Mandiri River

Mandiri River (Indonesian: Ci Mandiri or Cimandiri) is a river in southwestern Java of West Java province, Indonesia.[3][4] It flows mainly in the Sukabumi Regency.[5][6]

Mandiri River
Ci Mandiri, Sungai Cimandiri, Tji Mandiri, Tjimandiri, Tjimandir
The mouth of Cimandiri River at Pelabuhan Ratu Bay (1920–1940)
Location of the river mouth
Mandiri River (Indonesia)
Location
CountryIndonesia
Physical characteristics
Source 
  locationWest Java
Mouth 
  location
Indian Ocean
Length100 km (62 mi)[1]
Basin size2,014.31 km2 (777.73 sq mi)[2]

Hydrology

The river flows from east to west with a length of around 100 km.[1] The upstream of Cimandiri is located on the Mount Pasir Caringin, Sukamanah village, district of Gegerbitung and discharges into Indian Ocean near Pelabuhan Ratu. The tributaries of Cimandiri also flow from Mount Gede, Mount Pangrango, Mount Salak and Mount Halimun. The watershed (Indonesian: Daerah Aliran Sungai/DAS) of Cimandiri has a area of 201,431 hectare, stretching from around Padalarang and the conservation area of Mount Halimun at the upstream to the southwest direction until the river mouth at Pelabuhan Ratu Bay.[2] DAS Cimandiri comprises also the tributaries of Cimandiri: Cicatih, Cipelang, Citarik, Cibodas, and Cidadap, which flow into Pelabuhan Ratu Bay, Sukabumi Regency.[2] DAS Cimandiri is classified as a local watershed, meaning the whole area is contained within one regency and utilized by that one regency; in this case: Sukabumi Regency.[2][5][6]

Tributaries

Some tributaries of Cimandiri with a length of more than 10 km, from the upstream, are:

  1. Cidadap River
  2. Citarik River
  3. Cigadung River
  4. Cicareuh River
  5. Cicatih River
  6. Cibojong River
  7. Cibatu River
  8. Citalahab River
  9. Cipelang River
  10. Cibeureum River
  11. Cijuray River
  12. Cimuncang River
  13. Cikole River
  14. Cikupa River

Geography

The river flows in the southwest area of Java with predominantly tropical monsoon climate (designated as Am in the Köppen-Geiger climate classification).[7] The annual average temperature in the area is 23 °C. The warmest month is October when the average temperature is around 26 °C, and the coldest is January, at 18 °C.[8] The average annual rainfall is 3834 mm. The wettest month is December, with an average of 578 mm rainfall, and the driest is September, with 35 mm rainfall.[9]

See also

References

  1. Kondisi Kualitas Air Sungai, Aktivitas Penangkapan, Dan Pemangku Kepentingan (Stakeholders) Pada Perikanan Sidat Di DAS Cimandiri, Jawa Barat. Seminar Nasional Pengelolaan Pesisir Dan Daerah Aliran Sungai Ke-2, At Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta. 12 Mei 2016
  2. Hartono, Euis Kania Kurniawati, Haadi Kusumah. Pemetaan Potensi Debit Untuk Irigasi Dan Energi Mikro Hidro Pada Sub-DAS Cimandiri Sukabumi (Mapping the Potential Discharge for Irrigation and Micro Hydro Energy in Sub Catchment Area Cimandiri Sukabumi). Program Studi Teknik Sipil, Fakultas Sains dan Teknologi,Universitas Muhammadiyah Sukabumi. Prosiding Seminar Nasional Hasil-Hasil PPM IPB 2016. Hal : 299–311. ISBN 978-602-8853-29-3299 Parameter error in {{ISBN}}: Invalid ISBN.
  3. Rand McNally, The New International Atlas, 1993.
  4. Ci Mandiri – Geonames.org.
  5. Alfaris. "Daerah Aliran Cimandiri". FMIPA UI.
  6. Giri Miharja. "Pengelolaan Ekosistem Daerah Aliran Sungai Cimandiri"
  7. Peel, M C; Finlayson, B L; McMahon, T A (2007). "Updated world map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification". Hydrology and Earth System Sciences. 11 (5): 1633–1644. doi:10.5194/hess-11-1633-2007.
  8. "NASA Earth Observations Data Set Index". NASA. 30 January 2016.
  9. "NASA Earth Observations: Rainfall (1 month – TRMM)". NASA/Tropical Rainfall Monitoring Mission. 30 January 2016.

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