Louis Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma

Admiral of the Fleet Louis Francis Albert Victor Nicholas Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma (born Prince Louis of Battenberg; 25 June 1900 – 27 August 1979) was a British Royal Navy officer and statesman, an uncle of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, and second cousin once removed of Queen Elizabeth II. During the Second World War, he was Supreme Allied Commander, South East Asia Command (1943–1946). He was the last viceroy of India (1947) and the first governor-general of independent India (1947–1948).

The Earl Mountbatten of Burma

Mountbatten in 1976 by Allan Warren
Chief of the Defence Staff
In office
13 July 1959  15 July 1965
Preceded bySir William Dickson
Succeeded bySir Richard Hull
First Sea Lord
In office
18 April 1955  19 October 1959
Preceded bySir Rhoderick McGrigor
Succeeded bySir Charles Lambe
Governor-General of India
(Viceroy until 15 August 1947)
In office
12 February 1947  21 June 1948
MonarchGeorge VI
Prime MinisterJawaharlal Nehru (Vice President of the Executive Council until 15 August 1947)
Preceded byThe Viscount Wavell
Succeeded byC. Rajagopalachari
Member of the House of Lords
Lord Temporal
In office
13 June 1946  27 August 1979
Hereditary peerage
Preceded byPeerage created
Succeeded byThe 2nd Countess Mountbatten of Burma
Personal details
Prince Louis Francis Albert Victor Nicholas of Battenberg

(1900-06-25)25 June 1900
Frogmore House, Windsor, Berkshire, England
Died27 August 1979(1979-08-27) (aged 79)
Mullaghmore, County Sligo, Ireland
Cause of deathAssassination
Resting placeRomsey Abbey
Edwina Ashley
(m. 1922; died 1960)
Alma materChrist's College, Cambridge
Military service
AllegianceUnited Kingdom
Branch/serviceRoyal Navy
Years of service1913–1965
RankAdmiral of the Fleet
AwardsSee list

From 1954 to 1959, Mountbatten was First Sea Lord, a position that had been held by his father, Prince Louis of Battenberg, some forty years earlier. Thereafter he served as chief of the Defence Staff until 1965, making him the longest-serving professional head of the British Armed Forces to date. During this period Mountbatten also served as chairman of the NATO Military Committee for a year.

In 1979, Mountbatten, his grandson Nicholas, and two others were killed by a bomb set by members of the Provisional Irish Republican Army, hidden aboard his fishing boat in Mullaghmore, County Sligo, Ireland.

Early life

Mountbatten was known as His Serene Highness Prince Louis of Battenberg from the time of his birth at Frogmore House in the Home Park, Windsor, Berkshire until 1917, when he and several other relations of King George V dropped their German styles and titles. He was the youngest child and the second son of Prince Louis of Battenberg and his wife Princess Victoria of Hesse and by Rhine. His maternal grandparents were Louis IV, Grand Duke of Hesse, and Princess Alice of the United Kingdom, who was a daughter of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. His paternal grandparents were Prince Alexander of Hesse and by Rhine and Julia, Princess of Battenberg.[1]

Mountbatten's paternal grandparents' marriage was morganatic because his grandmother was not of royal lineage; as a result, he and his father were styled "Serene Highness" rather than "Grand Ducal Highness", were not eligible to be titled Princes of Hesse and were given the less exalted Battenberg title. His siblings were Princess Alice of Battenberg (mother of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh), Queen Louise of Sweden, and George Mountbatten, 2nd Marquess of Milford Haven.[1]

Young Mountbatten's nickname among family and friends was "Dickie", although "Richard" was not among his given names. This was because his great-grandmother, Queen Victoria, had suggested the nickname of "Nicky", but to avoid confusion with the many Nickys of the Russian Imperial Family ("Nicky" was particularly used to refer to Nicholas II, the last Tsar), "Nicky" was changed to "Dickie".[2]

He was baptised in the large drawing room of Frogmore House on 17 July 1900 by the Dean of Windsor, Philip Eliot. His godparents were Queen Victoria, Nicholas II of Russia (represented by his father) and Prince Francis Joseph of Battenberg (represented by Lord Edward Clinton).[3] He wore the original 1841 royal christening gown at the ceremony.[3]

Mountbatten was educated at home for the first 10 years of his life: he was then sent to Lockers Park School in Hertfordshire[4] and on to the Royal Naval College, Osborne in May 1913.[5] His mother's younger sister was Russian Empress Alexandra Feodorovna. In childhood he visited the Imperial Court of Russia at St Petersburg and became intimate with the doomed Russian Imperial Family, harbouring romantic feelings towards his maternal first cousin Grand Duchess Maria Nikolaevna, whose photograph he kept at his bedside for the rest of his life.[6]


Early career

Mountbatten was posted as midshipman to the battlecruiser HMS Lion in July 1916 and, after seeing action in August 1916, transferred to the battleship HMS Queen Elizabeth during the closing phases of the First World War.[5] In June 1917, when the royal family stopped using their German names and titles and adopted the more British-sounding "Windsor", Prince Louis of Battenberg became Louis Mountbatten, and was created Marquess of Milford Haven. His second son acquired the courtesy title Lord Louis Mountbatten and was known as Lord Louis until he was created a peer in 1946.[7] He paid a visit of ten days to the Western Front, in July 1918.[8]

He was appointed executive officer (second-in-command) of the small warship HMS P. 31 on 13 October 1918 and was promoted sub-lieutenant on 15 January 1919. HMS P. 31 took part in the Peace River Pageant on 4 April 1919. Mountbatten attended Christ's College, Cambridge for two terms, starting in October 1919, where he studied English literature (including John Milton and Lord Byron) in a programme that was specially designed for ex-servicemen.[9][10][11] He was elected for a term to the Standing Committee of the Cambridge Union Society, and was suspected of sympathy for the Labour Party, then emerging as a potential party of government for the first time.[12]

