Maad Saloum (variations :Maad a Saloum, Mad Saloum, Maat Saloum, Bour Saloum, Bur Saloum, etc.) means king of Saloum, in the Serer language. The ancient Kingdom of Saloum now part of present-day Senegal was a pre-colonial Serer kingdom. Their kings bore the title Maad or Mad (also Maat though rarely used). The royal title was sometimes used interchangeably with that of their ancient kings and landed gentry - the lamanes.
(King of Saloum)
Like their predecessors (the Lamanes), the Maad Saloum and Maad a Sinig were the guardians of Serer religion. The serpent is the symbol of the Pangool (ancestral spirits and saints in Serer religion).
|Country||Kingdom of Saloum |
|Founder||Maad Saloum Mbegan Ndour, (Guelowar period, the last maternal dynasty). Reigned in 1493, himself a descendant of the old Serer paternal dynasties. Preceded by the Serer paternal dynasties of Sine and Saloum and the Wagadou maternal dynasty.|
|Final ruler||Maad Saloum Fode N'Gouye Joof, king of Saloum (Guelowar period)|
Reigned : 1935 - 1969, died : 1969. Descendant of the ancient Serer paternal dynasties (see Joof family).
Mad Saloum, Maat Saloum, Bour Saloum, Bur Saloum, etc.
|Dissolution||1969 : after the death of the last king (Fode N'Gouye Joof). The Saloum joint independent Senegal.|
|Lamane (also religious)|
|Maad a Sinig|
|Line of succession|
From 1493 to 1969 (the Guelowar period, the last maternal dynasty in Saloum), at least forty-nine kings were crowned Maad Saloum (king of Saloum). During this Guelowar period, Maad Saloum Mbegan Ndour (many variations: Mbégan Ndour or Mbegani Ndour) was the first Serer king of the maternal clan Guelowar to have reigned in Saloum. He ruled from 1493. Maad Saloum Fode N'Gouye Joof was the last king of Saloum. He reigned from 1935 to 1969 - the year of his death.
Kings of Saloum titled Maad Saloum
- Maad Saloum Mbegan Ndour, king of Saloum (reigned : 1493)
- Maad Saloum Malaw tane Joof, (variation: Maléotane Diouf - French spelling in Senegal), king of Saloum (reigned : 1567)
- Maad Saloum Balleh N'Gougou N'Dao (or Ballé Khordia Ndao), king of Saloum (reigned : 1825-1853)
- Maad Saloum Bala Adam Njie, king of Saloum (reigned : 1853-1856)
- Maad Saloum Kumba N'Dama Mbodj, king of Saloum (reigned : 1856-1859)
- Maad Saloum Samba Laobe Latsouka Fall (not to be confused with the Damel of Cayor), king of Saloum (reigned : 1859-1864)
- Maad Saloum Fode N'Gouye Joof, king of Saloum (reigned : 1935-1969 ; died in 1969)
- Dioum, Baïdy, La trajectoire de Léopold Sédar Senghor: du terroir à l'universel, p 33, Harmattan, 2010, ISBN 2296120520
- Klein, Martin A., Islam and Imperialism in Senegal. Sine-Saloum, 1847-1914, Edinburgh University Press, 1968, p. 8
- Oliver, Roland, Fage, John Donnelly & Sanderson, G. N., The Cambridge History of Africa, Cambridge University Press, 1985, p. 214 ISBN 0521228034
- Faal, Dawda, Peoples and empires of Senegambia: Senegambia in history, AD 1000-1900, Saul's Modern Printshop, 1991, p. 17
- Ajayi, F. Ade et Crowder, Michael, History of West Africa, vol. 1, Longman, 1985, p. 468 ISBN 0582646839
- Galvan, Dennis C., The State Must be Our Master of Fire, University of California Press, 2004, p. 270 ISBN 9780520235915
- Marcel Mahawa Diouf, Lances mâles : Léopold Sédar Senghor et les traditions sérères, Centre d'études linguistiques et historiques par tradition orale, Niamey, 1996, p. 54
- Ba, Abdou Bouri, « Essai sur l’histoire du Saloum et du Rip » (avant-propos par Charles Becker et Victor Martin), Bulletin de l'IFAN, tome 38, série B, numéro 4, octobre 1976 "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-04-15. Retrieved 2012-03-09.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Klein, Martin A., Islam and Imperialism in Senegal. Sine-Saloum, 1847-1914, Edinburgh University Press, 1968, p. XV
- Sheridan, Michael J. et Nyamweru, Celia, African sacred groves: ecological dynamics & social change, James Currey, 2008, p. 141 ISBN 0821417894