Mae West

Mary Jane "Mae" West (August 17, 1893 – November 22, 1980)[1] was an American actress, singer, playwright, screenwriter, comedian, and sex symbol whose entertainment career spanned seven decades. She was known for her lighthearted, bawdy double entendres and breezy sexual independence. She was active in vaudeville and on the stage in New York City before moving to Hollywood to become a comedian, actress, and writer in the motion picture industry, as well as appearing on radio and television. The American Film Institute named her 15th among the greatest female stars of classic American cinema.

Mae West
Publicity photo for Night After Night (1932)
Mary Jane West

(1893-08-17)August 17, 1893
DiedNovember 22, 1980(1980-11-22) (aged 87)
  • Actress
  • singer
  • playwright
  • screenwriter
  • comedian
Years active1907–1980
Spouse(s)Frank Szatkus (stage name Frank Wallace)
(1911–43; dissolved)
Partner(s)Paul Novak

West often used a husky contralto voice[2] and was one of the more controversial movie stars of her day; she encountered many problems, especially censorship. She once quipped, "I believe in censorship. I made a fortune out of it."[3][4] She bucked the system, making comedy out of conventional mores, and the Depression-era audience admired her for it. When her cinematic career ended, she wrote books and plays and continued to perform in Las Vegas and in the UK, on radio and television, and she recorded rock and roll albums.

Early life, career, and jail

Mary Jane West was born on August 17, 1893, in Kings County, New York (either Greenpoint or Bushwick, before New York City was consolidated in 1898). She was delivered at home by an aunt who was a midwife.[5] She was the eldest surviving child of[6][7][8] John Patrick West and Mathilde "Tillie" (later Matilda) Delker (originally Doelger; later Americanized to "Delker" or "Dilker"). Tillie and her five siblings emigrated with their parents, Jakob (1835–1902) and Christiana (1838–1901; née Brüning) Doelger from Bavaria in 1886.[9] West's parents married on January 18, 1889, in Brooklyn, to the pleasure of the groom's parents and the displeasure of the bride's parents and raised their children as Protestants, although John West was of mixed Catholic–Protestant descent[10][11][12] and Tillie was of at least partial Jewish descent.[11]

West's father was a prizefighter known as "Battlin' Jack West" who later worked as a "special policeman" and later had his own private investigations agency.[13] Her mother was a former corset and fashion model.[14] Her paternal grandmother, Mary Jane (née Copley), for whom she was named, was of Irish Catholic descent[15] and West's paternal grandfather, John Edwin West, was of English–Scots descent and a ship's rigger.[16][17]

Her eldest sibling, Katie, died in infancy. Her other siblings were Mildred Katherine West, later known as Beverly (December 8, 1898 – March 12, 1982), and John Edwin West II (sometimes inaccurately called "John Edwin West, Jr."; February 11, 1900 – October 12, 1964).[18] During her childhood, West's family moved to various parts of Woodhaven, as well as the Williamsburg and Greenpoint neighborhoods of Brooklyn. In Woodhaven, at Neir's Social Hall (which opened in 1829 and is still extant), West supposedly first performed professionally.[19][20]

West was five when she first entertained a crowd at a church social, and she started appearing in amateur shows at the age of seven. She often won prizes at local talent contests.[21] She began performing professionally in vaudeville in the Hal Clarendon Stock Company in 1907 at the age of 14.[22] West first performed under the stage name "Baby Mae",[23] and tried various personas, including a male impersonator.[24]

She used the alias "Jane Mast" early in her career. Her trademark walk was said to have been inspired or influenced by female impersonators Bert Savoy and Julian Eltinge, who were famous during the Pansy Craze.[25][26] Her first appearance in a Broadway show was in a 1911 revue A La Broadway put on by her former dancing teacher, Ned Wayburn. The show folded after eight performances,[27] but at age 18, West was singled out and discovered by The New York Times.[28] The Times reviewer wrote that a "girl named Mae West, hitherto unknown, pleased by her grotesquerie and snappy way of singing and dancing". West next appeared in a show called Vera Violetta, whose cast featured Al Jolson. In 1912, she appeared in the opening performance of A Winsome Widow as a "baby vamp" named La Petite Daffy.[29]

She was encouraged as a performer by her mother, who, according to West, always thought that anything Mae did was fantastic.[30] Other family members were less encouraging, including an aunt and her paternal grandmother. They are all reported as having disapproved of her career and her choices.[15] In 1918, after exiting several high-profile revues, West finally got her break in the Shubert Brothers revue Sometime, opposite Ed Wynn.[31] Her character Mayme danced the shimmy[32] and her photograph appeared on an edition of the sheet music for the popular number "Ev'rybody Shimmies Now".

Eventually, she began writing her own risqué plays using the pen name Jane Mast.[33] Her first starring role on Broadway was in a 1926 play she entitled Sex, which she wrote, produced, and directed. Although conservative critics panned the show, ticket sales were strong. The production did not go over well with city officials, who had received complaints from some religious groups, and the theater was raided, with West arrested along with the cast.[34] She was taken to the Jefferson Market Court House, (now Jefferson Market Library), where she was prosecuted on morals charges, and on April 19, 1927, was sentenced to 10 days for "corrupting the morals of youth". Though West could have paid a fine and been let off, she chose the jail sentence for the publicity it would garner.[35] While incarcerated on Welfare Island (now known as Roosevelt Island), she dined with the warden and his wife; she told reporters that she had worn her silk panties while serving time, in lieu of the "burlap" the other girls had to wear. West got great mileage from this jail stint.[36] She served eight days with two days off for "good behavior". Media attention surrounding the incident enhanced her career, by crowning her the darling "bad girl" who "had climbed the ladder of success wrong by wrong".[35]

Her next play, The Drag, dealt with homosexuality, and was what West called one of her "comedy-dramas of life".[37] After a series of try-outs in Connecticut and New Jersey, West announced she would open the play in New York.[38] However, The Drag never opened on Broadway due to efforts by the New York Society for the Suppression of Vice to ban any attempt by West to stage it. West explained, "The city fathers begged me not to bring the show to New York because they were not equipped to handle the commotion it would cause."[39] West was an early supporter of the women's liberation movement, but said she was not a "burn your bra" type feminist. Since the 1920s, she was also an early supporter of gay rights.[40] In her 1959 autobiography, Goodness Had Nothing to Do With It, West strongly objected to hypocrisy while also disparaging homosexuality: “In many ways homosexuality is a danger to the entire social system of Western civilization. Certainly a nation should be made aware of its presence — without moral mottoes — and its effects on children recruited to it in their innocence. I had no objection to it as a cult of jaded inverts... involved only with themselves. It was its secret, anti-social aspects I wanted to bring into the sun. As a private pressure group it could, and has, infected whole nations."[41]

