Louis Hodes

Louis Hodes (June 19, 1934 – June 30, 2008) was an American mathematician, computer scientist, and cancer researcher.[1]

Louis Hodes
Born(1934-06-19)19 June 1934
Died19 June 2008(2008-06-19) (aged 74)
ResidenceBoston, Massachusetts
Rockville, Maryland
CitizenshipUnited States
EducationB.S., Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn
Ph.D., MIT (1962)
Known forLisp
Pattern recognition
Logic programming
Scientific career
Computer science
Cancer research
InstitutionsMassachusetts Institute of Technology
National Institutes of Health
National Cancer Institute
ThesisHyperarithmetical Real Numbers and Hyperarithmetical Analysis (1962)
Doctoral advisorHartley Rogers
InfluencesJohn McCarthy
Marvin Minsky

Early life and computer science work

He got his Bachelor of Science (B.S.) from the Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn. He got his Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in 1962, under Hartley Rogers with a thesis on computability.[1] With John McCarthy, in the late 1950s and early 1960s, he helped produce the earliest implementations of the programming language Lisp,[2] and under Marvin Minsky he did early research on visual pattern recognition in Lisp.[3][4][5] He is also credited by some with the idea, and an initial implementation, of logic programming.[1][6][7][8]

Cancer research

In 1966 he moved into cancer-related research, specifically at National Institutes of Health and later the National Cancer Institute where he turned his interest in visual pattern recognition to medical imaging applications.[1][9] He also worked on efficient algorithms for screening chemical compounds for studying chemical carcinogenesis.[1][10][11][12][13][14] His work on models of clustering for chemical compounds was pronounced a "milestone" by the Developmental Therapeutics Program of the National Cancer Institute, for "revolutioniz[ing] the selection of compounds of interest by measuring the novelty of a chemical structure by comparing it to known compounds."[15]


  1. "Obituaries: Louis Hodes: Scientist". The Washington Post. 1 Aug 2008.
  2. McCarthy, J.; Brayton, R.; Edwards, D.; Fox, P.; Hodes, L.; Luckham, D.; Maling, K.; Park, D.; Russell, S. (March 1960), LISP I Programmers Manual (PDF), Boston, Massachusetts: Artificial Intelligence Group, M.I.T. Computation Center and Research Laboratory, archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-07-17, retrieved 11 May 2010
  3. MIT research summary report, ch.XVI: Artificial Intelligence, p.166
  4. "Artificial Intelligence Project – RLE and MIT Computation Center Memo 18 – Some results from a pattern recognition program using LISP", undated memo,
  5. Hodes, L. "Machine Processing of Line Drawings", M.I.T. Lincoln Laboratory Report, 54G-0028 March 1961
  6. "Perspectives in Deductive Databases", Jack Minker, The Journal of Logic Programming v.5, #1, March 1988, pages 33–60
  7. Foundations of disjunctive logic programming (1992), Jorge Lobo, Jack Minker, Arcot Rajasekar, MIT Press, ISBN 0-262-12165-4, p.19
  8. Hodes, L. Hodes (1966). "Programming languages, logic and cooperative games". Proceedings of the first ACM symposium on Symbolic and algebraic manipulation. pp. 1201–1217.
  9. "A programming system for the on-line analysis of biomedical images", Communications of the ACM v.13, #5 (May 1970) pp. 279–283 ISSN 0001-0782
  10. "Substructure Search with Queries of Varying Specificity", Alfred Feldman, Louis Hodes, J. Chem. Inf. Comput. Sci., 1979, 19 (3), pp 125–129, doi:10.1021/ci60019a003
  11. "A two-component approach to predicting antitumor activity from chemical structure in large-scale screening", Louis Hodes, J. Med. Chem., 1986, 29 (11), pp 2207–2212, doi:10.1021/jm00161a013
  12. "Clustering a large number of compounds. 1. Establishing the method on an initial sample", Louis Hodes, J. Chem. Inf. Comput. Sci., 1989, 29 (2), pp 66–71, doi:10.1021/ci00062a004
  13. "Selection of molecular fragment features for structure-activity studies in antitumor screening", Louis Hodes, J. Chem. Inf. Comput. Sci., 1981, 21 (3), pp 132–136, doi:10.1021/ci00031a004
  14. "Computer-aided selection of compounds for antitumor screening: validation of a statistical-heuristic method", Louis Hodes, J. Chem. Inf. Comput. Sci., 1981, 21 (3), pp 128–132, doi:10.1021/ci00031a003
  15. "Milestone (1981): Hodes model for ranking small molecule structures (sic)", www.cancer.gov
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