Mallorca (Catalan: [məˈʎɔɾkə], Spanish: [maˈʎoɾka]) or Majorca (English: / - -/, mə-YOR-kə, -JOR-) is the largest island in the Balearic Islands, which are part of Spain and located in the Mediterranean. The native language, as on the rest of the Balearic Islands, is Catalan, which is co-official with Spanish.
Flag of Mallorca
|Major islands||Balearic Islands|
|Area||3,640.11 km2 (1,405.45 sq mi)|
|Highest elevation||1,445 m (4,741 ft)|
|Highest point||Puig Major|
|Capital and largest city||Palma (pop. 404,681)|
|Pop. density||240.45 /km2 (622.76 /sq mi)|
The capital of the island, Palma, is also the capital of the autonomous community of the Balearic Islands. The Balearic Islands have been an autonomous region of Spain since 1983. There are two small islands off the coast of Mallorca: Cabrera (southeast of Palma) and Dragonera (west of Palma). The anthem of Mallorca is "La Balanguera".
Like the other Balearic Islands of Menorca, Ibiza and Formentera, the island is an extremely popular holiday destination, particularly for tourists from Germany and the United Kingdom. The international airport, Palma de Mallorca Airport, is one of the busiest in Spain; it was used by 28.0 million passengers in 2017, increasing every year since 2012.
Little is recorded of the earliest inhabitants of the island. Burial chambers and traces of habitation from the Neolithic period (6000–4000 BC) have been discovered, particularly the prehistoric settlements called talaiots, or talayots. They raised Bronze Age megaliths as part of their Talaiotic culture. A non-exhaustive list is the following:
- Capocorb Vell (Llucmajor municipality)
- Necròpoli de Son Real (east of Can Picafort, Santa Margalida municipality)
- Novetiforme Alemany (Magaluf, Calvià)
- Poblat Talaiòtic de S'Illot (S'Illot, Sant Llorenç des Cardassar municipality)
- Poblat Talaiòtic de Son Fornés (Montuïri municipality)
- Sa Canova de Morell (road to Colònia de Sant Pere, Artà municipality)
- Ses Païsses (Artà municipality)
- Ses Talaies de Can Jordi (Santanyí municipality)
- S'Hospitalet Vell (road to Cales de Mallorca, Manacor municipality)
Phoenicians, Romans, and Late Antiquity
The Phoenicians, a seafaring people from the Levant, arrived around the eighth century BC and established numerous colonies. The island eventually came under the control of Carthage in North Africa, which had become the principal Phoenician city. After the Second Punic War, Carthage lost all of its overseas possessions and the Romans took over.
The island was occupied by the Romans in 123 BC under Quintus Caecilius Metellus Balearicus. It flourished under Roman rule, during which time the towns of Pollentia (Alcúdia), and Palmaria (Palma) were founded. In addition, the northern town of Bocchoris, dating back to pre-Roman times, was a federated city to Rome. The local economy was largely driven by olive cultivation, viticulture, and salt mining. Mallorcan soldiers were valued within the Roman legions for their skill with the sling.
In 427, Gunderic and the Vandals captured the island. Geiseric, son of Gunderic, governed Mallorca and used it as his base to loot and plunder settlements around the Mediterranean, until Roman rule was restored in 465.
Middle Age and Modern history
Late Antiquity and Early Middle Ages
In 902, Issam al-Khawlani(es)(ca) (Arabic: عصام الخولاني) conquered the Balearic Islands, ushering in a new period of prosperity under the Emirate of Córdoba. The town of Palma was reshaped and expanded, and became known as Medina Mayurqa. Later on, with the Caliphate of Córdoba at its height, the Moors improved agriculture with irrigation and developed local industries.
The caliphate was dismembered in 1015. Mallorca came under rule by the Taifa of Dénia, and from 1087 to 1114, was an independent Taifa. During that period, the island was visited by Ibn Hazm. However, an expedition of Pisans and Catalans in 1114–15, led by Ramon Berenguer III, Count of Barcelona, overran the island, laying siege to Palma for eight months. After the city fell, the invaders retreated due to problems in their own lands. They were replaced by the Almoravides from North Africa, who ruled until 1176. The Almoravides were replaced by the Almohad dynasty until 1229. Abú Yahya was the last Moorish leader of Mallorca.
In the ensuing confusion and unrest, King James I of Aragon, also known as James the Conqueror, launched an invasion which landed at Santa Ponça, Mallorca, on 8–9 September 1229 with 15,000 men and 1,500 horses. His forces entered the city of Medina Mayurqa on 31 December 1229. In 1230 he annexed the island to his Crown of Aragon under the name Regnum Maioricae.
