Local government areas of New South Wales

The local government areas (LGA) of New South Wales in Australia describes the institutions and processes by which areas, cities, towns, municipalities, regions, shires, and districts can manage their own affairs to the extent permitted by the Local Government Act 1993 (NSW).

Local government authorities provide a wide range of services. The most important of these are the general services of administration, health, community amenities, recreation and culture, roads and debt servicing throughout the area controlled by the council. Councils also provide a range of trading activities, mainly in country areas of NSW. These trading activities include water supply, sewerage services, gas services and abattoir facilities.[1]

Administered by the Government of New South Wales and subject to periodic restructuring involving voluntary and involuntary amalgamation of areas, local government areas are considered a city when an area has received city status by proclamation of the Governor. Some areas retain designations they held under prior legislation, even though these titles no longer indicate a legal status. These include municipalities (that are predominantly inner-city suburban areas and smaller rural towns) and shires (that are predominantly rural or outer suburban areas). Many councils now choose not to use any area title, and simply refer to themselves as councils, e.g. Northern Beaches Council, Burwood Council. The smallest local government by area in the state is the Municipality of Hunter's Hill; the largest by area is Central Darling Shire Council.

History

Legislation

The formation of local government in New South Wales predates the formation of responsible government in the state. The Sydney Corporation was formed in 1842, an elected body to manage primary services such as street lighting and drainage.[2] The Municipalities Act, 1858 introduced a system of local government. Municipalities were compulsorily incorporated by legislation in 1876, the third Municipalities Act, 1897 consolidated municipal law, and in 1905 the Local Government (Shires) Act 1905 was enacted to establish shires.[3] The Local Government Act, 1906 reformed the municipal system, replaced by the Local Government Act, 1919, which lasted until the most recent 1993 Act.

The core principles of the 1993 legislative reforms were:

  1. greater accountability by councils to their communities through better reporting, management plans, consultation on key issues, and access to information;
  2. changes to the relationship between councillors and staff, whereby the elected council held all powers given under the Act, but could delegate most powers and appoint General Managers to have responsibility for “day-to-day” management, council staff and financial resources; and
  3. a better distinction between service provision and regulatory activity was drawn. Maximum flexibility was given in respect to service provision, with some constraints, and accountability was increased. In regard to regulatory functions, proper attention had to be given to due process and procedural correctness.[3]

Reviews of local government areas

NSW LGAs over time
Year Number
of LGAs
Ref.
1906327[3]
1910324
1991176
1992177
2001173
2004152
2016132[4]

The NSW Government has undertaken periodic reviews of local government since the early 1900s. Reforms included providing enfranchisement for women and for residents who did not own property in the LGA, standardising land valuation systems, and the introduction of ordinances.

1930s

The Greater Newcastle Act 1937 amalgamated 10 municipalities with the City of Newcastle to form Greater Newcastle.

1940s

In the post-war period, the Labor Party government of James McGirr, led by Joseph Cahill as Minister for Local Government, decided, following the recommendations of the 1945–46 Clancy Royal Commission on Local Government Boundaries, that Local Government reform would assist the process of improving state infrastructure and community facilities.[5] This vision for a local government reform agenda, including large-scale amalgamations, was largely implemented in the Sydney basin through the Local Government (Areas) Act 1948.

1970s

The Barnett Committee Review of Local Government Areas, conducted during 1973-74, sought to create stronger economic LGAs through a substantial reduction in council numbers. The Barnett Report recommended the forced merging of the then 223 existing local government entities into 97 districts; a proposal that was initially rejected by the Askin–led coalition government. However by 1980 and after several references to the NSW Local Government Boundaries Commission, the Wran-led Labor government amalgamated 38 councils into 17 entities.[3]

The Bains Review of 1978 influenced the adoption of corporate management in councils whereby council affairs were dealt with as a whole and with co-ordinated forward planning, comprehensive distribution of resources and proper performance monitoring. Bains' review had major influence on the engagement of more powerful general managers, councillors becoming policy makers, and staff free from administrative councillor interference.[3]

1980s

Completed by the NSW Local Government Boundaries Commission, this review focused on the efficiencies in the mergers of rural and regional councils and the anticipated economies of scale in service provision. The Local Government Areas Amalgamation Act 1980 saw the amalgamation of many municipalities with the shires that neigboured - and in some instances, surrounded - them.

