Malaysian Prison Department
The Malaysian Prison Department (Malay: Jabatan Penjara Malaysia) is a department controlled by the Malaysian Minister of Home Affairs responsible for jails where offenders sentenced by the courts are held. These jails also act as detention and recovery institutions.
|Malaysian Prison Department|
Jabatan Penjara Malaysia
Logo of the Malaysian Prison Department
|Motto||Mesra, Ikhlas dan Berbakti|
(Friendly, Sincere and Dedicated)
|Formed||19 March 1790|
|Size||329,847 km (127,355 sq mi)|
|Governing body||Government of Malaysia|
|Headquarters||Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia|
|Elected officer responsible|
|Parent agency||Ministry of Home Affairs|
|Units||Trup Tindakan Cepat|
Prisons are different from other institutions or organisations found in a modern society. They are places where a group of trained personnel manages and looks after a group of people known as prisoners who are not there voluntarily and are instead forced inside and prevented from leaving by guards, walls and gates. A Prison Department cannot choose its clients and they have no power to release them. These prisoners have to live according to set of prescribed rules, and their movements are tightly controlled.
During the era of British rule and until the arrival of the Japanese in 1942, penal institutions were the responsibility of the individual states' governments with their respective regulations. In the Straits Settlements, a Superintendent based in Singapore, acted as the supervisor and inspected the institutions under his jurisdiction.
The Straits Settlements were the earliest to build their own prisons while the Federated Malay States did so only after the British set up a responsible department. The Taiping Prison, better known as the Taiping Gaol, the largest at the time, was built in 1879. Prisons were built with the main purpose of bringing suffering to the inmates in the hope that this would deter people from committing crimes.
In 1881, Sikh warders were brought in to assist Malay warders while vocational instructors from Hong Kong were used in an effort to introduce trades to the prisons. Among the earliest of these were rock breaking and carpentry. An attempt was made to categorise the inmates in 1882, then in 1889 European warders were appointed at some prisons.
With the formation of the Federated Malay States, Taiping Prison became a detention centre for long-term prisoners from Perak, Pahang, Negeri Sembilan and Selangor. In 1923, a visiting justice system was introduced and prison industries expanded to include printing work, weaving, sewing, rattan weaving, and metalwork. Rock-breaking work was abolished in 1924 and replaced with the pounding of coconut husks.
During the Japanese occupation (1941–1945), the Imperial Japanese Army also used the prisons for POWs. All records of the prisons and its inmates for this period were subsequently destroyed by the Japanese.
After World War II, the Prison Office was established to administer all prisons in Malaya. The post-war era saw the return of peace, and modern administrative methods were introduced. The 1948 Malayan Emergency resulted in an increase in inmate numbers, which in turn caused overcrowding in the prisons. This disrupted the development of the prison system and it was only towards the end of 1949 when peace returned that prison development could be carried out smoothly.
The Prisons Ordinance 1952 and the Prisons Regulations 1953, based on the "modern treatment" concept, were introduced to replace old legislation. In 1953, the Criminal Justice Bill was passed, which abolished use of the cat-o'-nine-tails and replaced the term "penal servitude" with "prison".
Following Independence Day in 1957, the first Prisons Commissioner was appointed to take charge of the administration of all prisons in Malaya. In 1963, with the formation of Malaysia, prisons in Sabah and Sarawak came under the jurisdiction of the Prisons Department.
On 2 November 1995, the Prison Act 1995 was introduced to replace the former Prison Act which in turn was superseded on 1 September 2000 by the Prison Regulations 2000. The previous acts and regulations had been in use for a long time, thus changes and reforms were necessary to meet current needs and demands to streamline prison management and administration.
In an era of development and modernisation, the Malaysian Prison Department realises that it should not to be content with its past achievements, but should instead move forward and innovate in order to assist the prison administration in dealing with modern culture through criminology, penology and overall social control.
- The fourteen-point star represents the 13 States and the Federal Government of Malaysia, while the star and the crescent symbolise Islam, the official religion of Malaysia.
- The crossed keys symbolise the authority and responsibility delegated by the department in the performance of its duties.
- The paddy flower symbolises solidarity and close co-operation by multiracial staff at various levels in the hierarchy.
- The green background, the official colour of the Prisons Department, signifies allegiance to the Malaysian leader.
- Cheerful, Sincere and Dedicated
- Shall faithfully carry out departmental duties to uphold the national criminal legal system and shoulder the task of rehabilitation of offenders entrusted upon the department by the nation with full responsibility and dedication.
- Green colour
- Symbolises the objective of the department to reform citizens who have lapsed into moral decay and turn them into productive individuals who are once again able to fit into society as useful citizens able to fulfill their social obligations.
