Margaret Hamilton (actress)

Margaret Brainard Hamilton (December 9, 1902 – May 16, 1985) was an American film character actor best known for her portrayal of Miss Almira Gulch and the Wicked Witch of the West in Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer's classic film The Wizard of Oz (1939).[1]

Margaret Hamilton
Hamilton c. 1958
Margaret Brainard Hamilton

(1902-12-09)December 9, 1902
Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.
DiedMay 16, 1985(1985-05-16) (aged 82)
Resting placeAshes scattered at Amenia, New York
EducationHathaway Brown School
Alma materWheelock College
OccupationActress, schoolteacher
Years active1933–1982
Notable work
The Wicked Witch of the West in MGM's The Wizard of Oz (1939)
Paul Meserve
(m. 1931; div. 1938)
RelativesNeil Hamilton (distant cousin)
Dorothy Hamilton Brush (sister)

A former schoolteacher, she worked as a character actress in films for seven years before she was offered the role that defined her public image. In later years, Hamilton made frequent cameo appearances on television sitcoms and commercials. She also gained recognition for her work as an advocate of causes designed to benefit children and animals, and retained a lifelong commitment to public education. The Wicked Witch of the West was eventually ranked number four in the American Film Institute's 2003 list of the 50 Best Movie Villains of All Time, making her the top-ranking female villain.

Early life

Hamilton was born to Walter J. Hamilton, and his wife, Mary Jane (née Adams; known by her nickname, Jennie), in Cleveland, Ohio, and was the youngest of four children. She attended Hathaway Brown School, while the school was at 1945 East 93rd Street in Cleveland. Drawn to the theater at an early age, Hamilton made her stage debut in 1923. Hamilton also practiced her craft doing children's theater while she was a Junior League of Cleveland member. She later moved to Painesville, Ohio. Before she turned to acting exclusively, her parents insisted she attend Wheelock College in Boston, which she did, later becoming a kindergarten teacher.

Film career

Hamilton's career as a film actress was driven by the very qualities that placed her in stark contrast to the stereotypical Hollywood glamour girl. Her image was of a New England spinster, extremely pragmatic and impatient with all manner of "tomfoolery". Hamilton's looks helped to bring steady work as a character actor. She made her screen debut in 1933 in Another Language. She went on to appear in These Three (1936), Saratoga, You Only Live Once, When's Your Birthday?, Nothing Sacred (all 1937), The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (1938), My Little Chickadee (with W. C. Fields, 1940), and The Sin of Harold Diddlebock (with Harold Lloyd, (1947). She strove to work as much as possible to support herself and her son; she never put herself under contract to any one studio and priced her services at $1,000 ($17,400 with inflation[2]) a week.[3]

Hamilton costarred opposite Buster Keaton and Richard Cromwell in a 1940s spoof of the long-running local melodrama The Drunkard, titled The Villain Still Pursued Her. Later in the decade, she was in a little-known film noir, titled Bungalow 13 (1948), in which she again costarred opposite Cromwell. Her crisp voice with rapid but clear enunciation was another trademark. She appeared regularly in supporting roles in films until the early 1950s, and sporadically thereafter. Opposite Bud Abbott and Lou Costello, she played a heavily made-up witch in Comin' Round the Mountain, where her character and Costello go toe-to-toe with voodoo dolls made of each other. She appeared, uncredited, in Joseph L. Mankiewicz's People Will Talk (1951) as Sarah Pickett. In 1960, producer/director William Castle cast Hamilton as a housekeeper in his 13 Ghosts horror film, in which 12-year-old lead Charles Herbert taunts her about being a witch, including one scene in which she is holding a broom in her hand.