West continued to write plays, including The Wicked Age, Pleasure Man and The Constant Sinner. Her productions aroused controversy, which ensured that she stayed in the news, which also often resulted in packed houses at her performances.[42] Her 1928 play, Diamond Lil, about a racy, easygoing, and ultimately very smart lady of the 1890s, became a Broadway hit and cemented West's image in the public's eye.[43] This show had an enduring popularity and West successfully revived it many times throughout the course of her career. With Diamond Lil being a hit show, Hollywood naturally came courting.[44]

Motion pictures and censorship

In 1932, West was offered a motion picture contract by Paramount Pictures despite being close to forty years old. This was an unusually late age to begin a movie career, especially for women, but she was not playing an ingénue. She nonetheless managed to keep her age ambiguous for some time. She made her film debut in Night After Night (1932) starring George Raft, who suggested her for the role. At first she did not like her small role in Night After Night, but was appeased when she was allowed to rewrite her scenes.[45] In West's first scene, a hat-check girl exclaims, "Goodness, what beautiful diamonds", and West replies, "Goodness had nothing to do with it, dearie."[46] Reflecting on the overall result of her rewritten scenes, Raft is said to have remarked, "She stole everything but the cameras."[46]

She brought her Diamond Lil character, now renamed "Lady Lou", to the screen in She Done Him Wrong (1933).[47] The film was one of Cary Grant's first major roles, which boosted his career. West claimed she spotted Grant at the studio and insisted that he be cast as the male lead.[48] She claimed to have told a Paramount director "If he can talk, I'll take him!" The film was a box-office hit and earned an Academy Award nomination for Best Picture.[47][49] The success of the film saved Paramount from bankruptcy, grossing over $2 million, the equivalent of $140 million today. Paramount recognizes that debt of gratitude today, with a building on the lot named after her.[50]

Her next release, I'm No Angel (1933), teamed her with Grant again. I'm No Angel was also a financial success, and was the most successful film of her entire movie career. In the months that followed the release of this film, reference to Mae West could be found almost anywhere, from the song lyrics of Cole Porter, to a Works Progress Administration (WPA) mural of San Francisco's newly built Art-Deco Coit Tower, to She Done Him Right, a Betty Boop cartoon, to "My Dress Hangs There", a painting by Mexican artist Frida Kahlo. Kahlo's muralist painter husband, Diego Rivera, paid his own tribute: "West is the most wonderful machine for living I have ever known – unfortunately on the screen only." To F. Scott Fitzgerald, Mae West was especially unique: "The only Hollywood actress with both an ironic edge and a comic spark." As Variety put it, "Mae West's films have made her the biggest conversation-provoker, free-space grabber, and all-around box-office bet in the country. She's as hot an issue as Hitler."[51]

By 1933, West was one of the largest box office draws in the United States[52] and, by 1935, West was also the highest paid woman and the second-highest paid person in the United States (after William Randolph Hearst).[53] Hearst invited West to San Simeon, California. "I could'a married him," West explained, "but I got no time for parties. I don't like those big crowds." On July 1, 1934, the censorship of the motion picture Production Code began to be seriously and meticulously enforced, and West's screenplays were heavily edited. She would intentionally place extremely risqué lines in her scripts, knowing they would be cut by the censors. She hoped they would then not object as much to her other less suggestive lines. Her next film was Belle of the Nineties (1934). The original title, It Ain't No Sin, was changed due to the censors' objections.[54] Despite Paramount's early objections regarding costs, she insisted the studio hire Duke Ellington and his orchestra to accompany her in the film's musical numbers. Their collaboration was a success; the classic "My Old Flame" (recorded by Duke Ellington) was introduced in this picture. Her next film, Goin' to Town (1935), received mixed reviews, as censorship continued to take its toll in eroding West's best lines.[55]

Her following effort, Klondike Annie (1936) dealt, as best it could given the heavy censorship, with religion and hypocrisy.[56] Some critics called the film her screen masterpiece, but not everyone felt the same way. Press baron and some-time film mogul William Randolph Hearst, ostensibly offended by an off-handed remark West made about his mistress, Marion Davies, sent a private memo to all his editors stating, "That Mae West picture Klondike Annie is a filthy picture... We should have editorials roasting that picture, Mae West, and Paramount... DO NOT ACCEPT ANY ADVERTISING OF THIS PICTURE." At one point, Hearst asked aloud, "Isn't it time Congress did something about the Mae West menace?" Paramount executives felt they had to tone down the West characterization, or face further recrimination. This may be surprising by today's standards, as West's films contained no nudity, no profanity and very little violence. Though raised in an era when women held second-place roles in society, West portrayed confident women who were not afraid to use their sexual wiles to get what they wanted. "I was the first liberated woman, you know. No guy was going to get the best of me. That's what I wrote all my scripts about."[57]

Around the same time, West played opposite Randolph Scott in Go West, Young Man (also 1936). In this film, she adapted Lawrence Riley's Broadway hit Personal Appearance into a screenplay.[7][58] Directed by Henry Hathaway, Go West, Young Man is considered one of West's weaker films of the era, due to the censor's cuts.[59]

West next starred in Every Day's a Holiday (1937) for Paramount before their association came to an end. Again, due to censor cuts, the film performed below its goal. Censorship had made West's sexually suggestive brand of humor impossible for the studios to distribute. West, along with other stellar performers, was put on a list of actors called "Box Office Poison" by Harry Brandt on behalf of the Independent Theatre Owners Association. Others on the list were Greta Garbo, Joan Crawford, Marlene Dietrich, Fred Astaire, Dolores del Río, Katharine Hepburn, and Kay Francis. The attack was published as a paid advertisement in The Hollywood Reporter and was taken seriously by the fearful studio executives. The association argued that these stars' high salaries and extreme public popularity did not affect their ticket sales, thus hurt the exhibitors. This did not stop producer David O. Selznick, who next offered West the role of the sage madam, Belle Watling, the only woman ever to truly understand Rhett Butler, in Gone with the Wind after Tallulah Bankhead turned him down. West also declined the part, claiming that as it was, it was too small for an established star, and that she would need to rewrite her lines to suit her own persona. The role eventually went to Ona Munson.[60]