1990s

The Carr-led Labor government initiated the Local Government Reform Task Force of 1995-97, the principal outcome of which was to promote resource sharing through the various regional organisations of councils.[3] Triggered by a paper issued by the NSW Local Government and Shires Association, twenty-one councils reviewed their own position and explored three options including the status quo, models for resource sharing and a merger. However, only four councils entered into voluntary mergers in order to avoid potential forced amalgamations.[3]

2000s

The Sproats Inquiry into the structure of local government in eight council areas of the Inner City and Eastern Suburbs of Sydney was commissioned by the state government in October 2000. Despite recommendations for mergers, with the Carr government maintaining a no-forced amalgamation policy, no mergers transpired until late 2008 when Sproats was invited to review his earlier paper, including revisiting the controversial proposal to amalgamate the City of Sydney Council with the South Sydney City Council.[3]

The Carr government abandoned its policy of no forced mergers after the 2003 state election. Within a year, regional “super” councils were legislated for Inner Sydney, surrounding Canberra, Goulburn and Tamworth; four general purpose and two county councils were merged in Clarence Valley, as well as a number of other smaller-scale rural council amalgamations.[3]

2010s

In October 2013, the NSW Government released the findings of an independent review of local government in New South Wales. The review findings, entitled Revitalising Local Government, examined historical and projected demographic data, financial sustainability, and other measures and projected the long-term viability all local government bodies in the state. Included in the report were 65 recommendations to the government.[6]

The government released its response to the review findings in September 2014 and then facilitated discussions with certain local government authorities with a view towards merger and/or amalgamation.[7] In April 2015, the NSW Government referred the review findings and its responses to the NSW Independent Pricing and Regulatory Tribunal (IPART) to act as the Expert Advisory Panel and to review local council Fit for the Future proposals.[8] Releasing its final report in October 2015, the IPART reviewed submissions from local government authorities and others with a view towards establishing authorities that have the scale and capacity to engage effectively across community, industry and government, are sustainable and efficient, and that effectively manage infrastructure and deliver services for local communities. The IPART found that:[9][10]

  • 71 per cent of councils in metropolitan Sydney were 'not fit', primarily because councils did not propose a merger despite clear benefits; and
  • 56 per cent of councils in regional NSW were 'not fit', due to not proposing a merger despite clear benefits, ongoing deficits or both.

The IPART proposed a series of council mergers and amalgamation in both metropolitan and regional areas which proposed a reduction in the number of councils from 152 to 112.[11] The NSW Government invited local government authorities to respond by 20 November 2015. Public response to the proposed amalgamations was mixed.[12] Following consideration of the submissions, the Minister for Local Government referred merger proposals to the Chief Executive of the Office of Local Government (OLG) for examination and report under the Local Government Act. The OLG Chief Executive delegated the examination and reporting functions to Delegates who conducted public inquiries and invited further written submissions by 28 February 2016.[13] On 12 May 2016, following a further review by the Minister for Local Government and the independent Local Government Boundaries Commission, Premier Mike Baird announced the creation of 19 new councils, through amalgamations and mergers, with immediate effect. The Minister indicated in principle support to create a further nine new councils, subject to the decision of the courts.[14][15] On the same day, the Governor of New South Wales acted on the advice of the Minister, and proclaimed the 19 new local government areas.[16]