The Wizard of Oz

In 1939, Hamilton played the role of the Wicked Witch of the West, opposite Judy Garland's Dorothy Gale in The Wizard of Oz, creating not only her most famous role, but also one of the screen's most memorable villains. Hamilton was cast after Gale Sondergaard, who was first considered for the role, albeit as a more glamorous witch with a musical scene, declined the role when the decision was made that the witch should appear ugly.[4]

She suffered a second-degree burn on her face and a third-degree burn on her hand during a second take of her fiery exit from Munchkinland, in which the trap door's drop was delayed to eliminate the brief glimpse of it seen in the final edit. Hamilton had to recuperate in a hospital and at home for six weeks after the accident before returning to the set to complete her work on the film, and refused to have anything further to do with fire for the rest of the filming. After she recuperated, she said, "I won't sue, because I know how this business works, and I would never work again. I will return to work on one condition – no more fireworks!" Garland visited Hamilton while the latter recuperated at home looking after her son.[5] Studio executives cut some of Hamilton's more frightening scenes, worrying they would frighten children too much. Later on in life, she would comment on the role of the witch in a light-hearted fashion. For an interview, she joked:

I was in need of money at the time, I had done about six pictures for MGM at the time and my agent called. I said, 'Yes?' and he said 'Maggie, they want you to play a part on the Wizard.' I said to myself, 'Oh, boy, The Wizard of Oz! That has been my favorite book since I was four.' And I asked him what part, and he said, 'The Witch,' and I said, 'The Witch?!' and he said, 'What else?'[6]

Hamilton's stand-in and stunt double for the Witch, Betty Danko, also suffered an on-set accident on February 11, 1939. Danko made the fiery entrance to Munchkinland, not Hamilton. She was severely burned during the "Surrender Dorothy!" skywriting sequence at the Emerald City. Danko sat on a smoking pipe configured to look like the Witch's broomstick. The pipe exploded on the third take of the scene. She spent 11 days in the hospital and her legs were permanently scarred. A new stunt double, Aline Goodwin, was hired to finish the broomstick-riding scene for Danko.

When asked about her experiences on the set of The Wizard of Oz, Hamilton said her biggest fear was her monstrous film role would give children the wrong idea of who she really was. In reality, she cared deeply about children, frequently giving to charitable organizations. She often remarked about children coming up to her and asking her why she had been so mean to Dorothy. She appeared on an episode of Mister Rogers' Neighborhood in 1975, where she explained to children she was only playing a role and showed how putting on a costume "transformed" her into the witch.[7] She also made personal appearances, and Hamilton described the children's usual reaction to her portrayal of the Witch:

Almost always they want me to laugh like the Witch. And sometimes when I go to schools, if we're in an auditorium, I'll do it. And there's always a funny reaction, like 'Ye gods, they wish they hadn't asked.' They're scared. They're really scared for a second. Even adolescents. I guess for a minute they get the feeling they got when they watched the picture. They like to hear it but they 'don't' like to hear it. And then they go, 'Ohhhhhhhhhh ... !' The picture made a terrible impression of some kind on them, sometimes a ghastly impression, but most of them got over it, I guess ... because when I talk like the Witch, and when I laugh, there is a hesitation and then they clap. They're clapping at hearing the sound again.[8]

Hamilton played two credited roles in the famous film: Almira Gulch and the Wicked Witch of the West. Hamilton also appears as an unidentified flying witch during the tornado scene, which may have been the Wicked Witch of the West or her sister, the Wicked Witch of the East. If the latter case, this would be Hamilton's third but uncredited role. Only co-star Frank Morgan played more roles in the film (five roles). Hamilton and Morgan never share any scenes in Oz. However, in By Your Leave (1934), she plays his housekeeper, and in Saratoga (1937), she has a colloquy with Morgan regarding a cosmetic product he invented (with side glances and eye rolls by Morgan as to its effect on her "beauty"). Hamilton's line from The Wizard of Oz – "I'll get you, my pretty, and your little dog, too!" – was ranked 99th in the 2005 American Film Institute survey of the most memorable movie quotes. Her son, interviewed for the 2005 DVD edition of the film, commented that Hamilton enjoyed the line so much, she sometimes used it in her real life. A few months after filming Oz, she appeared in Babes in Arms (1939) as Jeff Steele's aunt, Martha, a society do-gooder who made it her goal to send the gang of child actors, led by Mickey Rooney and Judy Garland, to a work farm. In 1945, she played the domineering sister of Oz co-star Jack Haley in George White's Scandals, comically trying to prevent him from marrying actress Joan Davis, even going so far as to throw a hatchet at her. Hamilton and Ray Bolger were cast members in the 1966 fantasy film The Daydreamer, a collection of stories by Hans Christian Andersen. A few years later, they were reunited on Broadway for the short-lived musical Come Summer.