He was posted to the battlecruiser HMS Renown in March 1920 and accompanied Edward, Prince of Wales, on a royal tour of Australia in her.[7] He was promoted lieutenant on 15 April 1920.[13] HMS Renown returned to Portsmouth on 11 October 1920.[14] Early in 1921 Royal Navy personnel were used for civil defence duties as serious industrial unrest seemed imminent. Mountbatten had to command a platoon of stokers, many of whom had never handled a rifle before, in northern England.[14] He transferred to the battlecruiser HMS Repulse in March 1921 and accompanied the Prince of Wales on a Royal tour of India and Japan.[7][15] Edward and Mountbatten formed a close friendship during the trip.[7] Mountbatten survived the deep defence cuts known as the Geddes Axe. Fifty-two percent of the officers of his year had had to leave the Royal Navy by the end of 1923; although he was highly regarded by his superiors, it was rumoured that wealthy and well-connected officers were more likely to be retained.[16] He was posted to the battleship HMS Revenge in the Mediterranean Fleet in January 1923.[7]

Pursuing his interests in technological development and gadgetry, Mountbatten joined the Portsmouth Signals School in August 1924 and then went on briefly to study electronics at the Royal Naval College, Greenwich.[7] Mountbatten became a Member of the Institution of Electrical Engineers (IEE), now the Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET), which annually awards the Mountbatten Medal for an outstanding contribution, or contributions over a period, to the promotion of electronics or information technology and their application.[17] He was posted to the battleship HMS Centurion in the Reserve Fleet in 1926 and became Assistant Fleet Wireless and Signals Officer of the Mediterranean Fleet under the command of Admiral Sir Roger Keyes in January 1927.[7] Promoted lieutenant-commander on 15 April 1928,[18] he returned to the Signals School in July 1929 as Senior Wireless Instructor.[7] He was appointed Fleet Wireless Officer to the Mediterranean Fleet in August 1931, and having been promoted commander on 31 December 1932,[19] was posted to the battleship HMS Resolution.[7]

In 1934, Mountbatten was appointed to his first command – the destroyer HMS Daring.[7] His ship was a new destroyer, which he was to sail to Singapore and exchange for an older ship, HMS Wishart.[7] He successfully brought Wishart back to port in Malta and then attended the funeral of King George V in January 1936.[20] Mountbatten was appointed a Personal Naval Aide-de-Camp to King Edward VIII on 23 June 1936,[21] and, having joined the Naval Air Division of the Admiralty in July 1936,[22] he attended the coronation of King George VI and Queen Elizabeth in May 1937.[23] He was promoted captain on 30 June 1937[24] and was then given command of the destroyer HMS Kelly in June 1939.[25]

In July 1939, Mountbatten was granted a patent (UK Number 508,956) for a system for maintaining a warship in a fixed position relative to another ship.[26]

Second World War

When war broke out in September 1939, Mountbatten became Captain (D) (commander) of the 5th Destroyer Flotilla aboard HMS Kelly, which became famous for its exploits.[22] In late 1939 he brought the Duke of Windsor back from exile in France and in early May 1940, Mountbatten led a British convoy in through the fog to evacuate the Allied forces participating in the Namsos Campaign during the Norwegian Campaign.[25]

On the night of 9–10 May 1940, Kelly was torpedoed amidships by a German E-boat S 31 off the Dutch coast, and Mountbatten thereafter commanded the 5th Destroyer Flotilla from the destroyer HMS Javelin.[25] On 29 November 1940 the 5th Flotilla engaged three German destroyers off the Lizard. Mountbatten turned to port to match a German course change. This was "a rather disastrous move as the directors swung off and lost target."[27] It also resulted in Javelin being struck by two torpedoes. He rejoined Kelly in December 1940, by which time the torpedo damage had been repaired.[25]

Kelly was sunk by German dive bombers on 23 May 1941 during the Battle of Crete;[28] the incident serving as the basis for Noël Coward's film In Which We Serve.[29] Coward was a personal friend of Mountbatten and copied some of his speeches into the film.[28] Mountbatten was mentioned in despatches on 9 August 1940[30] and 21 March 1941[31] and awarded the Distinguished Service Order in January 1941.[32]

In August 1941, Mountbatten was appointed captain of the aircraft carrier HMS Illustrious which lay in Norfolk, Virginia, for repairs following action at Malta in the Mediterranean in January.[28] During this period of relative inactivity, he paid a flying visit to Pearl Harbor, three months before the Japanese attack on the US naval base there. Mountbatten, appalled at the base's lack of preparedness, drawing on Japan's history of launching wars with surprise attacks as well as the successful British surprise attack at the Battle of Taranto which had effectively knocked Italy's fleet out of the war, and the sheer effectiveness of aircraft against warships, accurately predicted that the US entry into the war would begin with a Japanese surprise attack on Pearl Harbor.[28][33]

Mountbatten was a favourite of Winston Churchill.[34] On 27 October 1941 Mountbatten replaced Roger Keyes as Chief of Combined Operations and was promoted to commodore.[28]

His duties in this role included inventing new technical aids to assist with opposed landings.[22] Noteworthy technical achievements of Mountbatten and his staff include the construction of "PLUTO", an underwater oil pipeline from the English coast to Normandy, an artificial harbour constructed of concrete caissons and sunken ships, and the development of amphibious tank-landing ships.[22] Another project that Mountbatten proposed to Churchill was Project Habakkuk. It was to be a massive and impregnable 600-metre aircraft carrier made from reinforced ice ("Pykrete"): Habakkuk was never carried out due to its enormous cost.[22]

