Major League Lacrosse

Major League Lacrosse (MLL) is a men's field lacrosse league consisting of six active teams in the United States. The league's inaugural season was in 2001. Teams play 16 regular-season games from late May to late September, with a four-team playoff for the championship trophy, the Steinfeld Trophy. MLL averaged 3,619 spectators per game during the 2018 season, down from a peak of 6,417 in 2011.[1]

Major League Lacrosse
SportField lacrosse
Inaugural season2001
CommissionerAlexander Brown
No. of teams6 (1 on hiatus)
CountryUnited States
Most recent
Chesapeake Bayhawks
(6th title)
Most titlesChesapeake Bayhawks
(6 titles)
TV partner(s)ESPN, Stadium, Lax Sports Network
Official websiteOfficial website
2019 MLL season

As a semi-professional league, MLL players earn annual salaries in the $10,000–$25,000 range.[2][3] Players and staff generally hold other jobs[4][5] and the league does not provide health insurance coverage.[6]

The current champion is the Chesapeake Bayhawks, who defeated the Denver Outlaws 10–9 in the 2019 Championship Game at Dick's Sporting Goods Park in Denver, Colorado.


Founding (2001–2005)

MLL Progression
Year Teams Games Played
2001 6 teams 14 games
2003 12 games
2006 10 teams
2009 6 teams
2012 8 teams 14 games
2016 9 teams
2019 6 teams 16 games

Major League Lacrosse was founded in 1999 by Jake Steinfeld, Dave Morrow and Tim Robertson. Steinfeld is the creator of the Body By Jake line of exercise equipment and videos. Morrow is a former All-American lacrosse player at Princeton and the president of Warrior Sports.[7] Tim Robertson is the son of televangelist Pat Robertson and the former CEO of The Family Channel.[8][9]

Steinfeld was a former lacrosse player at Cortland State (NY), read an article about Dave Morrow. After reading the article, Steinfeld couldn't believe that with the excitement the sport of lacrosse has, there was not a professional outdoor league.[10] Steinfeld said, "For years, America's top collegiate lacrosse players have not had the opportunity to play in a professional outdoor league at the conclusion of their collegiate careers. Those days are over with the creation of Major League Lacrosse."[10]

The league held two separate drafts to stock the six teams for the 2001 season. The first draft took place in 2000 for post-collegiate players. A second draft was held on June 1, 2001 in Baltimore, Maryland for players whose college eligibility had expired in 2001. Ryan Mollett of Princeton was selected first overall by the Rochester Rattlers. In addition, each team was assigned three franchise players to each team before the initial draft.[11]

MLL began play in 2001 with six teams in the northeastern U.S. split into two divisions. The American Division included teams in Boston, Bridgeport, Connecticut, and on Long Island; the National Division included teams in Baltimore, New Jersey, and Rochester. All teams were owned by the league, which assigned three franchise players to each team before the initial draft.[12]

The first MLL game took place on June 7, 2001, with the Baltimore Bayhawks defeating the Long Island Lizards 16-13 at Homewood field in Baltimore, Maryland. Chris Turner scored the first goal in MLL history.

The MLL played a 14-game regular season its first two years, then the schedule was cut to 12 games. After the first year, the league's playoff format had the top teams in each division advancing to the semifinals, with two wild card playoff spots going to the teams with the next-best records regardless of division.

The first MLL Championship Game saw the Long Island Lizards beat the Baltimore Bayhawks 15-11 in September 2001. The game was played at the John F. Kennedy Stadium in Bridgeport, Connecticut. Paul Gait was named the game's MVP.

Four out of the first five championship games were between the Long Island Lizards and the Baltimore Bayhawks. The Lizards won titles in 2001 and 2003, while the Bayhawks won in 2002 and 2005. The recently relocated Philadelphia Barrage beat the Boston Cannons 1311 in 2004's final.

In 2003, New Balance became a "founding member" and major sponsor of MLL.[9] New Balance founder and CEO, Jim Davis got very involved in the operation of the league, including providing financial support. Davis still owns the Dallas Rattlers.[13]

In 2005, Andrew Goldstein became the first American male team-sport professional athlete to be openly gay during his playing career.[14] Goldstein played goalie for the Long Island Lizards from 2005 to 2007, although he only appeared in two games in 2006.[15]

Expansion and contraction (2006–2011)

MLL added four teams for the 2006 season, bringing the league's number of teams up to ten. The expansion markets were Los Angeles, Denver, Chicago, and San Francisco, extending the league across the country and into top media markets. MLL combined the original six teams into the Eastern Conference and put the new teams into the Western Conference.