Radio, television, and stage career

In the 1940s and 1950s, Hamilton had a long-running role on the radio series Ethel and Albert (or The Couple Next Door) in which she played the lovable, scattered Aunt Eva (name later changed to Aunt Effie). During the 1960s and 1970s, Hamilton appeared regularly on television. She did a stint as a What's My Line? mystery guest on the popular Sunday night CBS-TV program. She played Morticia Addams' mother, Hester Frump, in three episodes of The Addams Family. (1965–66; Hamilton had been offered the role of Grandmama, but turned it down.)

In 1962, Hamilton played Leora Scofield, a suffragette who arrives in Laramie, Wyoming, to bolster feminist causes in a territory where women had already obtained the right to vote, in the episode "Beyond Justice" of NBC's Laramie. In the story line, she is depicted as a long-lost friend of series character Daisy Cooper, played by Spring Byington. Series lead character Slim Sherman (John Smith) is skeptical of the suffragettes, and Sheriff Mort Corey and he concoct a tale the women should head to Cheyenne, where their services are more needed than in Laramie.[9]

Having started on the stage in the early 1930s, she began to work extensively in the theater after leaving Los Angeles, and appeared on Broadway in the musical Goldilocks opposite Don Ameche and Elaine Stritch, gave a lighter touch to the domineering Parthy Anne Hawks in the 1966 revival of Show Boat (dancing with David Wayne), and was the tender Aunt Eller in the 1968 Lincoln Center revival of Oklahoma!. Hamilton also toured in many plays and musicals, even repeating her role of the Wicked Witch in specially written stage productions of The Wizard of Oz. For her last stage role, she was cast as Madame Armfeldt in the Stephen Sondheim musical A Little Night Music, singing the song "Liaisons" for the national tour costarring with Jean Simmons as her daughter Desiree.

Even with her extensive film career, Hamilton took roles in whatever medium she could get if she was free, making her soap-opera debut as the nasty Mrs. Sayre on Valiant Lady, who schemed to prevent her daughter from marrying the heroine's son. In the 1960s, Hamilton was a regular on another CBS soap opera, The Secret Storm, playing the role of Grace Tyrell's housekeeper, Katie. For ABC's short-lived radio anthology Theatre-Five, she played a manipulative ailing Aunt Lettie to Joan Lorring as the unhappy niece Maude in "Noose of Pearls." In the early 1970s, she joined the cast of another CBS soap opera, As the World Turns, on which she played Miss Peterson, Simon Gilbey's assistant. She had a small role in the made-for-television film The Night Strangler (1973), and appeared as a befuddled neighbor on Sigmund and the Sea Monsters, who is a friend of the very similar Mary Wickes. In The Paul Lynde Halloween Special (1976), she portrayed Lynde's housekeeper, reprising the Wicked Witch role, as well as introducing Lynde to the rock group Kiss. She reprised her role as the Wicked Witch in an episode of Sesame Street, but as a result of complaints from parents of terrified children, the episode has not been seen since 1976. She appeared as herself in three episodes of Mister Rogers' Neighborhood, between 1975 and 1976, because Fred Rogers wanted his viewers to recognize the Wicked Witch was just a character and not something to be afraid of.[10] Hamilton continued acting regularly until 1982, her last roles were two guest appearances as veteran journalist Thea Taft (in 1979 and 1982) on Lou Grant.