In 1939, Universal Pictures approached West to star in a film opposite W. C. Fields. The studio was eager to duplicate the success of Destry Rides Again starring Marlene Dietrich and James Stewart with a comic vehicle starring West and Fields.[61] Having left Paramount 18 months earlier and looking for a new film, West accepted the role of Flower Belle Lee in the film My Little Chickadee (1940).[61][62] Despite the stars' intense mutual dislike, Fields's very real drinking problems[63] and fights over the screenplay,[61] My Little Chickadee was a box-office success, outgrossing Fields's previous film, You Can't Cheat an Honest Man (1939) and the later The Bank Dick (1940). Despite this, religious leaders condemned West as a negative role model, taking offense at lines such as "Between two evils, I like to pick the one I haven't tried before" and "Is that a gun in your pocket, or are you just glad to see me?"[64]

West's next film was The Heat's On (1943) for Columbia Pictures. She initially did not want to do the film, but after actor / producer / director and personal friend Gregory Ratoff (producer Max Fabian in All About Eve) pleaded with her and claimed he would go bankrupt if she could not help, West relented as a personal favor.[65] Censors by now, though, had curtailed the sexual burlesque of the West characterization. The studio had orders to raise the neck lines and clean up the double entendres. This was the only film for which West was virtually not allowed to write her own dialogue and, as a result, the film suffered.

Perhaps the most critical challenge facing West in her career was censorship of her dialogue. As on Broadway a decade before, by the mid 1930s, her risqué and ribald dialogue could no longer be allowed to pass. The Heat's On opened to poor reviews and weak performance at the box office. West was so distraught after the experience, and by her years of struggling with the strict Hays censorship office, that she would not attempt another film role for the next quarter-century.[66] Instead, West pursued a successful and record-breaking career in top nightclubs, Las Vegas, nationally in theater and on Broadway, where she was allowed, even welcomed, to be herself.

Radio and censorship

On December 12, 1937, West appeared in two separate sketches on ventriloquist Edgar Bergen's radio show The Chase and Sanborn Hour.[67] By the second half of the 1930s, West's popularity was affected by her dialogue being severely censored. She went on the show eager to promote her latest movie, Every Day's a Holiday.[68] Appearing as herself, West flirted with Charlie McCarthy, Bergen's dummy, using her usual brand of wit and risqué sexual references. West referred to Charlie as "all wood and a yard long" and commented, "Charles, I remember our last date, and have the splinters to prove it!"[69] West was on the verge of being banned from radio.

More outrageous still was a sketch written by Arch Oboler, starring Don Ameche and West as Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden on NBC. She told Ameche in the show to "get me a big one... I feel like doin' a big apple!"[69] This ostensible reference to the then-current dance craze was one of the many double entendres in the dialogue. Days after the broadcast, the studio received letters calling the show "immoral" and "obscene" by societies for the protection of morals.[70] Several conservative women's clubs and religious groups admonished the show's sponsor, Chase & Sanborn Coffee Company, for "prostituting" their services for allowing "impurity [to] invade the air".[67]

Under pressure, the Federal Communications Commission later deemed the broadcast "vulgar and indecent" and "far below even the minimum standard which should control in the selection and production of broadcast programs".[71] Some debate existed regarding the reaction to the skit. Conservative religious groups took umbrage far more swiftly than the mainstream. These groups found it easy to make West their target. They took exception to her outspoken use of sexuality and sexual imagery, which she had employed in her career since at least the Pre-Code films of the early 1930s and for decades before on Broadway, but which was now being broadcast into American living rooms on a popular family-friendly radio program. The groups reportedly warned the sponsor of the program they would protest her appearance.[72]

NBC Radio scapegoated West for the incident and banned her (and the mention of her name) from their stations.[73] They claimed it was not the content of the skit, but West's tonal inflections that gave it the controversial context, acting as though they had hired West knowing nothing of her previous work, nor had any idea of how she would deliver the lines written for her by Oboler.[68] West would not perform in radio for a dozen years, until January 1950, in an episode of The Chesterfield Supper Club, which was hosted by Perry Como.[74] Ameche's career did not suffer any serious repercussions, however, as he was playing the "straight" guy. Nonetheless, Mae West went on to enjoy a record-breaking success in Las Vegas, swank nightclubs such as Lou Walters's The Latin Quarter, Broadway, and London.

Middle years

After appearing in The Heat's On in 1943, West returned to a very active career on stage and in swank clubs. Among her popular new stage performances was the title role in Catherine Was Great (1944) on Broadway, in which she penned a spoof on the story of Catherine the Great of Russia, surrounding herself with an "imperial guard" of tall, muscular young actors.[75] The play was produced by theater and film impresario Mike Todd (Around The World in 80 Days) and ran for 191 performances.[76]

When Mae West revived her 1928 play Diamond Lil, bringing it back to Broadway in 1949, The New York Times labeled her an "American Institution – as beloved and indestructible as Donald Duck. Like Chinatown, and Grant's Tomb, Mae West should be seen at least once." In the 1950s, West starred in her own Las Vegas stage show at the newly opened Sahara Hotel, singing while surrounded by bodybuilders. The show stood Las Vegas on its head. "Men come to see me, but I also give the women something to see: wall to wall men!" West explained.[77] Jayne Mansfield met and later married one of West's muscle men, a former Mr. Universe, Mickey Hargitay.[78]

When casting about for the role of Norma Desmond for the 1950 film Sunset Boulevard, Billy Wilder offered West the role. Still smarting from the censorship debacle of The Heat's On, and the constraints placed on her characterization, she declined. The theme of the Wilder film, she noted, was pure pathos, while her brand of comedy was always "about uplifting the audience". Mae West had a unique comic character that was timeless, in the same way Charlie Chaplin did.[79] After Mary Pickford also declined the role, Gloria Swanson was cast.[80]

In subsequent years, West was offered the role of Vera Simpson, opposite Marlon Brando, in the 1957 film adaptation of Pal Joey, which she turned down, with the role going to Rita Hayworth. In 1964, West was offered a leading role in Roustabout, starring Elvis Presley. She turned the role down, and Barbara Stanwyck was cast in her place. West was also approached for roles in Frederico Fellini's Juliet of the Spirits and Satyricon, but rejected both offers.