As commander of Combined Operations, Mountbatten and his staff planned the highly successful Bruneval raid, which gained important information and also captured part of a German Würzburg radar installation and one of the machine's technicians on 27 February 1942. It was Mountbatten who recognised that surprise and speed were essential to ensure the radar was captured, and saw that an airborne assault was the only viable method.[35]

In March 1942, he was promoted to the acting rank of vice admiral and given the honorary ranks of lieutenant general and air marshal in order to have the required authority to carryout his duties in Combined Operations; and was placed in the Chiefs of Staff Committee.[36] He was in large part responsible for the planning and organisation of The Raid at St. Nazaire in mid-1942, an operation which put out of action one of the most heavily defended docks in Nazi-occupied France until well after war's end, the ramifications of which contributed to allied supremacy in the Battle of the Atlantic. After these two successes came the Dieppe Raid of 19 August 1942. He was central in the planning and promotion of the raid on the port of Dieppe. The raid was a marked failure, with casualties of almost 60%, the great majority of them Canadians.[28] Following the Dieppe raid Mountbatten became a controversial figure in Canada, with the Royal Canadian Legion distancing itself from him during his visits there during his later career.[37] His relations with Canadian veterans, who blamed him for the losses, "remained frosty" after the war.[38]

Mountbatten claimed that the lessons learned from the Dieppe Raid were necessary for planning the Normandy invasion on D-Day nearly two years later. However, military historians such as former Royal Marine Julian Thompson have written that these lessons should not have needed a debacle such as Dieppe to be recognised.[39] Nevertheless, as a direct result of the failings of the Dieppe raid, the British made several innovations, most notably Hobart's Funnies – specialised armoured vehicles which, in the course of the Normandy Landings, undoubtedly saved many lives on those three beachheads upon which Commonwealth soldiers were landing (Gold Beach, Juno Beach, and Sword Beach).[40]

In August 1943, Churchill appointed Mountbatten the Supreme Allied Commander South East Asia Command (SEAC) with promotion to acting full admiral.[28] His less practical ideas were sidelined by an experienced planning staff led by Lieutenant-Colonel James Allason, though some, such as a proposal to launch an amphibious assault near Rangoon, got as far as Churchill before being quashed.[41]

British interpreter Hugh Lunghi recounted an embarrassing episode which occurred during the Potsdam Conference, when Mountbatten, desiring to receive an invitation to visit the Soviet Union, repeatedly attempted to impress Joseph Stalin with his former connections to the Russian imperial family. The attempt fell predictably flat, with Stalin dryly inquiring whether "it was some time ago that he had been there". Says Lunghi, "The meeting was embarrassing because Stalin was so unimpressed. He offered no invitation. Mountbatten left with his tail between his legs."[42]

During his time as Supreme Allied Commander of the Southeast Asia Theatre, his command oversaw the recapture of Burma from the Japanese by General William Slim.[43] A personal high point was the receipt of the Japanese surrender in Singapore when British troops returned to the island to receive the formal surrender of Japanese forces in the region led by General Itagaki Seishiro on 12 September 1945, codenamed Operation Tiderace.[44] South East Asia Command was disbanded in May 1946 and Mountbatten returned home with the substantive rank of rear-admiral.[45] That year, he was made a Knight of the Garter and created Viscount Mountbatten of Burma, of Romsey in the County of Southampton as a victory title for war service.[46]

Following the war, Mountbatten was known to have largely shunned the Japanese for the rest of his life out of respect for his men killed during the war, and as per his will, Japan was not invited to send diplomatic representatives to his funeral in 1979, though he did meet Emperor Hirohito during a state visit to Britain in 1971, reportedly at the urging of the Queen.[47]

Last Viceroy of India and first Governor-General

His experience in the region and in particular his perceived Labour sympathies at that time led to Clement Attlee appointing him Viceroy of India on 20 February 1947[48][49] charged with overseeing the transition of British India to independence no later than 30 June 1948. Mountbatten's instructions were to avoid partition and preserve a united India as a result of the transference of power but authorised him to adapt to a changing situation in order to get Britain out promptly with minimal reputational damage.[50][51] Soon after he arrived, Mountbatten concluded that the situation was too volatile to wait even a year before granting independence to India. Although his advisers favoured a gradual transfer of independence, Mountbatten decided the only way forward was a quick and orderly transfer of independence before 1947 was out. In his view, any longer would mean civil war.[52] The Viceroy also hurried so he could return to his senior technical Navy courses.[53][54]

Mountbatten was fond of Congress leader Jawaharlal Nehru and his liberal outlook for the country. He felt differently about the Muslim leader Muhammad Ali Jinnah, but was aware of his power, stating "If it could be said that any single man held the future of India in the palm of his hand in 1947, that man was Mohammad Ali Jinnah."[54] During his meeting with Jinnah on 5 April 1947,[55] Mountbatten tried to persuade Jinnah of a united India, citing the difficult task of dividing the mixed states of Punjab and Bengal, but the Muslim leader was unyielding in his goal of establishing a separate Muslim state called Pakistan.[56]

Given the British government's recommendations to grant independence quickly, Mountbatten concluded that a united India was an unachievable goal and resigned himself to a plan for partition, creating the independent nations of India and Pakistan.[22] Mountbatten set a date for the transfer of power from the British to the Indians, arguing that a fixed timeline would convince Indians of his and the British government's sincerity in working towards a swift and efficient independence, excluding all possibilities of stalling the process.[57]