The Los Angeles Riptide were owned by the Anschutz Entertainment Group and played its home games at the Home Depot Center. Denver Broncos' owner Pat Bowlen brought the Denver Outlaws to an NFL stadium, Mile High. The other new franchises were the Chicago Machine and the San Francisco Dragons.[16]

Despite winning championships in 2006 and 2007, Philadelphia didn't attract more than 2,500 fans to their games. So in 2008, the Barrage tested out new markets by playing all of its "home" matches in five other cities: Cary, North Carolina; Hillsboro, Oregon; Irving, Texas; St. Louis; and Virginia Beach. In addition, the Barrage's "home game" against the Cannons was played in Boston.

At the end of the 2008 season, four teams Los Angeles, New Jersey, Philadelphia, and San Francisco folded due to financial problems. Several of these teams suffered from poor attendance, San Francisco drew 2,808 per game and only 1,920 in New Jersey.[17] This contraction forced the remaining six teams to form one conference.

The Rochester Rattlers won the 2008 Steinfeld Cup but like the Barrage, struggled at the gate. At the start of the 2009 season, a new ownership group in Toronto bought the rights to the Rochester franchise. The Toronto Nationals inherited the staff and players of the team, but the Rattlers' name and team colors were left in Rochester for the possibility of a future team.[7] That same group of players went on to win another championship in 2009 playing for a different team in a different country.

The Chicago Machine played the entire 2010 season as a traveling team testing expansion markets for the league, before deciding that the franchise would be moving to Rochester and adopting the Rattlers name in 2011.[18]

In 2010, the Bayhawks and Lizards met for the fifth time in the championship game. The Bayhawks prevailed 13–9, almost the same score as when they beat Long Island 15–9 five years earlier. The newly renamed Chesapeake Bayhawks went on to win two more championships in the next three years, in 2012 and 2013. Their five Steinfeld Cup trophies are the most in MLL history.

The league's attendance peaked at 6,417 per game in the 2011 season. The individual franchises had a wide range of local support. Denver lead the league in attendance, drawing 12,331 fans per game in 2011, while the relocated Hamilton Nationals had 1,214 people per game, one-tenth of Denver's attendance.[19]

LXM Pro Tour

In late 2009, Kyle Harrison, Scott Hochstadt, Craig Hochstadt, Xander Ritz, and Max Ritz formed the LXM Pro Tour.[20] The tour would feature two teams playing games across the country at special events involving the LXM Pro game and youth activities. The tour competed for players with the MLL as the more established league would not let players under contract play in other professional lacrosse events.

On February 13, 2014, MLL announced a partnership with the LXM Pro Tour, a week after the league announced a new equipment deal with STX, a sponsor of one of the LXM Pro teams. The deal moved LXM to the MLL off-season and allowed players to participate in both MLL and LXM.[21] However, LXM Pro didn't hold any tour stops after the announcement.

Southern trend (2012–2018)

During the early years of MLL, the league did not have any teams in the southeast. In January 2011, Commissioner David Gross announced that Charlotte, North Carolina as well as Columbus, Ohio were granted expansion teams for the 2012 season. The Ohio Machine and Charlotte Hounds opened play in April 2012, with both teams missing the playoffs in their inaugural season. With the expansion, the league grew to eight teams and expanded its schedule to fourteen games.

In November 2013, the Hamilton Nationals folded and an expansion franchise was awarded to the Florida Launch for the 2014 season. The Launch inherited the Nationals roster.[22] The Atlanta Blaze became the ninth MLL team in 2016.[23] The Rattlers relocated [again] from Rochester, New York in 2018 to Dallas, Texas and began play as the Dallas Rattlers in 2018.