Television, and the next generations

In 1958, West appeared at the live televised Academy Awards and performed the song "Baby, It's Cold Outside" with Rock Hudson, which brought a standing ovation.[81] In 1959, she released an autobiography, Goodness Had Nothing to Do With It, which became a best seller and was reprinted with a new chapter in 1970.[82] West guest-starred on television, including The Dean Martin Show in 1959 and The Red Skelton Show in 1960, to promote her autobiography, and a lengthy interview on Person to Person with Charles Collingwood, which was censored by CBS in 1959, and never aired. CBS executives felt members of the television audience were not ready to see a nude marble statue of West, which rested on her piano. In 1964, she made a guest appearance on the sitcom Mister Ed.[83] Much later, in 1976, she was interviewed by Dick Cavett and sang two songs on his "Back Lot U.S.A." special on CBS.

Recording career

West's recording career started in the early 1930s with releases of her film songs on shellac 78 rpm records. Most of her film songs were released as 78s, as well as sheet music. In 1955, she recorded her first album, The Fabulous Mae West. In 1965, she recorded two songs, "Am I Too Young" and "He's Good For Me", for a 45 rpm record released by Plaza Records. She recorded several tongue-in-cheek songs, including "Santa, Come Up to See Me",[84] on the album Wild Christmas,[85] which was released in 1966 and reissued as Mae in December in 1980.[86] Demonstrating her willingness to keep in touch with the contemporary scene, in 1966 she recorded Way Out West, the first of her two rock-and-roll albums. The second, released in 1972 on MGM Records and titled Great Balls of Fire, covered songs by The Doors, among others, and had songs written for West by English songwriter-producer Ian Whitcomb.

Later years

After a 27-year absence from motion pictures, West appeared as Leticia Van Allen in Gore Vidal's Myra Breckinridge (1970) with Raquel Welch, Rex Reed, Farrah Fawcett, and Tom Selleck in a small part. The movie was intended to be deliberately campy sex change comedy, but had serious production problems, resulting in a botched film that was both a box-office and critical failure. Author Vidal, at great odds with inexperienced and self-styled "art film" director Michael Sarne, later called the film "an awful joke".[87] Though Mae West was given star billing to attract ticket buyers, her scenes were truncated by the inexperienced film editor, and her songs were filmed as though they were merely side acts. Mae West's counterculture appeal (she was dubbed "the queen of camp"), included the young and hip, and by 1971, the student body of University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) voted Mae West "Woman of the Century" in honor of her relevance as a pioneering advocate of sexual frankness and courageous crusader against censorship.[88]

In 1975, West released her book Sex, Health, and ESP (William Allen & Sons, publisher), and Pleasure Man (Dell publishers) based on her 1928 play of the same name.[89] Her autobiography, Goodness Had Nothing to Do with It, was also updated and republished in the 1970s.[90]

Mae West was a shrewd investor, produced her own stage acts, and invested her money in large tracts of land in Van Nuys, a thriving suburb of Los Angeles. With her considerable fortune, she could afford to do as she liked. In 1976, she appeared on Back Lot U.S.A. on CBS, where she was interviewed by Dick Cavett and sang "Frankie and Johnny" along with "After You've Gone."[91] That same year, she began work on her final film, Sextette (1978). Adapted from a 1959 script written by West, the film's daily revisions and production disagreements hampered production from the beginning.[92] Due to the near-endless last-minute script changes and tiring production schedule, West agreed to have her lines signaled to her through a speaker concealed in her hair piece.[93] Despite the daily problems, West was, according to Sextette director Ken Hughes, determined to see the film through. At 84, her now-failing eyesight made navigating around the set difficult, but she made it through the filming, a tribute to her self-confidence, remarkable endurance, and stature as a self-created star 67 years after her Broadway debut in 1911 at the age of 18. Time magazine wrote an article on the indomitable star entitled "At 84, Mae West Is Still Mae West".[93][94]

Upon its release, Sextette was not a critical or commercial success, but has a diverse cast. The cast included some of West's first co-stars such as George Raft (Night After Night, 1932), silver screen stars such as Walter Pidgeon and Tony Curtis, and more contemporary pop stars such as The Beatles' Ringo Starr and Alice Cooper, and television favorites such as Dom DeLuise and gossip queen Rona Barrett. It also included cameos of some of her musclemen from her 1950s Las Vegas show, such as the still remarkably fit Reg Lewis. Sextette also reunited Mae West with Edith Head, her costume designer from 1933 in She Done Him Wrong.[95]

Personal life

West was married on April 11, 1911 in Milwaukee, Wisconsin to Frank Szatkus (1892–1966),[96] whose stage name was Frank Wallace,[97][98] a fellow vaudevillian whom she met in 1909. She was 17.[99] She kept the marriage a secret,[100] but a filing clerk discovered the marriage certificate in 1935 and alerted the press.[101] The clerk also uncovered an affidavit in which she had declared herself married, made during the Sex trial in 1927.[102] At first, West denied ever marrying Wallace, but she finally admitted it in July 1937, in reply to a legal interrogatory.[103] The couple never lived together as husband and wife. She insisted that they have separate bedrooms, and she soon sent him away in a show of his own to get rid of him. She obtained a legal divorce on July 21, 1942, during which Wallace withdrew his request for separate maintenance, and West testified that Wallace and she had lived together for only "several weeks".[104] The final divorce decree was granted on May 7, 1943.[105]

In August 1913, she met Guido Deiro (1886–1950), an Italian-born vaudeville headliner and star of the piano-accordion. Her affair went "very deep, hittin' on all the emotions". West later said, "Marriage is a great institution. I'm not ready for an institution yet."[106]

In 1916, when she was a vaudeville actress, West had a relationship with James Timony (1884–1954), an attorney nine years her senior. Timony was also her manager. By the time that she was an established movie actress in the mid-1930s, they were no longer a couple. West and Timony remained extremely close, living in the same building, working together, and providing support for each other until Timony's death in 1954.[107]

West remained close to her family throughout her life and was devastated by her mother's death in 1930.[108] In 1930, she moved to Hollywood and into the penthouse at The Ravenswood apartment building where she lived until her death in 1980.[109] Her sister, brother, and father followed her to Hollywood where she provided them with nearby homes, jobs, and sometimes financial support.[110] Among her boyfriends was boxing champion William Jones, nicknamed Gorilla Jones (1906–1982). The management at her Ravenswood apartment building barred the African American boxer from entering the premises; West solved the problem by buying the building and lifting the ban.[111]