Among the Indian leaders, Mahatma Gandhi emphatically insisted on maintaining a united India and for a while successfully rallied people to this goal. During his meeting with Mountbatten, Gandhi asked Mountbatten to invite Jinnah to form a new Central government, but Mountbatten never uttered a word of Gandhi's ideas to Jinnah.[58] And when Mountbatten's timeline offered the prospect of attaining independence soon, sentiments took a different turn. Given Mountbatten's determination, Nehru and Patel's inability to deal with the Muslim League and lastly Jinnah's obstinacy, all Indian party leaders (except Gandhi) acquiesced to Jinnah's plan to divide India,[59] which in turn eased Mountbatten's task. Mountbatten also developed a strong relationship with the Indian princes, who ruled those portions of India not directly under British rule. His intervention was decisive in persuading the vast majority of them to see advantages in opting to join the Indian Union.[60] On one hand, the integration of the princely states can be viewed as one of the positive aspects of his legacy.[61] But on the other, the refusal of Hyderabad, Jammu and Kashmir, and Junagadh to join one of the dominions led to future tension between Pakistan and India.[62]

Mountbatten brought forward the date of the partition from June 1948 to 15 August 1947.[63] The uncertainty of the borders caused Muslims and Hindus to move into the direction where they felt they would get the majority. Hindus and Muslims were thoroughly terrified, and the Muslim movement from the East was balanced by the similar movement of Hindus from the West.[64] A boundary committee chaired by Sir Cyril Radcliffe was charged with drawing boundaries for the new nations. With a mandate to leave as many Hindus and Sikhs in India and as many Muslims in Pakistan as possible, Radcliffe came up with a map that split the two countries along the Punjab and Bengal borders. This left 14 million people on the "wrong" side of the border, and very many of them fled to "safety" on the other side when the new lines were announced.[52]

When India and Pakistan attained independence at midnight on the night of 14–15 August 1947, Mountbatten remained in New Delhi for 10 months, serving as India's first governor general until June 1948.[65] On Mountbatten's advice, India took the issue of Kashmir to the newly formed United Nations in January 1948. The issue of Kashmir would become a lasting thorn in his legacy, one that is not resolved to this day.[66] Accounts differ on the future Mountbatten desired for Kashmir. Pakistani accounts suggest that Mountbatten favored the accession of Kashmir to India citing his close relationship to Nehru. Mountbatten's own account says that he simply wanted the maharaja Hari Singh to make up his mind. The viceroy made several attempts to mediate between the Congress leaders, Muhammad Ali Jinnah and Hari Singh on issues relating to the accession of Kashmir though he was largely unsuccessful in resolving the conflict.[67] After the tribal invasion of Kashmir, it was on his suggestion that India moved to secure the accession of Kashmir from Hari Singh before sending in military forces for his defence.[68]

Notwithstanding the self-promotion of his own part in Indian independence – notably in the television series The Life and Times of Admiral of the Fleet Lord Mountbatten of Burma, produced by his son-in-law Lord Brabourne, and Freedom at Midnight by Dominique Lapierre and Larry Collins (of which he was the main quoted source) – his record is seen as very mixed; one common view is that he hastened the independence process unduly and recklessly, foreseeing vast disruption and loss of life and not wanting this to occur on the British watch, but thereby actually helping it to occur, especially in Punjab and Bengal.[69] John Kenneth Galbraith, the Canadian-American Harvard University economist, who advised governments of India during the 1950s, an intimate of Nehru who served as the American ambassador from 1961 to 1963, was a particularly harsh critic of Mountbatten in this regard.[70]

The creation of Pakistan was never emotionally accepted by many British leaders, among them Mountbatten.[71] Mountbatten clearly expressed his lack of support and faith in the Muslim League's idea of Pakistan.[72] Jinnah refused Mountbatten's offer to serve as Governor-General of Pakistan.[73] When Mountbatten was asked by Collins and Lapierre if he would have sabotaged Pakistan had he known that Jinnah was dying of tuberculosis, he replied, "Most probably."[74]

Career after India

After India, Mountbatten served as commander of the 1st Cruiser Squadron in the Mediterranean Fleet and, having been granted the substantive rank of vice-admiral on 22 June 1949,[75] he became Second-in-Command of the Mediterranean Fleet in April 1950.[65] He became Fourth Sea Lord at the Admiralty in June 1950. He then returned to the Mediterranean to serve as Commander-in-Chief, Mediterranean Fleet and NATO Commander Allied Forces Mediterranean from June 1952.[65] He was promoted to the substantive rank of full admiral on 27 February 1953.[76] In March 1953, he was appointed Personal Aide-de-Camp to the Queen.[77]

Mountbatten served his final posting at the Admiralty as First Sea Lord and Chief of the Naval Staff from April 1955 to July 1959, the position which his father had held some forty years prior. This was the first time in Royal Naval history that a father and son had both attained such high rank.[78] He was promoted to Admiral of the Fleet on 22 October 1956.[79]

While serving as First Sea Lord, his primary concerns dealt with devising plans on how the Royal Navy would keep shipping lanes open if Britain fell victim to a nuclear attack. Today, this seems of minor importance but at the time few people comprehended the potentially limitless destruction nuclear weapons possess and the ongoing dangers posed by the fallout. Military commanders did not understand the physics involved in a nuclear explosion. This became evident when Mountbatten had to be reassured that the fission reactions from the Bikini Atoll tests would not spread through the oceans and blow up the planet.[80] As Mountbatten became more familiar with this new form of weaponry, he increasingly grew opposed to its use in combat yet at the same time he realised the potential nuclear energy had, especially with regards to submarines. Mountbatten expressed his feelings towards the use of nuclear weapons in combat in his article "A Military Commander Surveys The Nuclear Arms Race", which was published shortly after his death in International Security in the Winter of 1979–1980.[81]

