Masmak fort

The Masmak (Arabic: قصر المصمك, romanized: Qaṣr al-Maṣmak) is a clay and mud-brick fort, with four watchtowers and thick walls, founded on stone blocks, lying in the center of Riyadh, in the old quarters. This building played a major part in the kingdom's history, as it was here that the recapture of Riyadh, led by Ibn Saud, occurred on 14 January 1902.

Masmak Fort
General information
Town or cityRiyadh
CountrySaudi Arabia
Construction started1865


This building was built around 1865 by the prince of Riyadh Abdulrahman ibn Sulaiman ibn Dabaan under the reign of Mohammed ibn Abdullah ibn Rasheed (1289–1315 AH), the ruler of Ha'il to the north, who had wrested control of the city from the rival empirebuilding, local clan of Al Saud. In January 1902 the young Amir Abdulaziz bin Abdul Rahman bin Faisal Al Saud, who was at the time living in exile in Kuwait succeeded in capturing the Masmak fortress from its Rashid garrison in the Battle of Riyadh). The event, which restored Al Saud control over Riyadh, has acquired almost mythical status in the history of Saudi Arabia and has been retold many times, but has as its central theme the heroism and bravery of the future King Abdulaziz.

The building was situated in the commercial center of the old city of Riyadh.[1] It was used by King Abdulaziz from 1902 to 1938 when he moved his court to then newly built Murabba Palace.[2]

Appearance and modern usage

At the beginning of the 1980s, the fort was renovated.[3] Then it became part of the King Abdulaziz Historical Centre, a series of restored buildings in Riyadh.[3] Centennial celebrations were held in 1999.

Its palm tree gate is 3.65 meters (12.0 ft) high by 2.65 meters (8.7 ft) wide. There is an opening on the center of the door, called al-Khokha, which is just big enough for one person to pass at a time, and is a defensive feature designed to allow people in and out without opening the door. The castle also encloses a mosque and a well. The roofs are covered with painted palm-tree, taramic and ethel wood, the communicating doors of the labyrinthine rooms and courtyards inside are of painted wood.

The museum includes the display of many antique guns, costumes and agriculture artifacts.

Opening hours

The site is open for all visitors. The opening hours are:[4]

DayMorning (09:00 - 12:00)Evening (16:00 - 21:00)
Sun, Tue, ThuMenMen
Mon, WedsFamiliesFamilies
FriClosedFamilies (16:00-19:30)
SatMenFamilies (16:00-19:30)


  1. Jonathan M. Bloom; Sheila Blair (2009). The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture: Delhi to Mosque. Oxford University Press. p. 2. ISBN 978-0-19-530991-1. Retrieved 22 July 2013.
  2. "Historic Riyadh". Simbacom. Retrieved 22 July 2013.
  3. "Riyadh". Meet Saudi Arabia. 2012. Retrieved 22 July 2013.
  4. متحف المصمك التاريخي

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