Throughout the 1970s, Hamilton lived in New York City's Gramercy Park neighborhood and appeared on local (and some national) public-service announcements for organizations promoting the welfare of pets. Her most visible appearances during this period were as general store owner Cora, in a national series of television commercials for Maxwell House coffee.[11][12][13] On October 30, 1975 she guest-starred on the radio revival series CBS Radio Mystery Theater. In the episode, entitled "Triptych for a Witch," Hamilton played the title role.

Hamilton produced the stage productions An Evening with the Bourgeoisie, The Three Sisters, and House Party.[14]

Personal life

Hamilton remained a lifelong friend of The Wizard of Oz castmate Ray Bolger. She married Paul Boynton Meserve on June 13, 1931, and made her debut on the New York City stage the following year. While her acting career developed, her marriage began to fail; the couple divorced in 1938. They had one son, Hamilton Wadsworth Meserve (born 1936), whom she raised on her own. She had three grandchildren, Christopher, Scott, and Margaret. Hamilton never remarried.[15]

Final years and death

Hamilton's early experience as a teacher fueled a lifelong interest in educational issues. She served on the Beverly Hills Board of Education from 1948 to 1951, and was a Sunday school teacher during the 1950s. She lived in Manhattan for most of her adult life. In 1979, she was a guest speaker at a University of Connecticut children's literature class. She later moved to Millbrook, New York. She subsequently developed Alzheimer's disease, and died in her sleep following a heart attack on May 16, 1985, in Salisbury, Connecticut. She was 82 years old.[1] Her body was cremated at Poughkeepsie Rural Cemetery, and her ashes were scattered at Amenia, New York, which is north of New York City and only 5 miles west of Connecticut.



Year Title Role Notes
1933 Zoo in Budapest Assistant Matron for orphans Uncredited
Another Language Helen Hallam
1934 Hat, Coat, and Glove Madame Du Barry
There's Always Tomorrow Ella
By Your Leave Whiffen
Broadway Bill Edna
1935 The Farmer Takes a Wife Lucy Gurget
Way Down East Martha Perkins
1936 Chatterbox Emily 'Tippie' Tipton
These Three Agatha
The Moon's Our Home Mitty Simpson
The Witness Chair Grace Franklin
Laughing at Trouble Lizzie Beadle
1937 You Only Live Once Hester
When's Your Birthday? Mossy
The Good Old Soak Minnie
Mountain Justice Phoebe Lamb
Saratoga Maizie Uncredited
I'll Take Romance Margot
Nothing Sacred Vermont Drugstore Lady
1938 The Adventures of Tom Sawyer Mrs. Harper
A Slight Case of Murder Mrs. Cagle
Mother Carey's Chickens Mrs. Pauline Fuller
Four's a Crowd Amy
Breaking the Ice Mrs. Small
Stablemates Beulah Flanders
1939 The Wizard of Oz Miss Almira Gulch / The Wicked Witch of the West
The Angels Wash Their Faces Miss Hannaberry
Babes in Arms Martha Steele
Main Street Lawyer Lucy, Boggs' Housekeeper
1940 My Little Chickadee Mrs. Gideon
The Villain Still Pursued Her Mrs. Wilson
I'm Nobody's Sweetheart Now Mrs. Thriffie
The Invisible Woman Mrs. Jackson
1941 Play Girl Josie
The Gay Vagabond Agatha Badger
1942 Twin Beds Norah
Meet the Stewarts Willametta
The Affairs of Martha Guinevere
1943 City Without Men Dora
The Ox-Bow Incident Mrs. Larch Uncredited
Johnny Come Lately Myrtle Ferguson
1944 Guest in the House Hilda - the Maid
1945 George White's Scandals Clarabelle Evans
1946 Janie Gets Married Mrs. Angles
Faithful in My Fashion Miss Applegate
1947 The Sin of Harold Diddlebock Flora
Dishonored Lady Mrs. Geiger
Pet Peeves Haughty Woman
Driftwood Essie Keenan
1948 Reaching from Heaven Sophie Manley
State of the Union Norah
Texas, Brooklyn and Heaven Ruby Cheever
Bungalow 13 Mrs. Theresa Appleby
1949 The Sun Comes Up Mrs. Golightly
The Red Pony Teacher
The Beautiful Blonde from Bashful Bend Mrs. Elvira O'Toole Uncredited
1950 The Great Plane Robbery Mrs. Judd
Wabash Avenue Tillie Hutch
Riding High Edna
1951 Comin' Round the Mountain Aunt Huddy
People Will Talk Miss Sarah Pickett - Housekeeper Uncredited
1960 13 Ghosts Elaine Zacharides
1962 The Good Years Narrator
Paradise Alley Mrs. Nicholson
1966 The Daydreamer Mrs. Klopplebobbler
1967 Rosie! Mae
1969 Angel in My Pocket Rhoda
1970 Brewster McCloud Daphne Heap
1971 The Anderson Tapes Miss Kaler
1972 Journey Back to Oz Aunt Em (Voice)