On 9 May 2016, Strathfield Council challenged the proposed merger between Strathfield, Burwood and Canada Bay councils and commenced proceedings in the New South Wales Land and Environment Court. After the Court heard that there were legal flaws in the report from the State Government-appointed delegate who examined the proposal for merging the councils, on 31 May, the NSW Government withdrew from the case and the merger proposal stalled. Mosman, Hunters Hill, North Sydney, Ku-ring-gai, Woollahra, Oberon and Walcha councils also challenged the Government's amalgamations.[17][18] The proclamation of the new Bayside Council occurred on 9 September 2016, following the conclusion of legal action by Botany Bay City Council in the Court of Appeal.[19] In December, the NSW Court of Appeal unanimously dismissed Woollahra Council's appeal, finding no merit in its arguments that the proposed merger with its neighbouring councils was invalid.[20] In July 2017, the Berejiklian government decided to abandon the forced merger of the Sydney local government areas, following an earlier move to abandon proposed forced mergers in rural and regional NSW.[21]

List of all local government areas in New South Wales

As of 9 September 2016 there were 128 local government areas in New South Wales,[4] listed below in alphabetical order by region. There is also the Unincorporated Far West Region which is not part of any local government area, in the sparsely inhabited Far West, and Lord Howe Island, which is also unincorporated but self-governed by the Lord Howe Island Board.

Greater metropolitan Sydney

Local government areaDate establishedArea[22]Population[22]References
Borough / District / Municipality / ShireCitykm2sq miRank2018Rank
Bayside Council13 January 1871 (1871-01-13) (as Rockdale municipality)9 September 2016 (2016-09-09)50 19113174,37815[23]
Blacktown, City of6 March 1906 (Shire)[24]7 March 1979 (1979-03-07)240 93103366,5342
Burwood, Municipality of27 March 1874n/a7.1 2.712739,88654[25]
Camden Council6 February 1889n/a201 7810494,15927[26]
Campbelltown, City of21 January 18824 May 1968 (1968-05-04)312 12097168,13917[27]
Canada Bay, City of11 August 1883 (Municipal District of Concord)
18 January 1890 (Borough of Drummoyne)
December 2000 (2000-12)20 7.712095,15926[28]
Canterbury-Bankstown, City of17 March 1879 (1879-03-17) (Municipal District of Canterbury)
7 September 1895 (1895-09-07) (Municipal District of Bankstown)
12 May 2016 (2016-05-12)110 42108373,9311[29]
Cumberland Council9 July 1872 (1872-07-09)
(as the Prospect and Sherwood Municipal District)
12 May 2016 (2016-05-12)72 28112236,8937[30]
Fairfield, City of11 December 1888 (1888-12-11)
(as the Smithfield and Fairfield Municipal District)
18 May 1979 (1979-05-18)102 39109210,61211
Georges River Council22 December 1885 (1885-12-22)
(as the Kogarah municipality)
12 May 2016 (2016-05-12)38 15115158,41119[31]
Hornsby Shire6 March 1906 (1906-03-06)[24]n/a455 17692150,75221
Hunter's Hill, Municipality of7 January 1861n/a5.7 2.212814,90976[32]
Inner West Council1 November 1861 (1861-11-01) (Municipality of Marrickville)
28 December 1871 (1871-12-28) (Borough of Ashfield)
29 December 1871 (1871-12-29) (Municipal District of Leichhardt)
12 May 2016 (2016-05-12)35 14117198,02414[33]
Ku-ring-gai Council1906 (shire),[24] 1928 (municipality)n/a85 33110126,04623
Lane Cove Council11 February 1895 (Borough of Lane Cove)n/a11 4.212339,48659[34]
Liverpool, City of27 June 1872 (1872-06-27) (municipal district)9 November 1960 (1960-11-09)306 11899223,3049
Mosman Council11 April 1893
(as Borough of Mosman)
n/a8.7 3.412630,87759[35]
North Sydney Council31 July 1890 (as Borough of North Sydney)n/a11 4.212374,17234[36]
Northern Beaches Council6 January 1877 (1877-01-06) (Manly Municipality)
7 March 1906 (1906-03-07) (as Warringah Shire)[24]
1 May 1992 (1992-05-01) (as Pittwater Municipality)
12 May 2016 (2016-05-12)254 98102271,2784[37]
Parramatta, City of27 November 1861 (1861-11-27) (municipality)27 October 1938 (1938-10-27)84 32111251,3115[38]
Penrith, City of12 May 1871 (1871-05-12) (municipality)21 October 1959 (1959-10-21)405 15693209,21012[39]
Randwick, City of23 February 185936 14116154,26520[40]
Ryde, City of12 November 1870 (1870-11-12) (municipal district)1 January 1992 (1992-01-01)41 16114127,44622
Strathfield, Municipality of2 June 1885 (1885-06-02)n/a14 5.412145,14349
Sutherland Shire6 March 1906 (1906-03-06)[24]n/a334 12996229,2138
Sydney, City of20 July 1842 (1842-07-20)27 10118240,2296[41]
The Hills Shire6 March 1906 (1906-03-06)[24]
(as Baulkham Hills Shire)
n/a386 14995172,47316
Waverley, Municipality of16 June 1859 (1859-06-16)n/a9.4 3.612574,11435[42]
Willoughby, City of23 October 186517 November 198922 8.511980,33931[43][44]
Woollahra, Municipality of20 April 1860 (1860-04-20)n/a12 4.612258,96443[45]