From 1479, the Crown of Aragon was in dynastic union with that of Castile. The Barbary corsairs of North Africa often attacked the Balearic Islands, and in response, the people built coastal watchtowers and fortified churches. In 1570, King Philip II of Spain and his advisors were considering complete evacuation of the Balearic islands.
In the early 18th century, the War of the Spanish Succession resulted in the replacement of that dynastic union with a unified Spanish monarchy under the rule of the new Bourbon Dynasty. The last episode of the War of Spanish Succession was the conquest of the island of Mallorca. It took place on 2 July 1715 when the island capitulated to the arrival of a Bourbon fleet. In 1716, the Nueva Planta decrees made Mallorca part of the Spanish province of Baleares, roughly the same to present-day Illes Balears province and autonomous community.
20th century and today
A Nationalist stronghold at the start of the Spanish Civil War, Mallorca was subjected to an amphibious landing, on 16 August 1936, aimed at driving the Nationalists from Mallorca and reclaiming the island for the Republic. Although the Republicans heavily outnumbered their opponents and managed to push 12 km (7.5 mi) inland, superior Nationalist air power, provided mainly by Fascist Italy as part of the Italian occupation of Majorca, forced the Republicans to retreat and to leave the island completely by 12 September. Those events became known as the Battle of Majorca.
Since the 1950s, the advent of mass tourism has transformed the island into a destination for foreign visitors and attracted many service workers from mainland Spain. The boom in tourism caused Palma to grow significantly.
In the 21st century, urban redevelopment, under the so‑called Pla Mirall (English "Mirror Plan"), attracted groups of immigrant workers from outside the European Union, especially from Africa and South America.
A 3,200-year-old well-preserved Bronze Age sword was discovered by archaeologists under the leadership of Jaume Deya and Pablo Galera on the Mallorca Island in the Puigpunyent from the stone megaliths site called Talaiot. Specialists assumed that the weapon was made when the Talaiotic culture was in critical comedown. The sword will be on display at the nearby Majorca Museum.
The capital of Mallorca, Palma, was founded as a Roman camp called Palmaria upon the remains of a Talaiotic settlement. The turbulent history of the city had it subject to several Vandal sackings during the fall of the Western Roman Empire. It was later reconquered by the Byzantines, established by the Moors (who called it Medina Mayurqa), and finally occupied by James I of Aragon. In 1983, Palma became the capital of the autonomous region of the Balearic Islands.
The climate of Mallorca is a Mediterranean climate (Köppen: Csa), with mild and stormy winters and hot, bright, dry summers. Precipitation in the Serra de Tramuntana is markedly higher. Summers are hot in the plains, and winters mild, getting colder in the Tramuntana range, where brief episodes of snow during the winter are not unusual. The two wettest months in Mallorca are October and December.
Mallorca and the other Balearic Islands are geologically an extension of the fold mountains of the Betic Cordillera of Andalusia. They consist primarily of sediments deposited in the Tethys Sea during the Mesozoic era. These marine deposits have given rise to calcareous rocks which are often fossiliferous. The folding of the Betic Cordillera and Mallorcan ranges resulted from subduction of the African plate beneath the Eurasian plate with eventual collision. Tectonic movements led to different elevation and lowering zones in the late Tertiary period, which is why the connection to the mainland has been severed at the current sea level.
The limestones, which predominate throughout Mallorca, are readily water-soluble, and have given rise to extensive areas of karst. In addition to limestone, dolomitic rocks are mainly present in the mountainous regions of Mallorca; the Serra de Tramuntana and the Serres de Llevant. The Serres de Llevant also contain marl, the more rapid erosion of which has resulted in the lower elevations of the island’s southeastern mountains. Marl is limestone with a high proportion of clay minerals. The eroded material was washed into the sea or deposited in the interior of the island of the Pla de Mallorca, bright marls in the north-east of the island and ferrous clays in the middle of Mallorca, which gives the soil its characteristic reddish colour.
Mallorca is the largest island of Spain by area and second most populated (after Tenerife in the Canary Islands). Mallorca has two mountainous regions, the Serra de Tramuntana and Serres de Llevant. Each are about 70 km (43 mi) in length and occupy the northwestern and eastern parts of the island respectively.
The highest peak on Mallorca is Puig Major at 1,445 m (4,741 ft) in the Serra de Tramuntana. As this is a military zone, the neighbouring peak at Puig de Massanella is the highest accessible peak at 1,364 m (4,475 ft). The northeast coast comprises two bays: the Badia de Pollença and the larger Badia d'Alcúdia.