Year Title Role Notes
1950–51 The Bigelow Theatre Mrs. Greenstreet Episodes:
  • "Papa Romani" (S 1:Ep 2)
  • "Dear Amanda" (S 1:Ep 15)
1952 Gulf Playhouse Guest Episode: (S 1:Ep 3)
My Hero Mrs. Morgan Episode: "Lady Mortician" (S 1:Ep 2)
1953 Lux Video Theatre Charity Ames Episode: "Wind on the Way" (S 3:Ep 42)
Ethel and Albert Aunt Eva 2 episodes
Man Against Crime Mrs. Barker Episode: "A Family Affair" (S 4:Ep 26)
A String of Blue Beads Mrs. Loomis Made-for-TV Movie
Man Against Crime Mrs. Parmalee Episode: "Petite Larceny" (S 5:Ep 11)
1954 The Campbell Playhouse Guest Epiisode: "An Eye for an Eye" (S 2:Ep 35)
The Best of Broadway Sarah Episode: "The Man Who Came to Dinner" (S 1:Ep 2)
Center Stage Guest Episode: "Lucky Louie" (S 1:Ep 5)
The Elgin Hour Gwen Episode: "Warm Clay" (S 1:Ep 4)
1955 The Best of Broadway Usher Episode: "The Guardsman" (S 1:Ep 7)
Valiant Lady Mrs. Sayre Main cast member
The Devil's Disciple Mrs. Dudgeon Made-for-TV Movie
The Way of the World Guest Short lived Tv series
1957 On Borrowed Time Demetria Riffle Made-for-TV Movie
1958 The Christmas Tree Miss Finch Made-for-TV Movie
1959 Once Upon a Christmas Time Miss Scugg Made-for-TV Movie
1960 Dow Hour of Great Mysteries Lizzie Allen
The Secret World of Eddie Hodges Mrs. Grundy Made-for-TV Movie
1962 Laramie Leora Scofield Episode: "Beyond Justice" (S 4:Ep 9)
'The Danny Thomas Show Miss Fenwick Episode: "Bunny, the Brownie Leader" (S 10:Ep 13)
Car 54, Where Are You? Spinster Episode: "Benny the Bookie's Last Chance" (S 2:Ep 17)
The Patty Duke Show The Lane Family housekeeper Episode: "Double Date" (S 1:Ep 10)
Car 54, Where Are You? Miss Pownthleroy Episode: "Here Comes Charlie" (S 2:Ep 23)
The Patty Duke Show Mrs. Williams Episode: "Let 'Em Eat Cake" (S 1:Ep 21)
1964–67 The Secret Storm Katie Recurring
1965–66 The Addams Family Hester Frump Recurring
1967 Ghostbreakers Ivy Rumson Made-for-TV Movie
1970 As the World Turns Miss Peterson#2 Recurring
1971 Is There a Doctor in the House Emma Proctor Made-for-TV Movie
1973 Sigmund and the Sea Monsters Mrs. Eddels Recurring
The Night Strangler Professor Crabwell Made-for-TV Movie
The Partridge Family Clara Kincaid Episode: "Reuben Kincaid Lives" (S 4:Ep 5)
1975–76 Mister Rogers' Neighborhood Herself / Margaret H. Witch 4 episodes
1976 Sesame Street Herself / Wicked Witch of the West Episode: Episode #7.52 (S 7:Ep 52)
The Paul Lynde Halloween Special The Wicked Witch of the West Reprisal for a Halloween Special
1979 Lou Grant Thea Taft Episode: "Hollywood" (S 3:Ep 12)
Letters from Frank Grandma Miller Made-for-TV Movie
1982 Lou Grant Thea Taft Episode: "Review" (S 5:Ep 12)
Pardon Me For Living Miss Holderness Made-for-TV Movie


