Logic form

Logic forms are simple, first-order logic knowledge representations of natural language sentences formed by the conjunction of concept predicates related through shared arguments. Each noun, verb, adjective, adverb, pronoun, preposition and conjunction generates a predicate. Logic forms can be decorated with word senses to disambiguate the semantics of the word. There are two types of predicates: events are marked with e, and entities are marked with x. The shared arguments connect the subjects and objects of verbs and prepositions together. Example input/output might look like this:

Input:  The Earth provides the food we eat every day.
Output: Earth:n_#1(x1) provide:v_#2(e1, x1, x2) food:n_#1(x2) we(x3) eat:v_#1(e2, x3, x2; x4) day:n_#1(x4)

Logic forms are used in some natural language processing techniques, such as question answering, as well as in inference both for database systems and QA systems.


SENSEVAL-3 in 2004 introduced a .


  • Vasile Rus (2002). Logic Form for WordNet Glosses. Ph.D. thesis, Southern Methodist University.
  • Vasile Rus and Dan Moldovan (September 2002). "High performance logic form transformation". International Journal on Artificial Intelligence Tools. 11 (3): 437–454. doi:10.1142/S0218213002000976.
  • Dan Moldovan and Vasile Rus (2001). "Logic Form transformation of wordNet and its Applicability to question answering". Proceedings of ACL 2001, Toulouse, France. Archived from the original on 2006-09-13.
  • Jerry R. Hobbs (1986). "Overview of the TACITUS project". Computational Linguistics. pp. 12(3).
  • Vasile Rus (2004). "A First Evaluation of Logic Form Identification Systems" (PDF). SENSEVAL-3: Third International Workshop on the Evaluation of Systems for the Semantic Analysis of Text. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2005-11-03.

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