The northern coast is rugged and has many cliffs. The central zone, extending from Palma, is a generally flat, fertile plain known as Es Pla. The island has a variety of caves both above and below sea – two of the caves, the above sea level Coves dels Hams and the Coves del Drach, also contain underground lakes and are open to tours. Both are located near the eastern coastal town of Porto Cristo. Small uninhabited islands lie off the southern and western coasts; the Cabrera Archipelago is administratively grouped with Mallorca (in the municipality of Palma), while Dragonara is administratively included in the municipality of Andratx. Other notable areas include the Alfabia Mountains, Es Cornadors and Cap de Formentor.
World Heritage Site
The island is administratively divided into 53 municipalities. The areas and populations of the municipalities (according to the Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Spain) are:
1 November 2001
1 November 2011
1 January 2017
|Lloret de Vistalegre||17.4||981||1,308||1,277|
|Mancor de la Vall||19.9||892||1,321||1,449|
|Maria de la Salut||30.5||1,972||2,122||2,159|
|Santa María del Camí||37.6||4,959||6,443||7,062|
|Sant Llorenç des Cardassar||82.1||6,503||8,490||8,328|
|Vilafranca de Bonany||24.0||2,466||2,984||3,047|
Archduke Ludwig Salvator of Austria
Archduke Ludwig Salvator of Austria (Catalan: Arxiduc Lluís Salvador) was the architect of tourism in the Balearic Islands. He first arrived on the island in 1867, travelling under his title "Count of Neuendorf". He later settled on Mallorca, buying up wild areas of land in order to preserve and enjoy them. Nowadays, a number of trekking routes are named after him.
Ludwig Salvator loved the island of Mallorca. He became fluent in Catalan, carried out research into the island's flora and fauna, history, and culture to produce his main work, Die Balearen, an extremely comprehensive collection of books about the Balearic Islands, consisting of 7 volumes. It took him 22 years to complete.
Chopin in Mallorca
The Polish composer and pianist Frédéric Chopin, together with French writer Amantine Lucile Aurore Dupin (pseudonym: George Sand), resided in Valldemossa in the winter of 1838–39. Apparently, Chopin's health had already deteriorated and his doctor recommended that he go to the Balearic Islands to recuperate, where he still spent a rather miserable winter.
Nonetheless, his time in Mallorca was a productive period for Chopin. He managed to finish the Preludes, Op. 28, that he started writing in 1835. He was also able to undertake work on his Ballade No. 2, Op. 38; two Polonaises, Op. 40; and the Scherzo No. 3, Op. 39.
Literature and painting
French writer Amantine Lucile Aurore Dupin (pseudonym: George Sand), at that time in a relationship with Chopin, described her stay in Mallorca in A Winter in Majorca, published in 1855. Other famous writers used Mallorca as the setting for their works: While on the island, the Nicaraguan poet Rubén Darío started writing the novel El oro de Mallorca, and wrote several poems, such as La isla de oro. Many of the works of Baltasar Porcel take place in Mallorca. Ira Levin set part of his dystopian novel This Perfect Day in Mallorca, making the island a centre of resistance in a world otherwise dominated by a computer.
Agatha Christie visited the island in the early 20th century and stayed in Palma and Port de Pollença. She would later write the book Problem at Pollensa Bay and Other Stories, a collection of short stories, of which the first one takes place in Port de Pollença, starring Parker Pyne.
Jorge Luis Borges visited Mallorca twice, accompanied by his family. He published his poems La estrella (1920) and Catedral (1921) in the regional magazine Baleares. The latter poem shows his admiration for the monumental Cathedral of Palma.
Nobel prize winner Camilo José Cela came to Mallorca in 1954, visiting Pollença, and then moving to Palma, where he settled permanently. In 1956, Cela founded the magazine Papeles de Son Armadans. He is also credited as founder of Alfaguara.
Music and dance
The Ball dels Cossiers is the island's traditional dance. It is believed to have been imported from Catalonia in the 13th or 14th century, after the Argonian conquest of the island under King Jaime I. In the dance, three pairs of dancers, who are typically male, defend a "Lady," who is played by a man or a woman, from a demon or devil. Another Mallorcan dance is Correfoc, an elaborate festival of dance and pyrotechnics that is also of Catalan origin. The island's folk music strongly resembles that of Catalonia, and is centered around traditional instruments like the xeremies (bagpipe) and guitarra de canya (a reed or bone xylophone-like instrument suspended from the neck). While folk music is still played and enjoyed by many on the island, a number of other musical traditions have become popular in Mallorca in the 21st century, including electronic dance music, classical music, and jazz, all of which have annual festivals on the island.