She became romantically involved at age 61 with Chester Rybinski (1923–1999), one of the muscle men in her Las Vegas stage show – a wrestler, former Mr. California, and former merchant sailor.[112][113] He was 30 years younger than she, and later changed his name to Paul Novak. He moved in with her, and their romance continued until her death in 1980 at age 87.[112][114] Novak once commented, "I believe I was put on this Earth to take care of Mae West."[115] West was a Presbyterian.[116][117]


In August 1980, West tripped while getting out of bed. After the fall she was unable to speak and was taken to Good Samaritan Hospital in Los Angeles, where tests revealed that she had suffered a stroke.[118] She died on November 22, 1980, at the age of 87.[119]

A private service was held at the church in Forest Lawn, Hollywood Hills, on November 25, 1980; (the church is a replica of Boston's Old North Church.)[120][121] Bishop Andre Penachio, a friend, officiated at the entombment in the family mausoleum at Cypress Hills Abbey, Brooklyn, purchased in 1930 when her mother died. Her father and brother were also entombed there before her, and her younger sister, Beverly, was laid to rest in the last of the five crypts less than 18 months after West's death.[95][122][123]

For her contribution to the film industry, Mae West has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 1560 Vine Street in Hollywood. For her contributions as a stage actor in the theater world, she has been inducted into the American Theater Hall of Fame.[124][125] On June 25, 2019, The New York Times Magazine listed Mae West among hundreds of artists whose material was destroyed in the 2008 Universal fire.[126]

  • During World War II, Allied aircrews called their yellow inflatable, vest-like life preserver jackets "Mae Wests" partly from rhyming slang for "breasts"[127] and "life vests" and partly because of the resemblance to her torso. A "Mae West" is also a type of round parachute malfunction (partial inversion) which contorts the shape of the canopy into the appearance of an extraordinarily large brassiere.[128]
  • West has been the subject of songs, including the title song of Cole Porter's Broadway musical Anything Goes and in "You're the Top".[129]
  • Surrealist artist Salvador Dalí painted works entitled "Face of Mae West which may be Used as an Apartment", and the Mae West Lips Sofa, which was also by Salvador Dalí and completed in 1938 for Edward James.[130] A version of the sofa in red was created by famed Paris furniture maker Jean-Michel Frank, and a rendition in pink is at London's Victoria and Albert Museum. One can see the actual Dali Mae West room, and walk into it, at the Dali Museum in Figueres, Spain.
  • When approached for permission to allow her likeness on The Beatles' Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band album cover, West initially refused, asking, "What would I be doing in a Lonely Heart's Club?" The Beatles wrote her a personal letter declaring themselves great admirers of the star and persuaded her to change her mind.[131]
  • "Mae West" is often used as Cockney rhyming slang for the word "best" - e.g. "it's not the Mae West".[132]
  • Visible Fry gas pumps used in the 1920s and 1930s that had two glass reservoirs were referred to as "Mae West" pumps.
  • Artist Rita McBride created a 52m/170ft large sculpture in Munich in 2010-11 named after West because of the hyperboloid shape that is reminiscent of West's figure.
  • MAE-West – "Metropolitan Area Exchange, West", a former Internet exchange point on the west coast of the United States, with a corresponding MAE-East exchange point.[133]
  • In 2016, Mae West was portrayed by drag star Alaska in the second episode of the second season of RuPaul's Drag Race All Stars.[134]
  • In 2017, Mae West was the subject of an episode of the TV comedy series Over My Dead Body on Amazon Prime.[135]

Broadway stage

Broadway stage
Date Production Role Notes Ref.
September 22, 1911 – September 30, 1911 A La Broadway Maggie O'Hara [136]
November 20, 1911 – February 24, 1912 Vera Violetta West left the show during previews [136]
April 11, 1912 – September 7, 1912 A Winsome Widow Le Petite Daffy West left show after opening night [136]
October 4, 1918 – June 1919 Sometime Mayme Dean [136]
August 17, 1921 – September 10, 1921 The Mimic World of 1921 [136]
April 26, 1926 – March 1927 Sex Margie LaMont Written by Jane Mast (West), West was jailed for 10 days due to the play's content. [136]
January 1927 The Drag Closed during out-of-town tryouts (Bridgeport, Connecticut)
credited only as writer
November 1927 The Wicked Age Evelyn ("Babe") Carson [136]
April 9, 1928 – September 1928 Diamond Lil Diamond Lil [136]
October 1, 1928 – October 2, 1928 The Pleasure Man Credited only as writer [136]
September 14, 1931 – November 1931 The Constant Sinner Babe Gordon [136]
August 2, 1944 – January 13, 1945 Catherine Was Great Catherine II [136]
1945–46 Come on Up Tour [138]
September 1947 – May 1948 Diamond Lil Diamond Lil (Revival) United Kingdom [136]
February 5, 1949 – February 26, 1949 Diamond Lil Diamond Lil (Second revival) until West broke her ankle on the latter date
The play resumed as a "return engagement"
September 7, 1949 – January 21, 1950 Diamond Lil Diamond Lil (Second revival) as "return engagement" [136]
September 14, 1951 – November 10, 1951 Diamond Lil Diamond Lil (Third Revival) [136]
July 7, 1961 – closing date unknown Sextette Edgewater Beach Playhouse [139]
Other plays as writer
Year Title Notes Ref.
1921 The Ruby Ring Vaudeville playlet [140]
1922 The Hussy Unproduced [141]
1930 Frisco Kate Unproduced, later produced as the 1936 film Klondike Annie [142]
1933 Loose Women Performed in 1935 under title Ladies By Request [143]
1936 Clean Beds Sold treatment to George S. George, who produced
an unsuccessful Broadway play of West's treatment