After leaving the Admiralty, Lord Mountbatten took the position of Chief of the Defence Staff.[65] He served in this post for six years during which he was able to consolidate the three service departments of the military branch into a single Ministry of Defence.[82] Ian Jacob, co-author of the 1963 Report on the Central Organisation of Defence that served as the basis of these reforms, described Mountbatten as "universally mistrusted in spite of his great qualities"[83] On their election in October 1964, the Wilson ministry had to decide whether to renew his appointment the following July. The Defence Secretary, Denis Healey, interviewed the forty most senior officials in the Ministry of Defence; only one, Sir Kenneth Strong, a personal friend of Mountbatten, recommended his reappointment.[83] "When I told Dickie of my decision not to reappoint him," recalls Healey, "he slapped his thigh and roared with delight; but his eyes told a different story."[83]

Mountbatten was appointed colonel of the Life Guards and Gold Stick in Waiting on 29 January 1965,[84] and Life Colonel Commandant of the Royal Marines the same year.[85] He was Governor of the Isle of Wight from 20 July 1965[86] and then the first Lord Lieutenant of the Isle of Wight from 1 April 1974.[87]

Mountbatten was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society[22] and had received an honorary doctorate from Heriot-Watt University in 1968.[88]

In 1969, Mountbatten tried unsuccessfully to persuade his cousin, the Spanish pretender Infante Juan, Count of Barcelona, to ease the eventual accession of his son, Juan Carlos, to the Spanish throne by signing a declaration of abdication while in exile.[89] The next year Mountbatten attended an official White House dinner during which he took the opportunity to have a 20-minute conversation with Richard Nixon and Secretary of State William P. Rogers, about which he later wrote, "I was able to talk to the President a bit about both Tino [Constantine II of Greece] and Juanito [Juan Carlos of Spain] to try and put over their respective points of view about Greece and Spain, and how I felt the US could help them."[89] In January 1971, Nixon hosted Juan Carlos and his wife Sofia (sister of the exiled King Constantine) during a visit to Washington and later that year The Washington Post published an article alleging that Nixon's administration was seeking to persuade Franco to retire in favour of the young Bourbon prince.[89]

From 1967 until 1978, Mountbatten was president of the United World Colleges Organisation, then represented by a single college: that of Atlantic College in South Wales. Mountbatten supported the United World Colleges and encouraged heads of state, politicians and personalities throughout the world to share his interest. Under Mountbatten's presidency and personal involvement, the United World College of South East Asia was established in Singapore in 1971, followed by the United World College of the Pacific in Victoria, British Columbia, in 1974. In 1978, Mountbatten passed the presidency of the college to his great-nephew, the Prince of Wales.[90]

Alleged plots against Harold Wilson

Peter Wright, in his 1987 book Spycatcher, claimed that in May 1968 Mountbatten attended a private meeting with press baron Cecil King, and the Government's Chief Scientific Adviser, Solly Zuckerman. Wright alleged that "up to thirty" MI5 officers had joined a secret campaign to undermine the crisis-stricken Labour government of Harold Wilson and that King was an MI5 agent. In the meeting, King allegedly urged Mountbatten to become the leader of a government of national salvation. Solly Zuckerman pointed out that it was "rank treachery", and the idea came to nothing because of Mountbatten's reluctance to act.[91] In contrast, Andrew Lownie has suggested that it took the intervention of the Queen to dissuade him from plotting against Wilson.[92]

In 2006, the BBC documentary The Plot Against Harold Wilson alleged that there had been another plot involving Mountbatten to oust Wilson during his second term in office (1974–1976). The period was characterised by high inflation, increasing unemployment and widespread industrial unrest. The alleged plot revolved around right-wing former military figures who were supposedly building private armies to counter the perceived threat from trade unions and the Soviet Union. They believed that the Labour Party, which was (and still is) partly funded by affiliated trade unions, was unable and unwilling to counter these developments and that Wilson was either a Soviet agent or at the very least a Communist sympathiser – claims Wilson strongly denied. The documentary alleged that a coup was planned to overthrow Wilson and replace him with Mountbatten using the private armies and sympathisers in the military and MI5.[93]

The first official history of MI5, The Defence of the Realm (2009), implied that there was a plot against Wilson and that MI5 did have a file on him. Yet it also made clear that the plot was in no way official and that any activity centred on a small group of discontented officers. This much had already been confirmed by former cabinet secretary Lord Hunt, who concluded in a secret inquiry conducted in 1996 that "there is absolutely no doubt at all that a few, a very few, malcontents in MI5 ... a lot of them like Peter Wright who were right-wing, malicious and had serious personal grudges – gave vent to these and spread damaging malicious stories about that Labour government."[94]

Personal life


Mountbatten was married on 18 July 1922 to Edwina Cynthia Annette Ashley, daughter of Wilfred William Ashley, later 1st Baron Mount Temple, himself a grandson of the 7th Earl of Shaftesbury. She was the favourite granddaughter of the Edwardian magnate Sir Ernest Cassel and the principal heir to his fortune.[7] There followed a honeymoon tour of European royal courts and America which included a visit to Niagara Falls (because "all honeymooners went there").[2]

Mountbatten admitted "Edwina and I spent all our married lives getting into other people's beds."[95] He maintained an affair for several years with Yola Letellier,[96] the wife of Henri Letellier, publisher of Le Journal and mayor of Deauville (1925–28).[97] Yola Letellier's life story was the inspiration for Colette's novel Gigi.[96] Edwina and Jawaharlal Nehru became intimate friends after Indian Independence. During the summers, she would frequent the prime minister's house so she could lounge about on his veranda during the hot Delhi days. Personal correspondence between the two reveals a satisfying yet frustrating relationship. Edwina states in one of her letters. "Nothing that we did or felt would ever be allowed to come between you and your work or me and mine – because that would spoil everything."[98]