Joan Miró, a Spanish painter, sculptor, and ceramicist, had close ties to the island throughout his life, he married Pilar Juncosa in Palma in 1929 and settled permanently in Mallorca in 1954. The Fundació Pilar i Joan Miró in Mallorca has a collection of his works. Es Baluard in Palma is a museum of modern and contemporary art which exhibits the work of Balearic artists and artists related to the Balearic Islands.
The Evolution Mallorca International Film Festival is the fastest growing Mediterranean film festival and has occurred annually every November since 2011, attracting filmmakers, producers, and directors globally. It is hosted at the Teatro Principal in Palma de Mallorca
Mallorcan cartographic school
Mallorca has a long history of seafaring. The Majorcan cartographic school or the "Catalan school" refers to a collection of cartographers, cosmographers, and navigational instrument makers that flourished in Mallorca and partly in mainland Catalonia in the 13th, 14th and 15th centuries. Mallorcan cosmographers and cartographers developed breakthroughs in cartographic techniques, namely the "normal portolan chart", which was fine-tuned for navigational use and the plotting by compass of navigational routes, prerequisites for the discovery of the New World.
In 2005, there were over 2,400 restaurants on the island of Mallorca according to the Mallorcan Tourist Board, ranging from small bars to full restaurants. Olives and almonds are typical of the Mallorcan diet. Among the foods that are typical from Mallorca are sobrassada, arròs brut (saffron rice cooked with chicken, pork and vegetables), and the sweet pastry ensaïmada. Also Pa amb oli is a popular dish.
Herbs de Majorca is a herbal liqueur.
The main language spoken on the island is Catalan. The two official languages of Mallorca are Catalan and Spanish. The local dialect of Catalan spoken in the island is Mallorquí, with slightly different variants in most villages. Education is bilingual in Catalan and Spanish, with some teaching of English.
In 2012, the then-governing People's Party announced its intention to end preferential treatment for Catalan in the island's schools to bring parity to the two languages of the island. It was said that this could lead Mallorcan Catalan to become extinct in the fairly near future, as it was being used in a situation of diglossia in favour of the Spanish language. As of 2016, with the most recent election in May 2015 sweeping a pro-Catalan party and president into power, the Popular Party's policy of trilingualism (Catalán, Spanish, English) has been dismantled, making this outcome unlikely.
Mallorca is the most populous island in the Balearic Islands and the second most populous island in Spain, after Tenerife, in the Canary Islands, being also the fourth most populous island in the Mediterranean. It has a census population of 859,289 inhabitants (2015).
Since the 1950s, Mallorca has become a major tourist destination, and the tourism business has become the main source of revenue for the island. With thousands of rooms available Mallorca's economy is largely dependent on its tourism industry. Holiday makers are attracted by the large number of beaches, warm weather, and high-quality tourist amenities.
The island's popularity as a tourist destination has steadily grown since the 1950s, with many artists and academics choosing to visit and live on the island. Visitors to Mallorca continued to increase with holiday makers in the 1970s approaching 3 million a year. In 2010 over 6 million visitors came to Mallorca. In 2013, Mallorca was visited by nearly 9.5 million tourists, and the Balearic Islands as a whole reached 13 million tourists. In 2017, ten million tourists visited the island. The rapid growth of the tourism industry has led to some locals protesting the effects of mass tourism on the island.
Attempts to build illegally caused a scandal in 2006 in Port Andratx that the newspaper El País named "caso Andratx". A main reason for illegal building permits, corruption and black market construction is that communities have few ways to finance themselves other than through permits. The former mayor was incarcerated in 2009 after being prosecuted for taking bribes to permit illegal house building.
Top 10 arrivals by nationality
|Rank||Country or territory||2015||2014||2013||2012||2011||2010|
Politics and government
The Balearic Islands, of which Mallorca forms part, are one of the autonomous communities of Spain. As a whole, they are currently governed by the Balearic Islands Socialist Party (PSIB-PSOE), with Francina Armengol as their President.
The autonomous government for the island, called Consell Insular de Mallorca (Mallorca Insular Council), is responsible for culture, roads, railways (see Serveis Ferroviaris de Mallorca) and municipal administration. The current president (as of June 2015) is Miquel Ensenyat, of More for Mallorca.
