# Margolus–Levitin theorem

The **Margolus–Levitin theorem**, named for Norman Margolus and Lev B. Levitin, gives a fundamental limit on quantum computation (strictly speaking on all forms on computation). The processing rate cannot be higher than 6 × 10^{33} operations per second per joule of energy. Or stating the bound for one bit:

- A quantum system of energy
*E*needs at least a time of to go from one state to an orthogonal state, where*h*is Planck's constant (6.626 × 10^{−34}J·s) and*E*is average energy.

## See also

## References

- Norman Margolus, Lev B. Levitin (1998). "The maximum speed of dynamical evolution".
*Physica D*.**120**: 188–195. arXiv:quant-ph/9710043. Bibcode:1998PhyD..120..188M. doi:10.1016/S0167-2789(98)00054-2.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link) - Deffner, Sebastian; Campbell, Steve (2017), "Quantum speed limits",
*Journal of Physics A*,**50**: 453001, arXiv:1705.08023, Bibcode:2017JPhA...50S3001D, doi:10.1088/1751-8121/aa86c6 - Jordan, Stephen P. (2017), "Fast quantum computation at arbitrarily low energy" (PDF),
*Physical Review A*,**95**: 032305, arXiv:1701.01175, Bibcode:2017PhRvA..95c2305J, doi:10.1103/PhysRevA.95.032305 - Lloyd, Seth; Ng, Y. Jack, "Black Hole Computers",
*Scientific American*(April 2007), p. 53–61 - Sinitsyn, Nikolai A. (2017). "Is there a quantum limit on speed of computation?" (PDF). arXiv:1701.05550. Bibcode:2018PhLA..382..477S. doi:10.1016/j.physleta.2017.12.042. Cite journal requires
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