Year Film Role Writer(s) Co-stars Director Studio
1932 Night After Night Maudie Triplett Story: Louis Bromfield
Screenplay: Vincent Lawrence
Continuity: Kathryn Scola
Additional dialogue (uncredited): Mae West
George Raft
Constance Cummings
Wynne Gibson
Archie Mayo Paramount Pictures
1933 She Done Him Wrong Lady Lou Screenplay: Harvey F. Thew and John Bright
Based on the play "Diamond Lil" by Mae West
Cary Grant
Owen Moore
Gilbert Roland
Lowell Sherman
I'm No Angel Tira Story, Screenplay and All Dialogue: Mae West
Suggestions: Lowell Brentano
Continuity: Harlan Thompson
Cary Grant
Gregory Ratoff
Edward Arnold
Wesley Ruggles
1934 Belle of the Nineties Ruby Carter Mae West Roger Pryor
Johnny Mack Brown
Katherine DeMille
Leo McCarey
1935 Goin' to Town Cleo Borden Screenplay: Mae West
Story: Marion Morgan and George B. Dowell
Paul Cavanagh
Gilbert Emery
Marjorie Gateson
Alexander Hall
1936 Klondike Annie The Frisco Doll
Rose Carlton
Sister Annie Alden
Screenplay: Mae West
Story: Marion Morgan and George B. Dowell
And material suggested by Frank Mitchell Dazey
Victor McLaglen
Phillip Reed
Helen Jerome Eddy
Raoul Walsh
Go West, Young Man Mavis Arden Screenplay: Mae West
Based on the play "Personal Appearance" by Lawrence Riley
Warren William
Randolph Scott
Alice Brady
Henry Hathaway
1937 Every Day's a Holiday Peaches O'Day Mae West Edmund Lowe
Charles Butterworth
Charles Winninger
A. Edward Sutherland
1940 My Little Chickadee Flower Belle Lee Mae West and W. C. Fields W. C. Fields
Joseph Calleia
Dick Foran
Edward F. Cline Universal Pictures
1943 The Heat's On Fay Lawrence Fitzroy Davis & George S. George and Fred Schiller Victor Moore
William Gaxton
Lester Allen
Gregory Ratoff Columbia Pictures
1970 Myra Breckinridge Leticia Van Allen Screenplay: Michael Sarne and David Giler
Based on the novel by Gore Vidal
Raquel Welch
John Huston
Farrah Fawcett
Michael Sarne 20th Century Fox
1978 Sextette Marlo Manners
Lady Barrington
Screenplay: Herbert Baker
Based on the play by Mae West
Timothy Dalton
Dom DeLuise
Tony Curtis
Ken Hughes Crown International Pictures



  • 1956: The Fabulous Mae West; Decca D/DL-79016 (several reissues up to 2006)
  • 1960: W. C. Fields His Only Recording Plus 8 Songs by Mae West; Proscenium PR 22
  • 1966: Way Out West; Tower T/ST-5028
  • 1966: Wild Christmas; Dragonet LPDG-48
  • 1970: The Original Voice Tracks from Her Greatest Movies; Decca D/DL-791/76
  • 1970: Mae West & W. C. Fields Side by Side; Harmony HS 11374/HS 11405
  • 1972: Great Balls of Fire; MGM SE 4869
  • 1974: Original Radio Broadcasts; Mark 56 Records 643
  • 1987/1995: Sixteen Sultry Songs Sung by Mae West Queen of Sex; Rosetta RR 1315
  • 1996: I'm No Angel; Jasmine CD 04980 102
  • 2006: The Fabulous: Rev-Ola CR Rev 181

At least 21 singles (78 rpm and 45 rpm) also were released from 1933 to 1973.


  • West, Mae (1930). Babe Gordon. The Macaulay Company. (the novel on which The Constant Sinner was based)
  • West, Mae (1932). Diamond Lil Man. Caxton House. (novelization of play)
  • West, Mae (1970) [1959]. Goodness Had Nothing to Do with It. Prentice-Hall. ISBN 978-1-86049-034-7.
  • West, Mae (1975). Mae West on Sex, Health and ESP. W.H. Allen. ISBN 978-0-491-01613-1.
  • West, Mae (1975). Pleasure Man. Dell Pub. Co. ISBN 978-0-440-07074-0.
  • West, Mae; Weintraub, Joseph (1967). The Wit and Wisdom of Mae West. G.P. Putnam. ISBN 978-0-399-50549-2.