Second contraction (2019 to present)

On April 1, 2019, just two months before the start of the season, the league announced that the Charlotte Hounds, Florida Launch, and Ohio Machine would not be playing in 2019. While the Hounds announced they would be back in 2021 under new ownership in a renovated stadium, the Launch and Machine effectively folded.[24] The announcement dropped the league down to six teams, the fewest teams since 2011, and meant all remaining owners owned only one team. Jim Davis, owner of New Balance, had owned the Hounds, Launch, and Machine, but he now owns only the Dallas Rattlers.[13]


A Major League Lacrosse Field is 110 yards long and 60 yards wide. The game is 60 minutes long, divided into four fifteen minute quarters with 15-minute intermission at halftime, plus multiple 10-minute golden goal periods for regulation games ending in ties unless one team scores, which wins the game. Teams are required to dress twenty players, with ten players on the field at a time.[25] MLL rules are based on NCAA rules with various changes. The most significant are a two-point goal line 16 yards (15 m) from each goal, a 60-second shot clock, the elimination of the restraining box, and allowing dive shots. The shot clock was originally 45 seconds before it was changed to 60 seconds for the 2005 season. From the inception of the league to 2008 there was a limit of three long-stick defensemen per team in order to promote scoring. Beginning in 2009, the league conformed to high school and college lacrosse rules and now allows four long–sticks per team on the field at any one time. 20 players dress for each regular season game.[26]


Current teams

Locations of Major League Lacrosse teams.
Team City (MSA) Stadium Capacity Joined Head Coach
Atlanta Blaze Atlanta, GA Grady Stadium 10,500 2016 Liam Banks
Boston Cannons Quincy, MA (Boston) Veterans Memorial Stadium 5,000 2001 Sean Quirk
Chesapeake Bayhawks Annapolis, MD (Baltimore) Navy–Marine Corps Memorial Stadium 34,000 2001 Dave Cottle
Dallas Rattlers Frisco, TX (Dallas) Ford Center at The Star 12,000 2001 Bill Warder
Denver Outlaws Denver, CO Empower Field at Mile High 76,125 2006 Tony Seaman
New York Lizards Hempstead, NY (New York) James M. Shuart Stadium 11,929 2001 B.J. O'Hara

On hiatus

Team City Stadium Capacity Joined Returning Notes
Charlotte Hounds Charlotte, NC American Legion Memorial Stadium 17,000 2012 2021 Inactive for 2019 and 2020 seasons

Former teams

Team City Joined Folded Notes
Philadelphia Barrage Philadelphia, PA 2001 2008 Originally Bridgeport Barrage, 2001–2003; played final season as a traveling team.
New Jersey Pride Piscataway, NJ 2001 2008 Also played in Montclair and Bridgewater
Los Angeles Riptide Carson, CA 2006 2008
San Francisco Dragons San Francisco, CA 2006 2008 Played final season in San Jose
Chicago Machine Chicago, IL 2006 2010 Played final season as a traveling team
Hamilton Nationals Hamilton, ON 2009 2013 Toronto Nationals 2009–2010
Ohio Machine Columbus, OH 2012 2019
Florida Launch Miami, FL 2014 2019


Championship games

Currently, the MLL Championship Game is played at a neutral site decided by the league. Teams qualify for the playoffs by finishing with one of the top four records during the regular season. Teams play in a semifinal to determine who plays in the Championship Game.