Sydney surrounds

Local government areaDate establishedArea[22]Population[22]References
Borough / District / MunicipalityCitykm2mi2Rank(2018)Rank
Blue Mountains, City of4 January 1889 (1889-01-04)
(as the Municipality of Katoomba)
1 October 1947 (1947-10-01)1,431 5538279,26032[46]
Central Coast Council11 November 1886
(as Borough of Gosford)
12 May 2016 (2016-05-12)1,681 64978342,0473[47][48]
Hawkesbury, City of1843
(as Windsor District Council)
19892,775 1,0716967,08338[49]
Wollondilly Shire6 March 1906[24]n/a2,555 9867152,23046[50]

Rural and regional areas

Mid North Coast

Local government areaDate establishedArea[22]Population[22]References
Shire / MunicipalityCitykm2mi2Rank(2018) Rank
Bellingen Shire30 November 19561,600 6207912,96383[51]
Clarence Valley Council200410,429 4,0271851,64747
Coffs Harbour, City of30 November 1956 (Shire)1 May 19871,174 4538576,55133[51] [52]
Kempsey Shire11 June 1886 (Borough)3,376 1,3036229,66562[53]
Nambucca Shire15 December 19151,491 5768119,77370[54]
Port Macquarie-Hastings Council15 March 1887 (municipal) (1887 (municipal)-03-15)3,682 1,4225683,13130[55]
Lord Howe Island1913 (Board of Control), 1954 (Board)15 5.8382[56][57]

Murray

Local government areaDate establishedArea[22]Population[22]References
Municipality / Shire Citykm2mi2Rank(2018)Rank
Albury, City of18591946306 1189853,76744[58]
Balranald Shire27 September 1882n/a21,691 8,37562,340126
Berrigan Shire6 March 1906[24]n/a2,066 798748,70797
Edward River Council12 May 2016 (2016-05-12)n/a8,884 3,430248,99594[59]
Federation Council12 May 2016 (2016-05-12)n/a5,685 2,1954012,46286[60]
Greater Hume Shire2004n/a5,750 2,2203910,68690
Murray River Council12 May 2016 (2016-05-12)n/a11,864 4,5811512,11887[61]
Wentworth Shire23 January 1879 (1879-01-23) (municipality),
xxxx (shire)
n/a26,256 10,13747,042101[62]

