He studied medicine in Turin, later continuing his education in Florence, where he studied engraving, drawing, anatomical dissection, and conducted microscopic investigations of nerve tissue. From 1804 he was a professor at the University of Sassari, and in 1814 was appointed professor of anatomy at the University of Turin.
As a University of Turin professor, he devoted his life to the study of brain anatomy. A range of neuroanatomical and neurological entities are named after him: the Rolandic vein, the Rolandic artery (central sulcal artery), the pre-Rolandic artery (precentral sulcal artery), the Rolandic operculum (post-central operculum), the Rolandic area (primary motor cortex), the substantia gelatinosa of Rolando, the fissure of Rolando (central sulcus) and Rolandic epilepsy.
- Saggio sopra la vera struttura del cervello dell'uomo e degli animali e sopra le funzioni del sistema nervoso, (1809) – Essay on the brain structure of humans and animals, and functions of the nervous system.
- Inductions physiologiques et pathologiques sur les differentes espèces..., (translation into French by Antoine Jacques Louis Jourdan, François Gabriel Boisseau), 1822
- Ricerche anatomiche sulla struttura del midollo spinale, (1824) – Anatomical structure of the spinal cord.
- Saggio sopra la vera struttura del cervello e sopra le funzioni del sistema nervoso; Volumes 1–2, 1828
- Manuale di anatomia fisiologica, (1829) – Textbook of physiological anatomy.
- Della struttura degli emisferi cerebrali (1830) – Structure of the cerebral hemispheres.
- "Luigi Rolando and his pioneering efforts to relate structure to function in the nervous system". Journal of Neurosurgery. 83 (5): 933–937. 1995. doi:10.3171/jns.1995.83.5.0933. PMID 7472570.
- Rolando, Luigi. Treccani.it
- Caputi F, Spaziante R, de Divitiis E, Nashold BS (1995). "Luigi Rolando and his pioneering efforts to relate structure to function in the nervous system". J. Neurosurg. 83 (5): 933–7. doi:10.3171/jns.1995.83.5.0933. PMID 7472570.
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