Season Champion Score Runner-up Venue Location Attendance Game MVP
2001 Long Island Lizards 15–11 Baltimore Bayhawks Kennedy Stadium Bridgeport, CT 6,745 Paul Gait
2002 Baltimore Bayhawks 21–13 Long Island Lizards Columbus Crew Stadium Columbus, OH 5,596 Mark Millon
2003 Long Island Lizards 15–14 (OT) Baltimore Bayhawks Villanova Stadium Villanova, PA 6,593 Kevin Lowe
2004 Philadelphia Barrage 13–11 Boston Cannons Nickerson Field Boston, MA 8,279 Greg Cattrano
2005 Baltimore Bayhawks 15–9 Long Island Lizards Nickerson Field Boston, MA 6,829 Gary Gait
2006 Philadelphia Barrage 23–12 Denver Outlaws The Home Depot Center Carson, CA 5,374 Roy Colsey
2007 Philadelphia Barrage 16–13 Los Angeles Riptide PAETEC Park Rochester, NY 5,288 Matt Striebel
2008 Rochester Rattlers 16–6 Denver Outlaws Harvard Stadium Boston, MA 8,481 Joe Walters
2009 Toronto Nationals 10–9 Denver Outlaws Navy–Marine Corps Memorial Stadium Annapolis, MD 7,003 Merrick Thomson
2010 Chesapeake Bayhawks 13–9 Long Island Lizards Navy–Marine Corps Memorial Stadium Annapolis, MD 6,445 Kyle Hartzell
2011 Boston Cannons 10–9 Hamilton Nationals Navy–Marine Corps Memorial Stadium Annapolis, MD 5,027 Jordan Burke
2012 Chesapeake Bayhawks 16–6 Denver Outlaws Harvard Stadium Boston, MA 7,384 Ben Rubeor
2013 Chesapeake Bayhawks 10–9 Charlotte Hounds PPL Park Chester, PA 3,892 John Grant Jr.
2014 Denver Outlaws 12–11 Rochester Rattlers Fifth Third Bank Stadium Kennesaw, GA 8,149 John Grant Jr.
2015 New York Lizards 15–12 Rochester Rattlers Fifth Third Bank Stadium Kennesaw, GA 8,674 Paul Rabil
2016 Denver Outlaws 19–18 Ohio Machine Fifth Third Bank Stadium Kennesaw, GA 5,522 Eric Law
2017 Ohio Machine 17–12 Denver Outlaws The Ford Center at The Star Frisco, TX 7,543 Marcus Holman
2018 Denver Outlaws 16–12 Dallas Rattlers MUSC Health Stadium Charleston, SC 4,086 Matt Kavanagh
2019 Chesapeake Bayhawks 10–9 Denver Outlaws Dick's Sporting Goods Park Denver, CO 6,374 Steele Stanwick

Performance by team

Team Champions Runner Up Years
Chesapeake Bayhawks 6 2 2002, 2005, 2010, 2012, 2013, 2019
Denver Outlaws 3 6 2014, 2016, 2018
New York Lizards 3 3 2001, 2003, 2015
Philadelphia Barrage 3 0 2004, 2006, 2007
Dallas Rattlers 1 3 2008
Toronto Nationals 1 1 2009
Boston Cannons 1 1 2011
Ohio Machine 1 1 2017
Los Angeles Riptide 0 1
Charlotte Hounds 0 1

Italics indicates a defunct team


Every year, Major League Lacrosse holds a collegiate player draft. The collegiate player draft occurs prior to the league season. Only players who competed at the collegiate level and whose NCAA eligibility has expired in the previous season are eligible for the draft. The exact date, location, and number of rounds vary by year. The most recent MLL Collegiate Player Draft took place at the NASCAR Hall of Fame on March 8, 2019 in Charlotte, North Carolina. Face-off specialist Alex Woodall of Towson was selected first overall by the Ohio Machine.

In addition, each off-season, MLL holds a supplemental player draft. The draft is held to expand a team's protected list to a pre-season active roster of 40 players. If players aren't selected, there are returned to the player pool.

MLL Collegiate Player Draft History
Season Date Location MLL Team Player Position College
2001 June 1, 2001 Radisson Hotel at Cross Keys, Baltimore, MD Rochester Rattlers Ryan Mollett Defense Princeton
2002 June 2, 2002 Cawley Stadium, Lowell, MA Rochester Rattlers Josh Coffman Midfielder Syracuse
2003 May 29, 2003 The Haverford School, Haverford, PA Bridgeport Barrage Chris Rotelli Midfielder Virginia
2004 June 3, 2004 Sacred Heart University, Fairfield, CT Baltimore Bayhawks Michael Powell Attack Syracuse
2005 June 1, 2005 Sacred Heart University, Fairfield, CT New Jersey Pride Kyle Harrison Midfielder Johns Hopkins
2006 May 31, 2006 Sacred Heart University, Fairfield, CT Rochester Rattlers Joe Walters Attack Maryland
2007 May 31, 2007 Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY Chicago Machine Pat Heim Midfielder Penn State
2008 May 28, 2008 Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, NJ Boston Cannons Paul Rabil Midfielder Johns Hopkins
2009 May 27, 2009 Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, NJ Chicago Machine Kenny Nims Attack Syracuse
2010 June 6, 2010 Yale University, New Haven, CT Chicago Machine Ned Crotty Attack Duke
2011 January 21, 2011 Pratt Street Power Plant, Baltimore, MD Hamilton Nationals Kevin Crowley Midfielder Stony Brook
2012 January 13, 2012 Philadelphia Marriott's Liberty Ballroom, Philadelphia, PA Long Island Lizards Rob Pannell Attack Cornell
2013 January 11, 2013 Philadelphia Marriott's Liberty Ballroom, Philadelphia, PA Ohio Machine Peter Baum Attack Colgate
2014 January 10, 2014 Philadelphia Marriott's Liberty Ballroom, Philadelphia, PA Ohio Machine Tom Schreiber Midfield Princeton
2015 January 23, 2015 Baltimore Convention Center, Baltimore, MD Florida Launch Lyle Thompson Attack Albany
2016 January 22, 2016 Baltimore Convention Center, Baltimore, MD Atlanta Blaze Myles Jones Midfield Duke
2017 May 28, 2017 Toby Keith's Bar and Grill, Foxoborough, MA Florida Launch Dylan Molloy Attack Brown
2018 April 18, 2018 The U.S. Lacrosse Headquarters, Sparks, Maryland Boston Cannons Trevor Baptiste Midfield University of Denver
2019 March 8, 2019 NASCAR Hall of Fame, Charlotte, North Carolina Ohio Machine Alex Woodall Face-off Towson


