'Università e della Ricerca". Attiministeriali.muir.it. Retrieved 28 November 2014.
- "wetten.nl - Wet- en regelgeving - Wet op het hoger onderwijs en wetenschappelijk onderzoek - BWBR0005682". Wetten.overheid.nl. Retrieved 13 October 2014.
- Archived May 12, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
- "Ministerie van Onderwijs, Cultuur en Wetenschap". Minocw.nl. Archived from the original on 10 February 2009. Retrieved 28 November 2014.
- "Citizens' questions letter from Dutch Department of Education, Culture and Science" (PDF). Members.home.nl. Retrieved 28 November 2014.
- Kees™ Internetbureau. "titulatuur: drs. A. Jansen, M.B.A. - Genootschap Onze Taal". Onzetaal.nl. Archived from the original on 8 August 2011. Retrieved 28 November 2014.
- Archived September 28, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
- "European higher education area - Slovenia". ehea.info. Retrieved 2017-11-23.
- "European higher education area - Croatia". ehea.info. Retrieved 2017-11-23.
- "Real Decreto 967/2014". Ministerio de Educación, Cultura y Deporte. Retrieved 3 August 2017.
- "Graduate School, Technion – Israel Institute of Technology". technion.ac.il.