Spanish Royal Family
The members of the Spanish Royal Family spend their summer holidays in Mallorca where the Marivent Palace is located. The Marivent Palace is the royal family's summer residence. While most royal residences are administered by Patrimonio Nacional, the Marivent Palace, in Palma de Mallorca, one of many Spanish royal sites, is under the care of the Government of the Balearic Islands. As a private residence it is rarely used for official business. Typically, the whole family meets there and on the Fortuna yacht, where they take part in sailing competitions. The Marivent Palace is used for some unofficial business, as when President Hugo Chávez of Venezuela visited King Juan Carlos in 2008 to mend their relationship and normalize diplomatic relations after the King famously said to him, "Why don't you shut up?" during the Ibero-American Summit in November 2007.
Some of the earliest famous Mallorcans lived on the island before its reconquest from the Moors. Famous Mallorcans include:
- Al-Humaydī, Moorish historian, born on the island in 1029.
- Abraham Cresques, a 14th-century Jewish cartographer of the Majorcan cartographic school from Palma, believed to be the author of the Catalan Atlas;
- Robert Graves, English writer, lived for many years in Mallorca, buried in a small churchyard on a hill at Deià.
- Ramon Llull, a friar, writer and philosopher, who wrote the first major work of Catalan Literature;
- Junípero Serra, the Franciscan friar who founded the mission chain in Alta California in 1769.
- Joaquín Jovellar y Soler, 19th century military commander.
- Antonio Maura, two-time Spanish Prime Minister.
Notable residents, alive in modern times
- Eaktay Ahn (1906–1965), founder of the Balearic Symphony Orchestra and composer of Korean national anthem, lived in Mallorca from 1946 until his death in 1965.
- Jeffrey Archer, English novelist, owns a villa in Mallorca.
- Marco Asensio, Spanish footballer, plays for Real Madrid, was born in Palma, Mallorca.
- Miquel Barceló, contemporary painter, created sculptures in Palma Cathedral.
- Concha Buika, contemporary flamenco singer. Concha Buika was born on 11 May 1972, in Palma de Mallorca.
- Jean Batten, the New Zealand aviatrix, died in Mallorca in 1982.
- Maria del Mar Bonet, musician, member of the Catalan language group Els Setze Jutges in the 1960s with brother Joan Ramon Bonet.
- Samuel Bouriah, better known as DJ Sammy, dance artist and producer.
- Faye Emerson and Anne Lindsay Clark, divorcees of Elliott Roosevelt and John Aspinwall Roosevelt (US Officials and sons of Franklin Delano Roosevelt) respectively, retired to Mallorca in 1965. Emerson died in Deià in 1983.
- Sheila Ferguson, resident, a former member of the Three Degrees.
- Rudy Fernández basketball player.
- Curt Flood, baseball player, purchased a bar in Palma, Majorca after leaving the Washington Senators in 1971.
- Antònia Font, contemporary pop band in the Mallorcan dialect of Catalan.
- Toni Kroos, footballer for Real Madrid and German national football team.
- Cynthia Lennon (1939–2015), former wife of John Lennon, lived and died in Mallorca.
- Jorge Lorenzo professional motorcycle road racer, won the world 250cc Grand Prix motorcycle title in 2006 and 2007, and the 2010, 2012 & 2015 MotoGP World Championships.
- Colm Meaney, Irish actor, resides in the town of Sóller.
- Carlos Moyá, former world No.1 tennis player and coach of Rafael Nadal.
- Rafael Nadal, current world No.1 tennis player, lives in Manacor.
- Miguel Ángel Nadal, Rafael Nadal's uncle, former Spanish international footballer.
- John Noakes, former British TV presenter, lived in Andratx.
- Jean Emile Oosterlynck, the Flemish painter, lived in Mallorca from 1979 until his death in 1996.
- Hana Soukupova, supermodel, owns a villa on Mallorca.
- José María Sicilia, painter, resides in the town of Sóller.
- Jørn Utzon, architect best known for designing the Sydney Opera House, designed and built two houses in Mallorca, Can Lis and Can Feliz.
- Agustí Villaronga (born 1953), filmmaker, born in Palma.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Rail transport in Mallorca.|
- Palma de Mallorca Airport
- Mallorca rail network
- Mallorca bus system (TIB)
- Palma Airport Transfers
A trackless train is in operation in several tourist areas.
There are approximately 79 ferries between Mallorca and other destinations every week, most of them to mainland Spain.
A popular 24 km cycle track (segregated cycle lane) runs between Porto Cristo and Cala Bona via Sa Coma and Cala Millor.
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