The Lopingian is the uppermost series/last epoch of the Permian.[2] It is the last epoch of the Paleozoic. The Lopingian was preceded by the Guadalupian and followed by the Early Triassic.

Age (Ma)
Triassic Lower/
Induan younger
Permian Lopingian Changhsingian 251.902 254.14
Wuchiapingian 254.14 259.1
Guadalupian Capitanian 259.1 265.1
Wordian 265.1 268.8
Roadian 268.8 272.95
Cisuralian Kungurian 272.95 283.5
Artinskian 283.5 290.1
Sakmarian 290.1 295.0
Asselian 295.0 298.9
Carboniferous Pennsylvanian Gzhelian older
Subdivision of the Permian system
according to the ICS, as of 2017.[1]

The Lopingian is often synonymous with the informal terms late Permian or upper Permian.

The name was introduced by Amadeus William Grabau in 1931 and derives from Leping, Jiangxi in the then Republic of China.[3] It consists of two stages/ages. The earlier is the Wuchiapingian and the later is the Changhsingian.[4]

The International Chronostratigraphic Chart (v2018/07)[2] provides a numerical age of 259.1 ±0.5 Ma. If a Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) has been approved, the lower boundary of the earliest stage determines numerical age of an epoch. The GSSP for the Wuchiapingian has a numerical age of 259.8 ± 0.4 Ma.[5][6]

The Lopingian ended with the Permian–Triassic extinction event.

See also


  1. "Chart/Time Scale". www.stratigraphy.org. International Commission on Stratigraphy.
  2. International Commission on Stratigraphy. "Chart". Retrieved 10 July 2018.
  3. Zhang, Shouxin (2009). Geological Formation Names of China (1866–2000). Beijing/Dordrecht: Higher Education Press/Springer. p. 681. ISBN 978-7-040-25475-4.
  4. Allaby, Michael (2015). A Dictionary of Geology and Earth Sciences (4th ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/acref/9780199653065.001.0001. ISBN 9780199653065.
  5. International Commission on Stratigraphy. "GSSPs". Retrieved 10 July 2018.
  6. Gradstein, Felix M.; Ogg, James G.; Smith, Alan G. (2004). A Geologic Time Scale 2004. ISBN 9780521786737.

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