See also

  • Biography portal


  1. Cullen, Frank; Hackman, Florence; McNeilly, Donald (2007). Vaudeville, Old & New: An Encyclopedia of Variety Performers in America. Routledge. p. 1183. ISBN 978-0-415-93853-2.
  2. Doherty, Thomas (February 2009). Hollywood's Censor: Joseph I. Breen and the Production Code Administration. ISBN 978-0-231-14359-2.
  3. "Actress Mae West Sentenced for "Sex"". History Channel. Retrieved October 19, 2016.
  4. Weekes, Karen (February 15, 2011). Women Know Everything!. Quirk Books. p. 86. ISBN 978-1-59474-545-4.
  5. Louvish 2006, p. 5.
  6. Wortis Leider, Emily (2000). Becoming Mae West. Da Capo Press. p. 20. ISBN 978-0-306-80951-4.
  7. Watts, Jill (2003). Mae West: An Icon in Black and White. Oxford University Press US. p. 10. ISBN 978-0-19-516112-0.
  8. West, Mae (1959). Goodness Had Nothing to Do With it. Prentice-Hall. p. 1.
  9. Wortis Leider, Emily (2000). Becoming Mae West. Da Capo Press. p. 23. ISBN 978-0-306-80951-4.
  10. "The religion of Mae West, actress".
  11. Gross, Max (February 6, 2004). "Playwright Examines Mae West's Legal Dramas". Retrieved November 22, 2008.
  12. Wortis Leider, Emily (2000). Becoming Mae West. Da Capo Press. pp. 23–24. ISBN 978-0-306-80951-4.
  13. Watts, Jill (2003). Mae West: An Icon in Black and White. Oxford University Press US. p. 12. ISBN 978-0-19-516112-0.
  14. Wortis Leider, Emily (2000). Becoming Mae West. Da Capo Press. p. 21. ISBN 978-0-306-80951-4.
  15. Musgrove, Stanley (1982). Mae West. William Morrow & Co. p. 20. ISBN 978-0-688-00816-1.
  16. Louvish 2006, p. 6.
  17. 1870, 1880, 1900 US censuses.
  18. Watts, Jill (2003). Mae West: An Icon in Black and White. Oxford University Press US. pp. 12, 289. ISBN 978-0-19-516112-0.
  19. amNew York, Thursday, September 5, 2013, p. 23.
  20. Lisa L. Colangelo (June 22, 2010). "Woodhaven bar Neir's Tavern gets a time-machine fix up". Daily News. New York. Retrieved November 2, 2014.
  21. Watts, Jill (2003). Mae West: An Icon in Black and White. Oxford University Press US. pp. 16, 18. ISBN 978-0-19-516112-0.
  22. Louvish 2006, pp. 9-10.
  23. Eells, George; Musgrove, Stanley (1982). Mae West: A Biography. Morrow. pp. 23, 170. ISBN 978-0-688-00816-1.
  24. Eells, George; Musgrove, Stanley (1982). Mae West: A Biography. Morrow. pp. 38, 170. ISBN 978-0-688-00816-1.
  25. Wortis Leider, Emily (2000). Becoming Mae West. Da Capo Press. pp. 122–3. ISBN 978-0-306-80951-4.
  26. Louvish 2006, p. 18.
  27. Watts, Jill (2003). Mae West: An Icon in Black and White. Oxford University Press US. pp. 32–33. ISBN 978-0-19-516112-0.
  28. Maurice Leonard. Mae West Empress of Sex. ISBN 0-00-637471-9; pp. 33–34
  29. Louvish 2006, p. 50.
  30. Biery, Ruth, "The Private Life of Mae West: Part One", Movie Classic, January 1934, pp. 106–08
  31. Tuska, Jon (1992). The Complete Films of Mae West. Citadel Press. pp. 25–26. ISBN 978-0-8065-1359-1.
  32. Louvish 2006, p. 78.
  33. Yeatts, Tabatha (2000). The Legendary Mae West. p. 77. ISBN 978-0-9679158-1-4.
  34. Watts, Jill (2003). Mae West: An Icon in Black and White. Oxford University Press US. pp. 88–89. ISBN 978-0-19-516112-0.
  35. Bunyan, Patrick (1999). All Around the Town: Amazing Manhattan Facts and Curiosities. Fordham University Press. p. 317. ISBN 978-0-8232-1941-4.
  36. Schlissel, Lillian; West, Mae (1997). Three Plays by Mae West: Sex, The Drag and Pleasure Man. Routledge. p. 16. ISBN 978-0-415-90933-4.
  37. Hamilton, Marybeth (1997). When I'm Bad, I'm Better: Mae West, Sex, and American Entertainment. University of California Press. pp. 57, 67. ISBN 978-0-520-21094-3.
  38. Chauncey, George (1995). Gay New York: Gender, Urban Culture, and the Making of the Gay Male World, 1890–1940. Basic Books. p. 312. ISBN 978-0-465-02621-0.
  39. Eells, George; Musgrove, Stanley (1982). Mae West: A Biography. Morrow. pp. 66–68. ISBN 978-0-688-00816-1.
  40. Watts, Jill (2003). Mae West: An Icon in Black and White. Oxford University Press US. p. 299. ISBN 978-0-19-516112-0.
  41. West, Mae. "Goodness Had Nothing to Do With It". Internet Archive. p. 94.
  42. Cullen, Frank; Hackman, Florence; McNeilly, Donald (2007). Vaudeville, Old & New: An Encyclopedia of Variety Performers in America. Routledge. p. 1187. ISBN 978-0-415-93853-2.
  43. Eells, George; Musgrove, Stanley (1982). Mae West: A Biography. Morrow. pp. 78, 79, 81. ISBN 978-0-688-00816-1.
  44. Eells, George; Musgrove, Stanley (1982). Mae West: A Biography. Morrow. pp. 223, 228, 229. ISBN 978-0-688-00816-1.
  45. Eells, George; Musgrove, Stanley (1982). Mae West: A Biography. Morrow. pp. 105–106. ISBN 978-0-688-00816-1.
  46. Ashby, LeRoy (2006). With Amusement for All: A History of American Popular Culture Since 1830. University Press of Kentucky. p. 224. ISBN 978-0-8131-2397-4.
  47. Smith, Sarah (2005). Children, Cinema and Censorship: From Dracula to the Dead End Kids. I.B.Tauris. p. 55. ISBN 978-1-85043-813-7.
  48. McCann, Graha (1998). Cary Grant: A Class Apart. Columbia University Press. p. 73 l1br1d0. ISBN 978-0-231-10885-0.
  49. Vogel, Frederick G. (2003). Hollywood Musicals Nominated for Best Picture. McFarland & Co. p. 54. ISBN 978-0-7864-1290-7.
  50. Starr, Kevin (2002). The Dream Endures: California Enters the 1940s. Oxford University Press US. p. 256. ISBN 978-0-19-515797-0.
  51. Eells, George; Musgrove, Stanley (1982). Mae West: A Biography. Morrow. p. 127. ISBN 978-0-688-00816-1.
  52. Pendergast, Tom (2000). St. James Encyclopedia of Popular Culture. St. James Press. p. 116. ISBN 978-1-55862-405-4.
  53. West, Mae; Schlissel, Lillian (1997). Three Plays by Mae West: Sex, the Drag, the Pleasure Man. Routledge. p. 24. ISBN 978-0-415-90933-4.
  54. Doherty, Thomas Patrick (1999). Pre-Code Hollywood: Sex, Immorality, and Insurrection in American cinema, 1930–1934. Columbia University Press. p. 338. ISBN 978-0-231-11095-2.
  55. Louvish 2006, p. 279.
  56. Black, Gregory D. (1996). Hollywood Censored: Morality Codes, Catholics, and the Movies. Cambridge University Press. pp. 228, 229. ISBN 978-0-521-56592-9.
  57. Bavar, Michael (1975). Mae West. Pyramid Communications. p. 87. ISBN 978-0-515-03868-2.
  58. Wortis Leider, Emily (2000). Becoming Mae West. Da Capo Press. p. 402. ISBN 978-0-306-80951-4.
  59. Louvish 2006, p. 308.
  60. Jewell, Richard B. (2012). "7". RKO Radio Pictures: A Titan Is Born (1 ed.). London: University of California Press. p. 153. ISBN 978-0-520-27179-1.