The Riverina

Local government areaDate establishedArea[22]Population[22]References
Municipality / Shire Citykm2mi2Rank(2018)Rank
Bland Shire6 March 1906[24] n/a8,558 3,304285,985109
Carrathool Shire27 October 1943[63]n/a18,935 7,31182,802122
Coolamon Shire6 March 1906[24] n/a2,431 939734,368114
Griffith, City of6 January 1928 (1928-01-06)1 January 1982 (1982-01-01)1,639 6337826,88263
Cootamundra-Gundagai Regional Council12 May 2016 (2016-05-12)n/a3,981 1,5375411,26089[64]
Hay Shire1 January 1965n/a11,326 4,373162,979121
Junee Shire26 July 1886 (Borough)[65] n/a2,030 780756,631103
Leeton Shire20 December 1927

(Willimbong Shire)[66]

n/a1,167 4518611,43888
Lockhart Shire6 March 1906[24]n/a2,896 1,118663,295119
Murrumbidgee Council12 May 2016 (2016-05-12)n/a6,881 2,657343,961117[67]
Snowy Valleys Council12 May 2016 (2016-05-12)n/a8,959 3,4592314,53278[68]
Narrandera Shire1 January 1960 (1960-01-01)n/a4,116 1,589525,931110
Temora Shire1 January 1981n/a2,802 1,082686,274105
Wagga Wagga, City of15 March 1870 (Borough)1 January 1981 (1981-01-01)4,825 1,8634864,82039[69]

Greater Metropolitan Newcastle[70] and Hunter

Local government areaDate establishedArea[22]Population[22]References
Municipality / Shire Citykm2mi2Rank(2018)Rank
Cessnock, City of7 March 1906 (shire)n/a1,965 7597659,10142[71]
Dungog Shire16 May 1893n/a2,250 870739,34693[72]
Lake Macquarie, City of1906 (Shire); 1977 (municipality)7 September 1984 (1984-09-07)649 25189204,91413
Maitland, City of12 March 1862
(as Municipality of East Maitland)
7 December 1945392 1519483,20329[73]
Mid-Coast Council12 May 2016 (2016-05-12)n/a10,054 3,8821993,28828[74]
Muswellbrook Shire13 April 1870
(Municipal District of Musclebrook)[75]
n/a3,405 1,3156116,38375
Newcastle, City of8 June 1859 (Municipality)26 January 1848[76]187 72105 164,10418[77]
Port Stephens Council7 March 1906 (Shire)[24]n/a858 3318772,69536
Singleton Council2 February 1866 (Municipality)n/a4,893 1,8894623,42265[78]
Upper Hunter ShireMay 2004 (2004-05)n/a8,096 3,1262914,22079

Illawarra

Local government areaDate establishedArea[22]Population[22]References
Municipality / Shire Citykm2mi2Rank(2018)Rank
Kiama, Municipality of1859 (municipality)n/a258 10010123,00667
Shellharbour, City of4 June 1859 (1859-06-04) (municipality)May 1996147 5710772,24037
Shoalhaven, City of1 July 1948 (1948-07-01) (shire)13 July 1979 (1979-07-13)[79]4,567 1,76350104,37124
Wingecarribee Shire1 January 1981 (1981-01-01)n/a2,689 1,0387050,49348
Wollongong, City of24 August 1843 (1843-08-24)
(as Illawarra District Council)
11 September 1942 (1942-09-11)684 26488216,07110

Richmond-Tweed

Local government areaDate establishedArea[22]Population[22]References
Municipality / Shire Citykm2mi2Rank(2018)Rank
Ballina Shire1976 (1976)n/a485 1879144,20850
Byron Shire6 March 1906 (1906-03-06)[24]n/a566 2199034,57457
Kyogle Council6 March 1906
(Shire)[24]
n/a3,584 1,384588,87096[71]
Lismore, City of1879 (municipality)9 September 1946 (1946-09-09)1,288 4978443,84351[80]
Richmond Valley CouncilFebruary 2000 (2000-02)n/a3,047 1,1766523,39966
Tweed Shire1 January 1947 (1947-01-01)n/a1,308 5058396,10825