- Sketch Heart and Hand
- Symbolises the commitment by society to re-accommodate ex-convicts into social institutions without any kind of prejudice which may jeopardise their rehabilitation programme.
- Silver background
Symbolises the sincerity of the departments management system in generating commitment and co-operation among society at large, offender families and the department to ensure the success of rehabilitation programmes.
Prison department organisational structure
|Director General of Prison||Commissioner General of Prison||KJP||Dato' Seri Zulkifli Omar|
|Deputy Director General of Prison||Deputy Commissioner General of Prison||TKJP||Dato' Alzafry Mohamad Alnassif Mohamad Adahan|
|Deputy Director General of Prison||Deputy Commissioner General of Prison||TKJP||Dato' Jamaluddin Saad|
|Deputy Director General of Prison||Deputy Commissioner General of Prison||TKJP||Dato' Haji Abdul Aziz Bin Abdul Razak|
|Perlis Prison Chief||Senior Assistant Commissioner of Prison||PKK||Mat Johir bin Asin @ Hashim|
|Kedah Prison Chief||Senior Deputy Commissioner General of Prison||TKP||Sabri Yaakob|
|Penang Prison Chief||Senior Deputy Commissioner General of Prison||TKP||Roslan Mohamad|
|Perak Prison Chief||Senior Deputy Commissioner General of Prison||TKP||Tan Tian Heng|
|Kelantan Prison Chief||Senior Deputy Commissioner General of Prison||TKP||Hamzani bin Che Ibrahim|
|Terengganu Prison Chief||Senior Deputy Commissioner General of Prison||TKP||Ahmad Saidi Hamzah|
|Pahang Prison Chief||Commissioner of Prison||KP||Dato' Ab Basir bin Mohamad|
|Kuala Lumpur Prison Chief||Commissioner of Prison||KP||Darussalam bin Budin|
|Selangor Prison Chief||Commissioner of Prison||KP||Darussalam bin Budin|
|Negeri Sembilan Prison Chief||Senior Assistant Commissioner of Prison||PKK||Rahmat Bin Rani|
|Malacca Prison Chief||Commissioner of Prison||KP||Abdul Aziz Mohamad|
|Johore Prison Chief||Commissioner of Prison||KP||Abd. Wahab Kassim|
|Sabah Prison Chief||Commissioner of Prison||TKP||Suria Idris|
|Sarawak Prison Chief||Senior Deputy Commissioner General of Prison||TKP||Ajidin bin Salleh|
List of Commissioner General
|Captain Es Lilley||1 April 1946 - 11 September 1949|
|Captain Ov Garrat||11 September 1949 - 1 October 1956|
|Ft. Lt. WB Oliver||1 October 1956 - 2 October 1957|
|Tan Sri Murad Ahmad||3 October 1957 - 24 July 1977|
|Dato' Ibrahim Hj. Mohamed||25 July 1977 - 30 April 1988|
|Dato' Nik Ariffin Nik Omar||1 May 1988 - 7 November 1989|
|Dato' Mohd. Yassin Jaafar||1 March 1990 - 7 February 1994|
|Tan Sri Dato' Seri Mohd Zaman Khan||9 February 1994 - 31 December 1997|
|Dato' Omar Mohamed Dan||1 January 1998 - 16 October 2001|
|KJP Datuk Mustafa Osman||17 October 2001 - 1 June 2009|
|KJP Datuk Seri Zulkifli Omar||1 June 2009 – present|
List of Deputy Commissioner General
|Deputy Commissioner General||Year|
|Dato Ibrahim Mohamed|
|Dato Nik Arifin Nik Omar|
|Mohd Nadzry Kushairi||1990 - 1993|
|Datuk Omar Mohamad Dan||1994 - 1997|
|Datuk Mustafa Osman||1998 - 2001|
|Donald Wee May Keun||2004 - 2005|
|Samsuddin Tan Sri Murad||2005|
|Dato' Seri Zulkifli Omar||2005 - 2009|
|Dato' Wan Mohamad Nazarie Wan Mahmood||2007 - 2011|
|Datuk Hassan Sakimon||2009 - 2017|
|Dato' Wan Abdul Rahman Wan Abdullah||2011 - 2017|
|Dato' Alzafry Mohamad Alnassif Mohamad Adahan||2017 - current|
|Dato' Jamaluddin Saad||2017 - current|
|Dato' Haji Abdul Aziz Bin Abdul Razak||2017 - current|
- Malaysian Prison Headquarters, Kajang
- Sarawak Prison Headquarters, Kuching
- Sabah Prison Headquarters, Kota Kinabalu
- Pokok Sena Prison
- Sungai Petani Prison
- Alor Star Prison
- Penang Prison
- Seberang Prai Prison
- Taiping Prison
- Tapah Prison
- Sg. Buloh Prison
- Kajang Prison
- Kajang Women's Prison
- Jelebu Prison
- Seremban Prison
- Ayer Keroh Prison
- Sg. Udang Prison
- Banda Hilir Prison
- Simpang Renggam Prison
- Kluang Prison
- Bentong Prison
- Penor Prison
- Marang Prison
- Pengkalan Chepa Prison