  61. Louvish, Simon (1999). Man on the Flying Trapeze: The Life and Times of W. C. Fields. W. W. Norton & Company. p. 435. ISBN 978-0-393-31840-1.
  62. Deschner, Donald (1989). The Complete Films of W.C. Fields. Citadel Press. p. 140. ISBN 978-0-8065-1136-8.
  63. Curtis, James (2003). W.C. Fields: A Biography. A.A. Knopf. p. 399. ISBN 978-0-375-40217-3.
  64. Gehring, Wes D. (1999). Parody as Film Genre: "Never Give a Saga an Even Break". Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 39. ISBN 978-0-313-26186-2.
  65. Tuska, Jon (1992). The Complete Films of Mae West. Citadel Press. p. 153. ISBN 978-0-8065-1359-1.
  66. Dick, Bernard F. (1993). The Merchant Prince of Poverty Row: Harry Cohn of Columbia Pictures. University Press of Kentucky. p. 130. ISBN 978-0-8131-1841-3.
  67. Hilmes, Michele; Loviglio, Jason (2002). Radio Reader: Essays in the Cultural History of Radio. Routledge. p. 137. ISBN 978-0-415-92821-2.
  68. 7
  69. Pendergrast, Mark (2000). Uncommon Grounds: The History of Coffee and How It Transformed Our World. Basic Books. p. 200. ISBN 978-0-465-05467-1.
  70. Dunning, John (1998). On the Air: The Encyclopedia of Old-time Radio. Oxford University Press US. p. 229. ISBN 978-0-19-507678-3.
  71. Ohmart, Ben (2007). Don Ameche: The Kenosha Comeback Kid. BearManor Media. p. 50. ISBN 978-1-59393-045-5.
  72. Craig, Steve. Out of Eden: The Legion of Decency, the FCC, and Mae West's 1937 Appearance on The Chase and Sanborn Hour. Journal of Radio Studies (November 2006).
  73. Hilmes, Michele; Loviglio, Jason (2002). Radio Reader: Essays in the Cultural History of Radio. Routledge. p. 138. ISBN 978-0-415-92821-2.
  74. Curry, Ramona (1996). Too Much of a Good Thing: Mae West as Cultural Icon. U of Minnesota Press. p. 81. ISBN 978-0-8166-2791-2.
  75. Shafer, Yvonne (1995). American Women Playwrights, 1900–1950. Peter Lang Publishing Inc. p. 419. ISBN 978-0-8204-2142-1.
  76. Bloom, Ken (2004). Broadway: An Encyclopedia. Taylor & Francis. p. 480. ISBN 978-0-415-93704-7.
  77. Robertson, Pamela (1996). Guilty Pleasures: Feminist Camp from Mae West to Madonna. I.B.Tauris. p. 27. ISBN 978-1-86064-088-9.
  78. Strodder, Chris (2000). Swingin' Chicks of the '60s: A Tribute to 101 of the Decade's Defining Women. Cedco Publishing Company. p. 83. ISBN 978-0-7683-2232-3.
  79. Staggs, Sam (2003). Close-up on Sunset Boulevard: Billy Wilder, Norma Desmond, and the Dark Hollywood Dream. Macmillan. p. 8. ISBN 978-0-312-30254-2.
  80. Meade, Marion (1997). Buster Keaton: Cut to the Chase. Da Capo Press. p. 245. ISBN 978-0-306-80802-9.
  81. Robertson, Pamela (1996). Guilty Pleasures: Feminist Camp from Mae West to Madonna. Duke University Press. p. 25. ISBN 978-0-8223-1748-7.
  82. Yeatts, Tabatha (2000). The Legendary Mae West. p. 71. ISBN 978-0-9679158-1-4.
  83. Cullen, Frank; Florence Hackman; Donald McNeilly (2007). Vaudeville, Old & New: An Encyclopedia of Variety Performers in America. Routledge. p. 1188. ISBN 978-0-415-93853-2.
  84. album cover
  85. Kashner, Sam; Macnair, Jennifer (2003). The Bad & the Beautiful: Hollywood in the Fifties. W. W. Norton & Company. p. 335. ISBN 978-0-393-32436-5.
  86. Yeatts, Tabatha (2000). The Legendary Mae West. p. 73. ISBN 978-0-9679158-1-4.
  87. Hoberman, J.; Jonathan Rosenbaum (1991). Midnight Movies. Da Capo Press. p. 268. ISBN 978-0-306-80433-5.
  88. Hamilton, Marybeth (1997). When I'm Bad, I'm Better: Mae West, Sex, and American Entertainment. University of California Press. p. 263. ISBN 978-0-520-21094-3.
  89. Louvish 2006, p. 463.
  90. Wortis Leider, Emily (2000). Becoming Mae West. Da Capo Press. p. 401. ISBN 978-0-306-80951-4.
  91. Yeatts, Tabatha (2000). The Legendary Mae West. p. 74. ISBN 978-0-9679158-1-4.
  92. Watts, Jill (2003). Mae West: An Icon in Black and White. Oxford University Press US. p. 309. ISBN 978-0-19-516112-0.
  93. Watts, Jill (2003). Mae West: An Icon in Black and White. Oxford University Press US. p. 310. ISBN 978-0-19-516112-0.
  94. Clarke, Gerald (May 22, 1978). "At 84 Mae West Is Still Mae West". Time. Retrieved November 15, 2008.
  95. Kashner, Sam; MacNair, Jennifer (2003). The Bad & the Beautiful: Hollywood in the Fifties. W. W. Norton & Company. p. 336. ISBN 978-0-393-32436-5.
  96. Maurice Leonard in Mae West, Empress of Sex ISBN 0-00-637471-9, pp. 29–30
  97. Cemetery records
  98. Article by Frank Boyett in The Gleaner 2016-11-26
  99. Hamilton, Marybeth (1997). When I'm Bad, I'm Better: Mae West, Sex, and American Entertainment. University of California Press. p. 15. ISBN 978-0-520-21094-3.
  100. Hamilton, Marybeth (1995). The Queen of Camp: Mae West, sex and popular culture. HarperCollins. pp. 13–14.
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  104. Louvish 2006, p. 350.
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  114. Tom Vallance (July 20, 1999). "Obituary: Paul Novak". The Independent.
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  116. "Mae West, Stage and Movie Star Who Burlesqued Sex, Dies at 87".
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  122. Witchel, Alex (May 8, 2000). "Blown Sideways, but Landing on Broadway". The New York Times.
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  128. "Parachute Rigger's Handbook". Federal Aviation Administration. Retrieved December 13, 2014.
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  130. Gleadell, Colin (October 6, 2003). "Object of the week: the 'Mae West' lip sofa". The Daily Telegraph. London, UK. Retrieved November 22, 2008.
  131. Martin, George (1995). Summer of Love: the Making of Sgt. Pepper. MacMillan. p. 139.
  132. "Mae West is Cockney Rhyming Slang for Best".
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  137. 1951-, Curry, Ramona (1996). Too much of a good thing : Mae West as cultural icon. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 978-0-8166-2791-2. OCLC 33335635.
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  139. "Mae West Still a Show Stopper". Chicago Tribune. July 8, 1961. Retrieved April 19, 2017.
  140. Louvish 2006, p. 85.
  141. Louvish 2006, p. 93.
  142. Louvish 2006, p. 140.
  143. Louvish 2006, p. 244.
  144. Louvish 2006, p. 460.
  • Louvish, Simon (2006). Mae West: It Ain't No Sin. London: Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-571-21948-3.
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