# Markup (business)

**Markup** (or **price spread**) is the difference between the selling price of a good or service and cost. It is often expressed as a percentage over the cost. A markup is added into the total cost incurred by the producer of a good or service in order to cover the costs of doing business and create a profit. The total cost reflects the total amount of both fixed and variable expenses to produce and distribute a product.[1] Markup can be expressed as a fixed amount or as a percentage of the total cost or selling price.[2] Retail markup is commonly calculated as the difference between wholesale price and retail price, as a percentage of wholesale. Other methods are also used.

## Price determination

### Profit

- Assume: Sale price is 2500, Product cost is 2000

- Profit = Sale price − Cost[3]
- 500 = 2500 − 2000

### Markup

Below shows markup as a percentage of the cost added to the cost to create a new total (i.e. cost plus).

- Cost × (1 + Markup) = Sale price

- or solved for Markup = (Sale price / Cost) − 1
- or solved for Markup = (Sale price − Cost) / Cost

- Assume the sale price is $1.99 and the cost is $1.40

- Markup = ($1.99 / 1.40) − 1 = 42%
- or Markup = ($1.99 − $1.40) / $1.40 = 42%

- To convert from markup to profit margin:

- Sale price − Cost = Sale price × Profit margin
- therefore Profit Margin = (Sale price − Cost) / Sale price
- Margin = 1 − (1 / (Markup + 1))
- or Margin = Markup/(Markup + 1)
- Margin = 1 − (1 / (1 + 0.42)) = 29.5%
- or Margin = ($1.99 − $1.40) / $1.99 = 29.6%

Another method of calculating markup is based on percentage of cost. This method eliminates the two-step process above and incorporates the ability of discount pricing.

- For instance cost of an item is 75.00 with 25% markup discount.

- 75.00/(1 − .25) = 75.00/.75 = 100.00

Comparing the two methods for discounting:

- 75.00 × (1 + .25) = 93.75 sale price with a 25% discount

- 93.75 × (1 − .25) = 93.75 × .75 = 70.31(25)
- cost was 75.00 and if sold for 70.31 both the markup and the discount is 25%

- 75.00 /(1 − .25) = 100.00 sale price with a 25% discount

- 100.00 × (1 − .25) = 100.00 × .75 = 75.00
- cost was 75.00 and if sold for 75.00 both the profit margin and the discount is 25%

These examples show the difference between adding a percentage of a number to a number and asking of what number is this number X% of. If the markup has to include more than just profit, such as overhead, it can be included as such:

- cost × 1.25 = sale price

or

- cost / .75 = sale price

### Aggregate supply framework

P = (1+μ) W. Where μ is the markup over costs. This is the pricing equation.

W = F(u,z) Pe . This is the wage setting relation. u is unemployment which negatively affects wages and z the catch all variable positively affects wages.

- Sub the wage setting into the price setting to get the aggregate supply curve.

P = Pe(1+μ) F(u,z). This is the aggregate supply curve. Where the price is determined by expected price, unemployment and z the catch all variable.

## References

- Pradhan, Swapna (2007).
*Retailing Management*. Tata McGraw-Hill. ISBN 978-0-07-062020-9. - Ingels, Jack (2009).
*Ornamental Horticulture: Science, Operations, & Management*. Cengage Learning. p. 601. ISBN 978-1-4354-9816-7. - Farris P.W., Bendle N.T., Pfeifer P.E. and Reibstein D.J. (2010). Marketing metrics : The Definitive Guide to Measuring Marketing Performance, Pearson Education.