  1. "Margaret Hamilton, 82, Dies; Played Wicked Witch In 'Oz'". New York Times. May 17, 1985. Retrieved 2007-07-21. Margaret Hamilton, the actress whose role as the cackling Wicked Witch of the West in The Wizard of Oz unnerved generations of children, died yesterday, apparently of a heart attack, at a nursing home in Salisbury, Connecticut. She was 82 years old. Miss Hamilton was a gentle, lively woman who taught kindergarten for years before she began a career of 50 years in the theater, movies, radio and television. But she seared a fearsome image on the public consciousness in 1939 when, at the age of 36, she played the Wicked Witch, the terror of Judy Garland's long dream in the classic film of L. Frank Baum's story.
  2. Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. "Consumer Price Index (estimate) 1800–". Retrieved January 2, 2019.
  3. Harmetz, A. (1998). The Making of the Wizard of Oz: Movie Magic and Studio Power in the Prime of MGM, New York: Hyperion Books. p. 123
  4. How well do you know Oz?; retrieved October 6, 2013
  5. Harmetz, A. (1998). The Making of The Wizard of Oz: Movie Magic and Studio Power in the Prime of MGM. New York: Hyperion Books.
  6. Wizard of Oz DVD commentary track
  7. Mister Rogers' Neighborhood, s8ep63 (aired on May 14, 1975)
  8. Harmetz, Aljean; The Making of the Wizard of Oz, p. 297
  9. "Beyond Justice: Laramie (TV series), November 27, 1962". IMDb. Retrieved November 19, 2012.
  10. Potempa, Philip (October 27, 2017). "Wicked Witch of the West not always a fright sight". Post-Tribune. Crown Point, IN: Chicago Tribune Media Group. Retrieved March 28, 2018.
  11. 1978 Maxwell House A.D.C. Coffee TV commercial w/Margaret Hamilton as Cora the Storekeeper on YouTube
  12. Maxwell House ad w/Margaret Hamilton, 1978 on YouTube
  13. Maxwell House with Cora #1 on YouTube
  14. Margaret Hamilton profile,; retrieved March 17, 2013.
  15. Juran, Robert A. (1995). Old Familiar Faces: The Great Character Actors and Actresses of Hollywood's Golden Era. Movie Memories Publishing. p. 109.
  16. "Television: April 4, 1960". Time. Time Inc. Orig. (Marc & Lynne Benioff Present). April 4, 1960. Retrieved February 3, 2019. Dow Hour of Great Mysteries (NBC, 9-10 p.m.). The first of a series of classic mysteries adapted for TV. Mary Roberts Rinehart's The Bat stars Helen Hayes and Jason Robards Jr. Host: Joseph Welch.
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