Canberra Region

Local government areaDate
established
Area[22]Population[22]References
km2mi2Rank(2018)Rank
Bega Valley Shire19816,279 2,4243534,34858
Eurobodalla Shire19133,428 1,3245938,28856
Goulburn Mulwaree Council20043,220 1,2406430,85260
Hilltops Council12 May 2016 (2016-05-12)7,141 2,7573218,78271[81]
Queanbeyan–Palerang Regional Council12 May 2016 (2016-05-12)5,319 2,0544259,95941[82]
Snowy Monaro Regional Council12 May 2016 (2016-05-12)15,164 5,8551020,73369[83]
Upper Lachlan Shire20047,127 2,752337,96198
Yass Valley Council1 January 1980 (1980-01-01) (shire);
11 February 2004 (2004-02-11) (municipality)
3,995 1,5425316,95373

Northern

Local government areaDate
established
Area[22]Population[22]References
km2mi2Rank(2018)Rank
Armidale Regional Council12 May 2016 (2016-05-12)8,621 3,3292630,70761
Glen Innes Severn Council15 September 2004
17 June 1872 (Municipal District of Glen Innes)[84]
5,480 2,120418,90895
Gunnedah Shire19 September 1885
(Municipal District)
4,987 1,9254512,66185[85]
Gwydir Shire17 March 2004 (2004-03-17)9,260 3,580225,349112
Inverell Shire5 March 1872
(Municipal District)
8,597 3,3192716,84474[86]
Liverpool Plains Shire20045,082 1,962447,89399
Moree Plains Shire5 December 1890
(Municipal District of Moree)
17,907 6,914913,35081[87]
Narrabri Shire28 September 1895
(Municipal District of West Narrabri)[88]
13,015 5,0251313,23181
Tamworth Regional Council20049,884 3,8162159,66340
Tenterfield Shire23 November 1871
(Municipal District)
7,323 2,827316,638102[89]
Uralla Shire24 April 1882
(Municipal District)
3,227 1,246636,062107[90]
Walcha Shire1 June 1955 (1955-06-01)6,261 2,417363,132120[91]

Central West

Local government areaDate establishedArea[22]Population[22]References
Municipality / Shire Citykm2mi2Rank(2018)Rank
Bathurst Regional26 May 2004 (2004-05-26)n/a3,818 1,4745543,20652
Blayney Shire1 November 1882n/a1,525 589807,342100[92]
Cabonne Shire1978n/a6,022 2,3253713,68080
Cowra Shire1980 (1980)n/a2,829 1,0926712,76784
Forbes Shire4 June 1870 (as Municipal District)n/a4,710 1,820499,91091[93]
Lachlan Shire6 March 1906[24] n/a14,964 5,778116,151106
Lithgow, City of4 June 1889 (Municipality)21 December 19454,512 1,7425121,63668[94][95]
Mid-Western Regional26 May 2004 (2004-05-26)n/a8,752 3,3792525,08664
Oberon Shire6 March 1906[24]n/a3,625 1,400575,408111[71]
Orange, City of9 January 1860 (Municipality)10 July 1946284 11010042,05653[96]
Parkes Shire1 March 1883 (as Municipal District)n/a5,958 2,3003814,89477[97]
Weddin Shire6 March 1906[24] n/a3,415 1,319603,636118

North Western

Local government areaDate
established
Area[22]Population[22]References
km2mi2Rank(2018)Rank
Bogan Shire1891 (municipality); 1906 (shire)[24]14,600 5,600122,621125
Bourke Shire4 July 187841,600 16,10032,630124[98]
Brewarrina Shire15 January 190119,164 7,39971,655128[99]
Cobar Shire18 March 188445,579 17,59824,722113[100]
Coonamble Shire3 May 18809,916 3,829204,014116[101]
Dubbo Regional Council12 May 2016 (2016-05-12)7,535 2,9093053,24045[102]
Gilgandra Shire6 March 1906[24]4,832 1,866474,226115
Narromine Shire23 April 18985,262 2,032436,567104[103]
Walgett Shire6 March 1906[24]22,308 8,61356,051108
Warren Shire24 April 189510,754 4,152172,745123[104]
Warrumbungle Shire25 August 200412,372 4,777149,39992