Since 2006, overall league attendance has varied between 3,800 and 6,500 per game, peaking in 2011 and steadily decreasing to an all-time low in 2018. There has always been a great deal of disparity in attendance figures for different teams in the league. Playing at Invesco Field at Mile High, the Denver Outlaws have led the league in attendance all but one year of their existence.[27] A significant portion of Denver's attendance is from one game each year. The Outlaws established a tradition of having a game on the Fourth of July that always attracts the biggest single-game attendance in the league. 31,644 people attended the game and watched fireworks afterward in 2015.[28] The Fourth of July game has regularly attracted over 25,000 people.[29] Outside of this special event game, Denver currently draws about 6,000 per game.

2008104,51510,853Denver1,920New Jersey[17]

League operations

The league is owned by Major League Lacrosse, LLC, which is controlled by the founders and the six franchises. The founders – Steinfeld, Morrow, Robertson, and Davis – control five of 14 ownership shares (36%); the nine franchises each have one ownership share (7%).[42] Davis owns two of the nine franchises and has a stake in two others.[43]

Atlanta Blaze owner Peter Trematerra sued Major League Lacrosse, LLC, Commissioner Gross, Jim Davis and several businesses controlled by the founders of the league in April 2017. Trematerra alleged that Gross provided inaccurate information about the profitability of the league in 2014, when Trematerra was considering buying an expansion franchise. The suit also claimed that because the league, some of its major sponsors, and Lax Sports Network were all controlled by the same people and entities, sponsorship and broadcast rights were sold for below market value.[42]

In August 2017, the MLL accidentally exposed the confidential personal information of over 1,000 players, nearly everyone who has ever played in the league or tried out for a team. The information was stored in one excel spreadsheet that was publicly linked on the league's website for a day. It is unknown if any player experienced identity theft as a result of the incident.[44]

League leadership
Name Years Title
Gabby Roe 1999–2002 Executive Director
Matthew Pace 2002–2003 Executive Director
David Gross 2003–2004 Chief Operating Officer
2004–2018[45] Commissioner
Alexander "Sandy" Brown 2018–present[46] Commissioner


Television coverage

Fox Sports Network broadcast games for the first two seasons, then ESPN2 televised a weekly MLL game from 2003 through 2011.[7] In 2012, ESPN2 televised three regular season games, the All-Star Game, one semifinal, and the MLL Championship game. MLL games have not been regularly shown on ESPN2 since 2012 due to low ratings.[29] Games continue to be streamed on ESPN3. CBS Sports Network has televised all-star games and the playoffs since 2013. MLL did not receive any money from these networks for these deals.[47]

In 2017, Lax Sports Network was given exclusive rights to all 63 regular season games.[43][48] Twitter streamed the semifinal games and CBS Sports Network broadcast the final.[49][50]

On April 1, 2019, the league announced they had reacquired broadcast rights from Lax Sports Network.[51] It was unclear where each team would broadcast its games, though the Cannons announced on March 28 that NBC Sports Boston would air all 16 of their games.[52]

One day prior to the start of the 2019 season, the league announced that 12 games would be broadcast on Stadium and the network would air a weekly studio show.[53]


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  20. The Ritz brothers, brothers Scott and Craig Hochstadt and Kyle Harrison are the co-founders of LXM Pro.
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  52. NBC Sports Boston to air all Cannons games
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