- Puncak Borneo Prison
- Sibu Prison
- Miri Prison
- Bintulu Prison
- Sri Aman Prison
- Limbang Prison
- Kota Kinabalu Prison
- Kota Kinabalu Women's Prison
- Tawau Prison
- Sandakan Prison
- Perlis Correctional Centre
- Henry Gurney Prisoners School
- Henry Gurney School Kota Kinabalu
- Henry Gurney School Keningau
Defunct Prison and Headquarters
Weaponry and equipment
Malaysian Prison Department operators are equipped with multi-specialized weaponry and marine assault vehicles, including:
|Glock 17||Standard||Not known||In used by prison senior officers as well as Trup Tindakan Cepat (TTC) special team.|
|Smith & Wesson Model 15||Standard||Classified||The S&W .38 service revolvers used by the low rank prisons peronnels.|
|Smith & Wesson M&P||Standard||Not known||In used as service pistols of Prison Department|
|Remington 870 Shotgun||18.5mm breaching shotgun||Not known||Used as main service shotguns.|
|Submachine gun Types|
|Heckler & Koch MP5||Various types||Unknown||Use by TTC and Prisons personnels|
|Assault rifle Types|
|Colt M16||M16A1, M16A4||Unknown||In used by Prisons Department, TTC using the M16A4 with SOPMOD equipment|
|Accuracy International Arctic Warfare||Standard||Unknown||In used by TTC|
|Grenade launcher Types|
|CS Mk.IV||Standard||Unknown||TTC used|
|Non-lethal weapon Types|
Major cases and incidents
1981 Botak Chin
On 1 January 1981, Wong Swee Chin or known as Botak Chin made an unsuccessful attempt to escape from his cell in Pudu Prison. During his attempt, he stabbed several prison wardens but was seriously injured during the struggle. He was executed in the morning of 11 June 1981. Ironically, none of the charges were murder however he was sentenced to death solely for the possession of firearms, a capital offence.
1986 Pudu Prison siege
The Pudu Prison siege began when six prisoners led by Jimmy Chua held a doctor and a laboratory technician hostage on 17 October 1986 and the siege ended six days later on 22 October 1986. On 22 October, the hostage crisis ended without bloodshed when the Malaysian police counter-terrorism group Special Actions Unit (UTK) of PGK stormed the prison and rescued the two hostages led by commander Dato' Zaman Khan.
1987 Kuantan Prison hostage
In January 1987, three Indonesian prisoners arrested Magistrate Mariana Yahya at Kuantan Prison for ransom. However, for up to 24 hours, two of them were shot dead and another was arrested. Mariana was finally released. Datuk Ibrahim Mohamed, was the man who led the Prison Department and as the Director General, his role is very significant in the effort of liberation.
Botak Chin, an infamous gangster who was allegedly betrayed by his own men, was executed here on 11 June 1981 for the possession of firearms.
In 1986 Kevin Barlow and Brian Chambers, both Australian nationals, were executed in Pudu Prison for trafficking heroin. In 1989, Derrick Gregory, a British national was also hanged for heroin trafficking.
In 2001, Mona Fandey was executed.
Malaysian Prison Department in popular culture
- "Home." Prison Department of Malaysia. Retrieved on 7 August 2014. "Malaysia Prison Complex, Kajang Selangor." Map.
- "IBU PEJABAT PENJARA MALAYSIA." Prison Department of Malaysia. Retrieved on 7 August 2014. "Bukit Wira, Beg Berkunci No. 212, 43000 Kajang, SELANGOR DARUL EHSAN"
- "Prisons History". Archived from the original on 12 April 2009. Retrieved 5 August 2009.
- "Prisons Motto". Retrieved 5 August 2009.
- "(Malay) Penjara Pudu ditutup operasinya pada bulan Oktober 1996".
- "(Malay) Penjara Sim Sim telah ditutup pada tahun 1981 dan banduannya dipindahkan ke Penjara Sandakan".
- "Botak Chin stabbed prison officer". Berita Harian.
- "Pudu Jail siege (Malay)". Agenda Daily.
- "Kuantan Prison Hostage".
- "Hero of Kuantan Prison siege". Suara TV. 20 March 2016.
- "Malay Drama - Patahnya Sebelah Sayap".
- "Malay Drama - Disebalik Tirai Besi".
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