Far West

Local government areaDate establishedArea[22]Population[22]References
Municipality / Shire Citykm2mi2Rank(2018)Rank
Broken Hill, City of24 September 1888170 6610617,73472[105]
Central Darling Shire20 March 1959
6 February 1883 (as Municipal District of Wilcannia)
n/a53,492 20,65311,837127[106][107]
Unincorporated Far Westn/a93,199 35,984674[108]

Former local government areas in New South Wales

See also

References

  1. "Special Article - The History of Government in New South Wales". New South Wales Year Book, 1998. Australian Bureau of Statistics, Australian Government. 7 March 2008. Retrieved 1 January 2017.
  2. Kelly, A. H. (4–8 July 2011). The Development of Local Government in Australia, Focusing on NSW: From Road Builder to Planning Agency to Servant of the State Government and Developmentalism (Paper). World Planning Schools Congress 2011. Perth: University of Wollongong. Retrieved 1 January 2017.
  3. Tiley, Ian; Dollery, Brian (April 2010). "Local Government Amalgamation in New South Wales". Centre for Local Government. University of New England.
  4. "Local Government Directory". Office of Local Government. Government of New South Wales. Retrieved 25 May 2016.
  5. "4895 Royal Commission on Local Government Boundaries". State Records Archives Investigator. State Archives and Records Authority of New South Wales. Retrieved 2 November 2017.
  6. Sansom, Graham; Munro, Jude; Inglis, Glenn (25 October 2013). "Revitalising Local Government: Final Report" (PDF). Independent Local Government Review Panel. Government of New South Wales. Retrieved 11 January 2015.
  7. "Reform – Fit for the Future". Local Government NSW. 2015. Retrieved 11 January 2015.
  8. Baird, Mike (22 April 2015). "Terms of Reference for a review of local council Fit for the Future proposals by an Expert Advisory Panel" (PDF) (Press release). NSW Independent Pricing and Regulatory Tribunal. Retrieved 15 November 2015.
  9. Boxall, Peter J., AO; Jones, Catherine; Comrie, John (October 2015). "Assessment of Council Fit for the Future Proposals" (PDF). NSW Independent Pricing and Regulatory Tribunal. ISBN 978-1-925340-21-1. Retrieved 15 November 2015.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  10. Baird, Mike; Toole, Paul (20 October 2015). "Fit for the future: $2 billion community windfall by merging unfit councils" (Press release). Government of New South Wales. Retrieved 15 November 2015.
  11. "NSW councils to merge under State Government plan for forced amalgamations; 2016 elections delayed". ABC News. Retrieved 21 December 2015.
  12. Kembrey, Melanie. "Council mergers: expert adviser Graham Sansom slams merger proposals". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 21 December 2015.
  13. "Background". Council Boundary Review. Government of New South Wales. Retrieved 18 February 2016.
  14. "Introduction". Stronger Councils. Government of New South Wales. 12 May 2016. Retrieved 12 May 2016.
  15. "New councils for NSW". Family & Community Services (Press release). Government of New South Wales. 12 May 2016. Retrieved 12 May 2016.
  16. "Local Government (Council Amalgamations) Proclamation 2016" (PDF). Stronger Councils. Government of New South Wales. Retrieved 12 May 2016.
  17. Raper, Ashleigh (31 May 2016). "NSW council amalgamations: Strathfield, Burwood and Canada Bay merger stopped". ABC News. Australia. Retrieved 1 June 2016.
  18. Davies, Anne (31 May 2016). "Council amalgamations: government push for mergers suffers setback". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 1 June 2016.
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