Mountbatten was involved in relationships with young women after Edwina's death according to his daughter Patricia, his secretary John Barratt, his valet Bill Evans and William Stadiem, an employee of Madame Claude.[99]


Ron Perks, Mountbatten's driver in Malta in 1948, alleged that he used to visit the Red House, a gay brothel in Rabat.[100] Anthony Daly, a male prostitute in a relationship with Tom Driberg, claimed that the latter told him Mountbatten was attracted to young men in military uniforms and boys in school uniforms.[101] Andrew Lownie, a Royal Historical Society fellow, wrote that the Federal Bureau of Investigation maintained files regarding Mountbatten's alleged sexuality.[101] He also interviewed several young men who claimed to have been in a relationship with him. Barratt has denied Mountbatten was a homosexual, claiming it would be impossible for that to be hidden from him.[99]

Allegations of sexual abuse

The FBI files contain a claim by Elizabeth Wharton Drexel that he had "a perversion for young boys".[101] Norman Nield, his driver from 1942–43, told the tabloid New Zealand Truth that he transported young boys aged 8 to 12 and was paid to keep quiet. Robin Bryans had also claimed to the Irish magazine Now that he and Anthony Blunt, along with others, were part of a ring that engaged in homosexual orgies and procured boys in their first year at public schools such as the Portora Royal School. These claims were dismissed at that time.[99][102]

Daughter as heir

Lord and Lady Mountbatten had two daughters: Patricia Knatchbull, 2nd Countess Mountbatten of Burma (14 February 1924 – 13 June 2017),[103] sometime lady-in-waiting to Queen Elizabeth II, and Lady Pamela Hicks (born 19 April 1929), who accompanied them to India in 1947–1948 and was also sometime lady-in-waiting to the Queen.[1]

Since Mountbatten had no sons, when he was created Viscount Mountbatten of Burma, of Romsey in the County of Southampton on 27 August 1946[104] and then Earl Mountbatten of Burma and Baron Romsey, in the County of Southampton on 28 October 1947,[105] the Letters Patent were drafted such that in the event he left no sons or issue in the male line, the titles could pass to his daughters, in order of seniority of birth, and to their male heirs respectively.[106]

Leisure interests

Like many members of the royal family, Mountbatten was an aficionado of polo. He received U.S. patent 1,993,334 in 1931 for a polo stick.[107] Mountbatten introduced the sport to the Royal Navy in the 1920s, and wrote a book on the subject.[2] He also served as Commodore of Emsworth Sailing Club in Hampshire from 1931.[108] He was a long-serving Patron of the Society for Nautical Research (1951–1979).[109]

Mentorship of the Prince of Wales

Mountbatten was a strong influence in the upbringing of his grand-nephew, Charles, Prince of Wales, and later as a mentor – "Honorary Grandfather" and "Honorary Grandson", they fondly called each other according to the Jonathan Dimbleby biography of the Prince – though according to both the Ziegler biography of Mountbatten and the Dimbleby biography of the Prince, the results may have been mixed. He from time to time strongly upbraided the Prince for showing tendencies towards the idle pleasure-seeking dilettantism of his predecessor as Prince of Wales, King Edward VIII, whom Mountbatten had known well in their youth. Yet he also encouraged the Prince to enjoy the bachelor life while he could and then to marry a young and inexperienced girl so as to ensure a stable married life.[110]

Mountbatten's qualification for offering advice to this particular heir to the throne was unique; it was he who had arranged the visit of King George VI and Queen Elizabeth to Dartmouth Royal Naval College on 22 July 1939, taking care to include the young Princesses Elizabeth and Margaret in the invitation, but assigning his nephew, Cadet Prince Philip of Greece, to keep them amused while their parents toured the facility. This was the first recorded meeting of Charles's future parents.[111] But a few months later, Mountbatten's efforts nearly came to naught when he received a letter from his sister Alice in Athens informing him that Philip was visiting her and had agreed to permanently repatriate to Greece. Within days, Philip received a command from his cousin and sovereign, King George II of Greece, to resume his naval career in Britain which, though given without explanation, the young prince obeyed.[112]

In 1974, Mountbatten began corresponding with Charles about a potential marriage to his granddaughter, Hon. Amanda Knatchbull.[113] It was about this time he also recommended that the 25 year-old prince get on with "sowing some wild oats".[113] Charles dutifully wrote to Amanda's mother (who was also his godmother), Lady Brabourne, about his interest. Her answer was supportive, but advised him that she thought her daughter still rather young to be courted.[114]

In February 1975, Charles visited New Delhi to play polo and was shown around Rashtrapati Bhavan, the former Viceroy's House, by Mountbatten.[115]

Four years later Mountbatten secured an invitation for himself and Amanda to accompany Charles on his planned 1980 tour of India.[114] Their fathers promptly objected. Prince Philip thought that the Indian public's reception would more likely reflect response to the uncle than to the nephew. Lord Brabourne counselled that the intense scrutiny of the press would be more likely to drive Mountbatten's godson and granddaughter apart than together.[114]

Charles was rescheduled to tour India alone, but Mountbatten did not live to the planned date of departure. When Charles finally did propose marriage to Amanda later in 1979, the circumstances were changed, and she refused him.[114]

Television appearances

On 27 April 1977, shortly before his 77th birthday, Mountbatten became the first member of the Royal Family to appear on the TV guest show This Is Your Life.[116]



Mountbatten usually holidayed at his summer home, Classiebawn Castle, in Mullaghmore, a small seaside village in County Sligo, Ireland. The village was only 12 miles (19 km) from the border with Northern Ireland and near an area known to be used as a cross-border refuge by IRA members.[117][118] In 1978, the IRA had allegedly attempted to shoot Mountbatten as he was aboard his boat, but poor weather had prevented the sniper taking his shot.[119]

On 27 August 1979, Mountbatten went lobster-potting and tuna fishing in his 30-foot (9.1 m) wooden boat, Shadow V, which had been moored in the harbour at Mullaghmore.[118] IRA member Thomas McMahon had slipped onto the unguarded boat that night and attached a radio-controlled bomb weighing 50 pounds (23 kg). When Mountbatten was aboard, just a few hundred yards from the shore, the bomb was detonated. The boat was destroyed by the force of the blast, and Mountbatten's legs were almost blown off. Mountbatten, then aged 79, was pulled alive from the water by nearby fishermen, but died from his injuries before being brought to shore.[118][120][121] Also aboard the boat were his elder daughter Patricia (Lady Brabourne), her husband John (Lord Brabourne), their twin sons Nicholas and Timothy Knatchbull, John's mother Doreen, (dowager) Lady Brabourne, and Paul Maxwell, a young crew member from County Fermanagh.[122] Nicholas (aged 14) and Paul (aged 15) were killed by the blast and the others were seriously injured.[123] Doreen, Lady Brabourne (aged 83) died from her injuries the following day.[124]

The attack triggered outrage and condemnation around the world.[125] The Queen received messages of condolence from leaders including President Jimmy Carter and Pope John Paul II.[126] Carter expressed his "profound sadness" at the death.[127]

Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher said:

His death leaves a gap that can never be filled. The British people give thanks for his life and grieve at his passing.[128]

Tánaiste of Ireland, George Colley said:

No effort will be spared to bring those responsible to justice. It is understood that subversives have claimed responsibility for the explosion. Assuming that police investigations substantiate the claim, I know that the Irish people will join me in condemning this heartless and terrible outrage.[128]

The IRA issued a statement afterward, saying:

The IRA claim responsibility for the execution of Lord Louis Mountbatten. This operation is one of the discriminate ways we can bring to the attention of the English people the continuing occupation of our country. ... The death of Mountbatten and the tributes paid to him will be seen in sharp contrast to the apathy of the British Government and the English people to the deaths of over three hundred British soldiers, and the deaths of Irish men, women, and children at the hands of their forces.[117][129]

Six weeks later,[130] Sinn Féin vice-president Gerry Adams said of Mountbatten's death:

The IRA gave clear reasons for the execution. I think it is unfortunate that anyone has to be killed, but the furor created by Mountbatten's death showed up the hypocritical attitude of the media establishment. As a member of the House of Lords, Mountbatten was an emotional figure in both British and Irish politics. What the IRA did to him is what Mountbatten had been doing all his life to other people; and with his war record I don't think he could have objected to dying in what was clearly a war situation. He knew the danger involved in coming to this country. In my opinion, the IRA achieved its objective: people started paying attention to what was happening in Ireland.[130]

In May 2015, during a meeting with Prince Charles, Adams did not apologise. He later said in an interview, "I stand over what I said then. I'm not one of those people that engages in revisionism. Thankfully the war is over".[131]

On the day of the bombing, the IRA also ambushed and killed eighteen British soldiers in Northern Ireland, sixteen of them from the Parachute Regiment, in what became known as the Warrenpoint ambush.[132] It was the deadliest attack on the British Army during the Troubles.[118]


On 5 September 1979 Mountbatten received a ceremonial funeral at Westminster Abbey, which was attended by the Queen, the Royal Family and members of the European royal houses. Watched by thousands of people, the funeral procession, which started at Wellington Barracks, included representatives of all three British Armed Services, and military contingents from Burma, India, the United States, France and Canada. His coffin was drawn on a gun carriage by 118 Royal Navy ratings. During the televised service, the Prince of Wales read the lesson from Psalm 107.[133] In an address, the Archbishop of Canterbury, Donald Coggan, highlighted his various achievements and his "lifelong devotion to the Royal Navy".[134] After the public ceremonies, which he had planned himself, Mountbatten was buried in Romsey Abbey.[135][136] As part of the funeral arrangements, his body had been embalmed by Desmond Henley.[137]


Two hours before the bomb detonated, Thomas McMahon had been arrested at a Garda checkpoint between Longford and Granard on suspicion of driving a stolen vehicle. He was tried for the assassinations in Ireland and convicted on 23 November 1979 based on forensic evidence supplied by James O'Donovan that showed flecks of paint from the boat and traces of nitroglycerine on his clothes.[138] He was released in 1998 under the terms of the Good Friday Agreement.[118][139]

On hearing of Mountbatten's death, the then Master of the Queen's Music, Malcolm Williamson, wrote the Lament in Memory of Lord Mountbatten of Burma for violin and string orchestra. The 11-minute work was given its first performance on 5 May 1980 by the Scottish Baroque Ensemble, conducted by Leonard Friedman.[140]


Mountbatten took pride in enhancing intercultural understanding and in 1984, with his elder daughter as the patron, the Mountbatten Institute was developed to allow young adults the opportunity to enhance their intercultural appreciation and experience by spending time abroad.[141]

Canada's capital city of Ottawa, Ontario, erected Mountbatten Avenue in his memory. The avenue runs from Blossom Drive to Fairbanks Avenue.[142]


Ribbon Name Date awarded
Knight of the Garter (KG)1946[143]
Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath (GCB)1955
Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath (KCB)1945[144]
Companion of the Order of the Bath (CB)1943
Member of the Order of Merit (Military Division) (OM)1965[145]
Knight Grand Commander of the Most Exalted Order of the Star of India (GCSI)1947
Knight Grand Commander of the Most Eminent Order of the Indian Empire (GCIE)1947
Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order (GCVO)1937[146]
Knight Commander of the Royal Victorian Order (KCVO)1922[147]
Member of the Royal Victorian Order (MVO)1920[148]
Companion of the Distinguished Service Order (DSO)1941[32]
Knight of Justice of the Most Venerable Order of the Hospital of Saint John of Jerusalem (KStJ)1940[149]
Commander of the Most Venerable Order of the Hospital of Saint John of Jerusalem (CStJ)1929[150]
British War Medal
Victory Medal
1939–45 Star
Atlantic Star
Africa Star
Burma Star
Italy Star
Defence Medal
War Medal 1939–1945
Naval General Service Medal
King George V Coronation Medal1911
King George V Silver Jubilee Medal1935
King George VI Coronation Medal1937
Queen Elizabeth II Coronation Medal1952
Queen Elizabeth II Silver Jubilee Medal1977
Indian Independence Medal1949
Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Isabella the Catholic (Kingdom of Spain) – 1922[151]
Order of the Nile, Fourth Class (Kingdom of Egypt)  – 1922[151]
Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Crown (Romania) – 1924[151]
Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Star of Romania (Romania) – 1937[151]
War Cross (Kingdom of Greece) – 1941[152]
Chief Commander of the Legion of Merit (United States) – 1943[153]
Special Grand Cordon of the Order of the Cloud and Banner (Republic of China) – 1945[154]
Distinguished Service Medal (United States) – 1945[155]
Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal (United States) – 1945
Grand Cross of the Legion of Honour (France) – 1946[156]
1939–1945 War Cross (France) – 1946
Grand Commander of the Order of the Star of Nepal (Kingdom of Nepal) – 1946[156]
King Birendra Coronation Medal (Kingdom of Nepal) – 24 February 1975
Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the White Elephant (Kingdom of Thailand) – 1946[156]
Knight Grand Cross of the Order of George I (Kingdom of Greece) – 1946[157]
Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Netherlands Lion (Kingdom of the Netherlands) – 1948[158]
Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Aviz (Portuguese Republic) – 1951[151]
Knight of the Royal Order of the Seraphim (Kingdom of Sweden) – 1952
Grand Commander of the Order of Thiri Thudhamma (Union of Burma) – 1956[153]
Grand Cross of the Order of the Dannebrog (Kingdom of Denmark) – 1962[151]
Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Seal of Solomon (Ethiopian Empire) – 1965[151]


Coat of arms of Louis Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma
The arms of the Earl Mountbatten of Burma consist of:
Crests of Hesse modified and Battenberg.
Helms of Hesse modified and Battenberg.
Within the Garter, Quarterly, 1st and 4th, Hesse with a bordure compony argent and gules; 2nd and 3rd, Battenberg; charged at the honour point with an inescutcheon of the British Royal arms with a label of three points argent, the centre point charged with a rose gules and each of the others with an ermine spot sable (Princess Alice, his grandmother).[159]
Two Lions queue fourchée and crowned all or.
In honour bound
The Order of the Garter ribbon.
Honi soit qui mal y pense
(Shame be to him who thinks evil of it)




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Further reading

Copland, Ian (1993). "Lord Mountbatten and the integration of the Indian states: A reappraisal". Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History. 21 (2): 385–408. doi:10.1080/03086539308582896.
Hough, Richard (1980). Mountbatten: Hero of Our Time. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. ISBN 978-0297778059.
Knatchbull, Timothy (2010). From a Clear Blue Sky. London: Arrow. ISBN 978-0099543589.
Leigh, David (1988). The Wilson Plot: The Intelligence Services and the Discrediting of a Prime Minister 1945–1976. London: Heinemann. ISBN 978-0434413409.
Moore, R. J. (1981). "Mountbatten, India, and the Commonwealth". Journal of Commonwealth & Comparative Politics. 19 (1): 5–43. doi:10.1080/14662048108447372.
Murfett, Malcolm (1995). The First Sea Lords from Fisher to Mountbatten. Westport, CT: Praeger. ISBN 978-0-275-94231-1.
Roberts, Andrew (2004). Eminent Churchillians. London: Phoenix. pp. 55–136. ISBN 978-1857992137.
Smith, Adrian (2010). Mountbatten: Apprentice War Lord 1900–1943. London: I B Tauris. ISBN 978-1848853744.
Terraine, John (1968). The Life and Times of Lord Mountbatten. London: Hutchinson. ISBN 978-0090888108.
Von Tunzelmann, Alex (2008). Indian Summer: The Secret History of the End of an Empire. London: Pocket Books. ISBN 978-1416522256.
Government offices
Preceded by
The Viscount Wavell
Viceroy of India
Succeeded by
as Governor General of India
Succeeded by
Muhammad Ali Jinnah
as Governor General of Pakistan
Preceded by
as Viceroy of India
Governor General of India
Succeeded by
Chakravarti Rajagopalachari
Honorary titles
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The Duke of Wellington
Governor of the Isle of Wight
Succeeded by
as Lord Lieutenant of the Isle of Wight
Preceded by
as Governor of the Isle of Wight
Lord Lieutenant of the Isle of Wight
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John Nicholson
Military offices
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Herbert Packer
Fourth Sea Lord
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Sydney Raw
Preceded by
John Edelsten
Commander-in-Chief of the Mediterranean Fleet
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Guy Grantham
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Rhoderick McGrigor
First Sea Lord
Succeeded by
Charles Lambe
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William Dickson
Chief of the Defence Staff
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Richard Hull
Preceded by
Rustu Erdelhun
Chairman of the NATO Military Committee
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Lyman Lemnitzer
Peerage of the United Kingdom
New creation Viscount Mountbatten of Burma
Succeeded by
Patricia Knatchbull
Earl Mountbatten of Burma
Baron Romsey


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